11 plagiarism tutorial 2012 update

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11 plagiarism tutorial 2012 update

  1. 1. Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism GRADE 11 & 12NOTE:To move through this tutorial, use the mouse to click on the arrow at the bottom right of your screen.
  2. 2. Agenda for This Tutorial Pretest your knowledge of plagiarism by looking at some sample situations. Learn more about plagiarism: • What plagiarism is and how one can avoid it • When to cite your sources • How to cite your sources Take a quiz to verify your understanding. Pledge that you will avoid plagiarism.
  3. 3. Definition of Plagiarism Plagiarism is: • To steal the words or ideas of another person • To pass off the words or ideas of another person as one’s own • It doesn’t matter whether the theft is intentional or accidental. Either way, it is plagiarism.
  4. 4. You know this… don’t you? Sure you do. Teachers have been talking (and talking, and talking) about plagiarism—and how you should avoid it. Let’s see what you know about plagiarism. In each of the following examples, determine whether the student committed plagiarism or not.
  5. 5. Jack’s SituationJack has an English paper due tomorrow. He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about.Jack logs onto the Internet “just to get some ideas about topics for his paper.”He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found. He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found.Is this plagiarism? Yes No
  6. 6. You must choose from the bluebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  7. 7. You said… Jack did plagiarize.You are right. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper, Jack is committing plagiarism. • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source.
  8. 8. You said… Jack did not plagiarize.You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper, Jack is committing plagiarism. • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism. • He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source of the ideas in his paper.
  9. 9. Jill’s SituationDuring history class, Jill is asked to find some background on Fidel Castro’s rise to power.Jill does a Google search and arrives at Wikipedia’s article on Fidel Castro. Without using quotation marks, Jill cuts and pastes several sentences from Wikipedia into her assignment.Is this plagiarism? Yes No
  10. 10. You must choose from the bluebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  11. 11. You said… Jill did plagiarize.You are right. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. • She could avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.
  12. 12. You said… Jill did not plagiarize.You are wrong. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism. • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism. • She could avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.
  13. 13. Gretel’s SituationGretel is a freshman who feels overwhelmed by the high school. When her science teacher assigns a short worksheet on quarks, Gretel is confused and frustrated.During lunch, Gretel “borrows” her friend’s paper and copies the answers onto her own paper.Is this plagiarism? Yes No
  14. 14. You must choose from the bluebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  15. 15. You said… Gretel did plagiarize.You are right. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. • Gretel is guilty of plagiarism. She tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.
  16. 16. You said… Gretel did not plagiarize.You are wrong. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism. • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism. • It is plagiarism when a student tries to take credit for the words and ideas of another person without acknowledging the original source of the work.
  17. 17. Hansel’s SituationHansel is a senior who has already been accepted to college.When his teacher assigns a paper on a subject that Hansel wrote a paper on as a sophomore, Hansel decides to turn in his old paper again.Is this plagiarism? Yes No
  18. 18. You must choose from the bluebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  19. 19. You said… Hansel did plagiarize.This example does not have a clear right or wrong answer. Although it may not technically be plagiarism, Hansel’s reuse of his own paper is prohibited by the rules of academic integrity. • So, if caught, Hansel would be in trouble for his actions.
  20. 20. You said… Hansel did not plagiarize.This example does not have a clear right or wrong answer. Although it may not technically be plagiarism, Hansel’s reuse of his own paper is prohibited by the rules of academic integrity. • So, if caught, Hansel would be in trouble for his actions.
  21. 21. Jacob’s SituationJacob is a sophomore who is creating a digital story using images from the internet.Without giving the source and the name of the photographer, Jacob uses photographs found doing a Google Image search.Is this plagiarism? Yes No
  22. 22. You must choose from the bluebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  23. 23. You said… Jacob did plagiarize.Although this is not technically plagiarism, Jacob’s actions are wrong. The use of images or drawings created by anyone other than you requires citation of the artist’s name and the source of the image. • So, if caught, Jacob would be in trouble for his actions.
  24. 24. You said… Jacob did not plagiarize.Although this is not technically plagiarism, Jacob’s actions are wrong. The use of images or drawings created by anyone other than you requires citation of the artist’s name and the source of the image. • So, if caught, Jacob would be in trouble for his actions.
  25. 25. How did you do?Just to make sure you knowwhat actions are plagiarism,please read the following…
  26. 26. Robert A. Harris, author of The Plagiarism Handbook, states thatThe following actions are clearly examples of plagiarism: Downloading and submitting a free paper from a website. Buying and submitting a paper purchased from a paper mill. Copying verbatim another writer’s work—either in print or online— without using quotation marks.
  27. 27. Harris continues his description by explaining thatThe actions below are also plagiarism, although many students don’t realize it:  Inadequate paraphrasing, such as merely substituting synonyms while keeping syntax and other aspects the same  Rearranging another writer’s words or sentences  Using another’s ideas, facts, or artistic products without attribution  Using unique phrases from another writer  Copying the organizational or syntactical structure of another writer, even if you change the words used.
  28. 28. Wait, there’s more… According to Harris These are also plagiarism: Cutting and pasting to create a paper from several sources without citing those sources. Quoting less than all the words copied. Changing some words but copying whole phrases. Paraphrasing without attribution Summarizing without attribution Faking a citation
  29. 29. OK, I get it… there are lots of ways to plagiarize. And, yes, I know that it is wrong. But, if I am not caught, I won’t be penalized.So, what is the benefit of citing my sources?
  30. 30. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:• Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.
  31. 31. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:• Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.• Cheating is unethical behavior.
  32. 32. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:• Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.• Cheating is unethical behavior.• It is only fair to give credit to the source—otherwise, you are stealing the source’s ideas.
  33. 33. Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:• Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.• Cheating is unethical behavior.• It is only fair to give credit to the source—otherwise, you are stealing the source’s ideas.• The consequences are severe— plagiarism is not worth the risk.
  34. 34. OK, fine…there are reasons to not plagiarize. But, I’m busy. Very busy. And school doesn’t matter. And the assignment is stupid. And my teacher won’t catch me. And other kids are doing it. And I need a good grade. And it is due tomorrow! So, what am I supposed to do?
  35. 35. Well, first of all,you should not fall for those excuses! They are excuses for cheating. (By the way, your teachers and principals won’t believe that they are reasonable justification for cheating, either!) And it isn’t hard to avoid plagiarism! • Just cite the source of any ideas or words you take from anyone else. • Then, provide a bibliography or Works Cited page to show where the borrowed material originated.
  36. 36. So: (1) What do I need to cite? (2) How do I cite?Read on for the answers…
  37. 37. What do I need to cite? Did you This chart will think of Yes. it? help you decide what must be No. cited. • It was created by Robert A. Harris in Is it The Plagiarism common Yes. Handbook. knowledge? No. Cite it. Do not cite it.
  38. 38. So—the rule is: Did you think of Yes.If you created it it?or thought of it, No.you do not needto cite the source. Is it commonIf you did not knowledge? Yes.create the No.content, you mustcite the source. Cite it. Do not cite it.
  39. 39. The one exception tothat rule is for“common knowledge.” Did youYou do not need to think of Yes. it?cite the source of anunoriginal piece of No.information IF:(1) an educatedperson should know Is it commonthe information, knowledge? Yes.OR, No.(2) it is a fact thatcould be found in an Do not cite it. Cite it.encyclopedia.
  40. 40. So, you don’t need to cite a fact,but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge. You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.
  41. 41. So, you don’t need to cite a fact, for example: Rand wrote Anthem. OR Ayn Rand was born in 1905.but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own. for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75). OR According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).And, you must cite anytime you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge. You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.
  42. 42. So, let’s check to see that youunderstand when you need to citethe source and when you don’t…Answer the following questions and choose the correct answer.
  43. 43. Test Case #1Jack isn’t sure if he needs to cite the source of theinformation below. He found the fact online.“Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.”What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one ofthe answers below. Cite the source. Do not cite the This means he will: (1) Either: source. a) Surround with quotation marks, or This means that the information is a b) Put the quotation into his own words, commonly reported fact. It is generally changing the syntax, structure, known and available from many sources. & organization (1) Jack should verify the information in at (2) Include a lead-in giving the source’s name, least two sources, then (3) Give the page number, and (2) Jack will write the well-known information in his own words. (4) List the source in a bibliography
  44. 44. You must choose one of thebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  45. 45. You are incorrect. In this case, citation is not necessary. Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge. Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.
  46. 46. You are correct! Jack does not need to cite this information. Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge. Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.
  47. 47. Test Case #2In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source thatexplained that Affirmative Action “evens the field of play bywreaking equity on all players.”In her paper, Jill uses the phrase “wreaking equity” but she putsall the other parts of the source into her own words.What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below. Cite the source. Not cite the source. This means she will: This means that the information is generally (1) Either: known and available from multiple sources. a) Surround with quotation marks, or b) Put the quotation into her own words, (1) Jill should verify the information in at changing the syntax, structure, least two sources, then & organization (2) Jill will write the well-known (2) Include a lead-in giving the source’s name, information in her own words. (3) Give the page number, and (4) List the source in a bibliography
  48. 48. You must choose one of thebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  49. 49. You are correct! Jill must cite this information. Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source. Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase “wreaking equity,” she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.
  50. 50. You are incorrect. In this case, citation is necessary. Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source. Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase “wreaking equity,” she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.
  51. 51. Test Case #3Gretel found a very helpful article in an onlinedatabase. She very carefully made sure that sherewrote the content of the article using her ownpersonal style; she changed the author’s syntax andorganization so that it fit seamlessly into her paper.What should Gretel do? Cite the source. Not cite the source. This means she will: This means that the information is generally (1) Either: known and available from multiple sources. a) Surround with quotation marks, or b) Put the quotation into his own words, (1) Gretel should verify the information in at changing the syntax, structure, least two sources, then & organization (2) Gretel will write the well-known (2) Include a lead-in giving the source’s name, information in her own words. (3) Give the page number, and (3) Gretel must include a bibliographic citation (4) List the source in a bibliography on her Works Consulted page.
  52. 52. You must choose one of thebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  53. 53. You are correct. In this case, citation is required. Gretel paraphrases the source’s idea and content. She must give credit to the source. She must provide her audience with the source of the idea that she borrowed.
  54. 54. You are incorrect! Gretel must cite the source of thisinformation, even though she put it in her own words. Gretel paraphrases the ideas of the source, so she must cite the identity of the source. Gretel must provide her audience with the source of the material that she borrowed.
  55. 55. Test Case #4Jacob found a photograph online that showsthe historical period he’s discussing in hispaper. He wrote his own caption and placedthe image on the title page.What should Jacob do? Cite the source. Not cite the source. This means he will: Either: a) Put the artist’s name and This means that the image was source directly beneath something that Jacob created the image, or without manipulating other people’s works. b) List the source in a bibliography
  56. 56. You must choose one of thebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  57. 57. You are correct. In this case, citation is required. Jacob uses somebody else’s creation; therefore, he must give credit to the source. He must provide his readers with the artist’s name and the source of the image that he borrowed.
  58. 58. You are incorrect! Jacob must cite the source of this image. The image is not the creative property of Jacob. Therefore, he must cite the identity of the creator and the source where he found the image.
  59. 59. So, now you can identifywhat must have a citation… Now you need to know how to use and cite a source!
  60. 60. How to Cite a Source It’s easy. Just provide your audience with the source of any ideas or words that are not your own. • First, carefully mark the beginning and end of the source’s words or idea. • Then, provide a bibliography to show where the borrowed material originated. In fact, listing your sources shows your audience that you are an informed, well- researched writer!
  61. 61. How to Cite Direct Quotations Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.  Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rand’s Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, PA, 2008. Carefully mark the beginning and end of the source’s words or idea. • Use a lead-in to introduce the source • Use quotation marks to surround the words of the source • Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks. • EXAMPLE:  According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 finds peace through “his search for the height of his own potential” (24).
  62. 62. How to Cite Paraphrases Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.  Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rand’s Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, PA, 2008. Carefully mark the beginning and end of the source’s material. • Use a lead-in to introduce the source • Put the source’s original words into your own words:  It isn’t just about using synonyms to replace words.  You must change the syntax, sentence structure, & organization of the original. • If you find yourself just changing a word here or there, ask yourself if a direct quotation would work. If it would work, then use a direct quotation.) • Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks. • EXAMPLE:  According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 separates himself from the society by striving to improve the world around him (24).
  63. 63. It can be said in a bunch of different ways… eMark thboundaries
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  69. 69. It can be said in a bunch of different ways… Fra me e Fence the usa theMark th ge ndaries bordersbou But, they all mean the same thing… Provide a clear indication of any words or ideas that are not your own. the ket ed Circ u ms B rac rowEnclose the the crib bor borrowed usag e e
  70. 70. Can you identify plagiarism when you see it? Try the following four examples. On each you will see the source material and the student’s usage of that material. Use the buttons at the bottom of the screen to choose if the example shows acceptable use or plagiarism.
  71. 71. Acceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 1Original source text:In 1990, voters in Pennsylvania Student’s Text:were disposed to believe that Voters in Pennsylvania believed that the Republican nominee,the Republican nominee, Barbara Hafer, opposed abortion rights, but the DemocraticBarbara Hafer, opposed abortion governor, Robert Casey, favored a right to abortion. But therights, and that the incumbent reverse was true, even though Democrats are more likely to beDemocratic governor, Robert “pro-choice”. “In general” doesn’t apply to “this specific.”Casey, favored a right toabortion: the reverse was true.In general, Democrats are morelikely to be “pro-choice” andRepublicans “pro-life,” but notin this case. A good rule is “in Student’s Bibliography:general” doesn’t necessarily No references given.apply to “this specific.”Brooks Jackson and KathleenHall Jamieson. Unspun: FindingFacts in a World ofDisinformation. (73) CHOOSE ONE: Acceptable Use Plagiarism
  72. 72. You must choose one of thebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  73. 73. You said that the example showed Acceptable Use You are incorrect. Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example. Reread the example and see if you can determine why it is plagiarism.
  74. 74. You said that the example showed Plagiarism You are correct! The paraphrase was inadequate and the student did not give credit to the source of the idea by having a citation. To adequately paraphrase, the student must change the words and the sentence structure.
  75. 75. Acceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 2Original source: Student’s Text:In 1954, Albert Hastorf and HadleyCantril published a classic study Psychologists investigated how fansabout how a Princeton and Dartmouth interpreted a violent game betweenfootball fans saw a penalty-ridden Princeton and Dartmouth and found that,game in which the Princeton although a Dartmouth player was thequarterback was taken off the field seriously injured only after a Princetonwith a broken nose and a mildconcussion and a Dartmouth player player was, the majority of Dartmouth fanslater suffered a broken leg. They believed Princeton started the roughness.found that 86 percent of thePrinceton students said thatDartmouth started the rough play,but only 36 percent of the Dartmouth Student’s Bibliography:students saw it that way. Brooks Jackson and Kathleen HallBrooks Jackson and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Unspun: Finding Facts in aJamieson. Unspun: Finding Facts in a World of Disinformation. New York:World of Disinformation. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2007.Random House Trade Paperbacks,2007. (74) CHOOSE ONE: Acceptable Use Plagiarism
  76. 76. You must choose one of thebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  77. 77. You said that the example showed Acceptable Use You are incorrect! Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example. Reread the example and see if you can determine why it is plagiarism.
  78. 78. You said that the example showed Plagiarism You are correct! This example is plagiarism because the student neglected to include a parenthetical reference in the text of the paper. • She correctly marks the opening boundary of the paraphrase with her phrase “Psychologists investigated…” • However, she does not provide the closing boundary by giving a parenthetical reference to the source material: “…started the roughness” (Brooks, 74).
  79. 79. Acceptable Use or Plagiarism? Example 3Original text from Student’s Text:the source: A psychology professor in California researched the theory that if people were provided a reason to doRobert Levine, a psychologyprofessor at California State something, they would be more likely to do it. At aUniversity, Fresno, tried different bake sale, he tried to sell cookies by asking “Wouldpitches during a campus bake you like to buy a cookie?” and later asked “Would yousale. Asking “Would you like to like to buy a cookie? It’s for a good cause.” When hebuy a cookie?” resulted in provided a reason for the sale, people were six timespurchases by only two out of more like to buy a cookie – even though they didn’tthirty passersby. But hisresearchers sold six times as know what cause was benefitting (80).many cookies when they asked,“Would you like to buy a cookie?It’s for a good cause.” And none Student’s Bibliography:even bothered to ask what the Brooks Jackson and Kathleen Hall Jamieson.good cause was. Unspun: Finding Facts in a World ofBrooks Jackson and Kathleen Hall Disinformation. New York: Random HouseJamieson. Unspun: Finding Facts Trade Paperbacks, 2007.in a World of Disinformation. NewYork: Random House TradePaperbacks, 2007. (80) CHOOSE ONE: Acceptable Use Plagiarism
  80. 80. You must choose one of thebuttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented. Click here to return to previous slide
  81. 81. You said that the example showed Acceptable Use You are correct! The student adequately paraphrases by changing the words and the syntax. He provides the source in his bibliography.
  82. 82. You said that the example showed Plagiarism You are incorrect! Use the arrow at the bottom of this screen to return to the example. Reread the example and see if you can determine why it is fair use.
  83. 83. So, to review… Plagiarism is a serious offense. Not only does it carry heavy penalties, but your integrity is damaged when you plagiarize. Plagiarism is easily avoidable—just cite the sources when you use the words or ideas of another person. If you have any questions, see your teacher or school librarian!
  84. 84. Final Directions: Your teacher has a written quiz for you to take on the subject of plagiarism. Your teacher also has a honor code sheet. You will sign it in order to verify that you have receive this training. You will then have your parent sign the honor code. Your English teacher will collect these signed forms.
  85. 85. Sources ConsultedDeSena, Laura Hennessey. Preventing Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques. National Council of Teachers of English: Urbana, IL, 2007.Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook: Strategies for Preventing, Detecting, and Dealing with Plagiarism. Pyrczak Publishing: Los Angeles, 2001.Valenza, Joyce Kasman. “What is Plagiarism? (And Why You Should Care).” Springfield High School Media Center Information Literacy Lessons. Springfield School District.

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