Assy Rigging

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Assy Rigging

  1. 1. AVAF 209 - IV. Assembly and Rigging <ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  2. 2. Rigging Specifications <ul><li>Should check “Rigging” during all required inspections and anytime any control or major assembly (I.e. wing) is removed and reinstalled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Rigging” = check systems and control surface travel and adjust as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test fly aircraft after reinstallation and adjust as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rigging Specifications <ul><li>Type Certificate Data Sheets (or Aircraft Specifications) are best source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is most accurate for details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leveling means </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control surface travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight and balance information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rigging Specifications <ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rigging Specifications <ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rigging Specifications <ul><li>Manufacturer’s Manuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give installation and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t believe the details, go to the TCDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MM usually cover more than one model or Ser. No. range = details may not be accurate for your specific aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Most airplanes are fully cantilever or with a minimum of external bracing so assembly is pretty straight-forward </li></ul><ul><li>Follow manufacturer’s instructions </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>General Assembly procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>General Assembly procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level fuselage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laterally and longitudinally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inside hangar to minimize wind currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If must be outside = point into wind </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use manufacturer’s level point(s) and plumb bob or spirit level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>General Assembly procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install wings and torque bolts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install Hor. Stab. And Vert. Stab. And torque bolts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>General Assembly procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform Alignment Check (next area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install movable control surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install and rig control systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test fly to verify control responses and flight stability/attitude </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most modern wings have very little adjustments available </li></ul><ul><li>Usually only angle of incidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing mounting bolts are on eccentric bushing or serrated bushings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= rotate to change angle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May need to use special Incidence Board or just Universal Propeller Protractor for initial settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either must be installed at manufacturer specified location </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings with V-struts: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piper Tri-Pacer, Piper Cub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can usually adjust Dihedral and Angle of Incidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level fuselage laterally & longitudinally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check and adjust Dihedral </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings with V-struts: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piper Tri-Pacer, Piper Cub </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check and adjust Dihedral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Dihedral Board </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position at manufacturer specified position </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust length of struts until bubble is centered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings with V-struts: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piper Tri-Pacer, Piper Cub </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check and adjust Dihedral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some aircraft use string stretched between the wingtips at specified chord location </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust struts to get specified dimension between string and wing root </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings with V-struts: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piper Tri-Pacer, Piper Cub </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check and adjust Angle of Incidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Incidence Board or just measure angle with Prop Protractor or Protractor Head of Combination Square </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust Rear strut to get proper angle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use manufacturer’s specs. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually parallel to longitudinal axis </li></ul><ul><li>Mounts usually just bolt on with no adjustment provisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to use proper shimming (washers), bolts, torques, etc. as specified </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empennage: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are cantilever with fixed positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insure all bolts are proper Part Number and torqued in proper sequence so is not cocked </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empennage: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If Wire-Braced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Streamlined wires so insure have proper tension (use Datum Board) and is flat with airflow (decreases vibrations and drag) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must replace streamlined wires with streamlined wires only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT use round cable as replacement = vibes and different expansion rates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empennage: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check Hor. Stab. Dihedral & Angle of Incidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically same as wings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not be adjustable </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empennage: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check Vert. Stab. (Fin) Verticality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure from like points on both Hor. Stabs. and should be equal measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fin may be offset slightly to compensate for Spiraling Slipstream </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empennage: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If suspicious, run string through control hinges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be able to be centered in all hinges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not = hinges are misaligned and will bind control movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: applies to all control surface hinge lines, not just empennage </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetry Check: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To insure entire aircraft is aligned properly (is Symmetrical) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure between specified points on aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Use steel tape with 5 pound pull (for consistency) </li></ul><ul><li>Like measurements should be equal within manufacturer’s tolerances </li></ul><ul><li>May need to use plumb bob from points, mark on floor, and then measure (especially large aircraft) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetry Check: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To insure entire aircraft is aligned properly (is Symmetrical) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure between specified points on aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Use steel tape with 5 pound pull (for consistency) </li></ul><ul><li>Like measurements should be equal within manufacturer’s tolerances </li></ul><ul><li>May need to use plumb bob from points, mark on floor, and then measure (especially large aircraft) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be sure to only use manufacturer’s parts combinations and torque specs to prevent binding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be free to pivot with no binding and no looseness </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick or wheel connected to cables </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up cable goes to each aileron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Through” or “Balance” cable connects down side of both ailerons </li></ul></ul>THROUGH CABLE UP CABLES
  29. 29. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick or wheel connected to cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up cable goes to each aileron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Through” or “Balance” cable connects down side of both ailerons </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To combat adverse yaw = differential travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also use Frise ailerons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also some use Rudder-Aileron Interconnect Spring(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When wheel/stick is moved = also moves rudder in appropriate direction to combat adverse yaw </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install all cables and check and adjust tension (most are cable systems) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lock in neutral position first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put clamps or control locks on stick/wheel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put clamps or battens on control surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some have holes for Rigging Pins to go into to hold in neutral position </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check and adjust travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove locks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Prop Protractor, Control Surface Protractor, or Protractor Head of Combination Square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check up and down movement as specified in TCDS </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  34. 34. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  35. 35. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  36. 36. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  37. 37. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  38. 38. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  39. 39. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  40. 40. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  41. 41. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>Prop Protractor Review Propeller Protractor
  42. 42. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Alignment Check: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Protractor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust disk to zero when surface is in neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move surface to limits and read angle at pointer </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check and adjust travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust stops at ailerons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure they hit the stops at ailerons before running out of stick/wheel movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should have small amount of movement of stick/wheel left to give pilot “springback” feel or “cushion” so he/she knows they’re at end of travel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check and adjust travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are “Drooped” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When in neutral position = trailing edges are slightly lower than wing or Flap trailing edges (must be equal droop on each wing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During flight = ailerons are forced to streamlined position to take up any slack or wear in system (mostly cable systems) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ailerons Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move stick/wheel through entire range of movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check for ease of movement, no binding, hits stops at aileron first, and AILERONS MOVE IN PROPER DIRECTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check entire system for proper installation (pulleys, cables, bolts, safeties, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaps: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actuated by mechanical handle or electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handle manually positioned by pilot and connected to cables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric switch connected to reversible motor in wing which is connected to cables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides connected to same cables to insure equal extension and retraction </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaps Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally same as ailerons </li></ul><ul><li>Lock in retracted position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust cable tension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check and adjust travel as per TCDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hit stops at flaps first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BOTH MUST EXTEND EQUALLY! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If different = extreme roll force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Check indicator system matches flap movement and positions </li></ul>
  49. 49. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Elevators: </li></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel/stick connected to cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cables go through belly to bellcrank on or near Elevator </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most modern airplanes can be loaded with CG too far aft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of seats, baggage compartments in back, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When this airplane is slowed down for landing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trim tab working hard to keep nose down with Elevators in slightly down position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If turbulence = Trim Tab may loose effectiveness = Elevators streamline = nose pitches up and trim tab can’t compensate = possible stall </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Down Spring in system puts load on Elevator working against Trim Tab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If turbulence causes loss of trim tab effectiveness = Down Spring pulls Elevator down to keep nose down until Trim tab can take over again </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevators: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rigging generally same as ailerons </li></ul><ul><li>Lock in neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trailing edge in line with Hor. Stab. trailing edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clamp wheel/stick and elevator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjust cable tension </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust travel </li></ul><ul><li>Check operations and system for problems </li></ul>
  53. 53. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilators: </li></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel/stick connected to cables very similar to Elevator except connects to counterweight (or Balance Arm) on front of stabilator inside fuselage </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilators Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rigging generally same as others </li></ul><ul><li>Lock in neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must use stabilator rigging tool similar to incidence board to find neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjust cable tension </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust travel </li></ul><ul><li>Check operations and system for problems </li></ul>
  55. 55. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Rudder: </li></ul><ul><li>System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cables connected to pedals and through belly to rudder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Tricycle gear aircraft = also connect to Nose Wheel steering mechanism </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudder Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally same as others </li></ul><ul><li>Lock in neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clamp pedals </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudder Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally same as others </li></ul><ul><li>Lock in neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clamp pedals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clamp rudder in line with Vert. Stab. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjust cable tension </li></ul>
  58. 58. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudder Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjust travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t use bubble type protractors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure distance moved from specified point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May need to make drawing protractor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or measure distance from hinge to trailing edge (= radius of movement), calculate circumference of movement, divide by 360, multiply by necessary degrees of travel, measure travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Check operations and system for problems </li></ul>
  59. 59. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Control Tabs: </li></ul><ul><li>Typical System (Aileron): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control wheel in cockpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns cable drum or chain sprockets connected to cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes position indicator mechanism </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Tabs Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally same as others </li></ul><ul><li>Lock in neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In line with control surface installed on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjust cable tension </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust travel </li></ul><ul><li>Check operations and system for problems </li></ul><ul><li>Check indicator for proper operation </li></ul><ul><li>Insure is moving in proper direction </li></ul>
  61. 61. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Check: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test fly and readjust as necessary to fly “hands off” at cruise and most common loading </li></ul><ul><li>If flying with constant bank (“heavy wing”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to adjust angle of incidence of wing(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to “Wash IN” heavy wing by INcreasing angle of incidence on low side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn rear bolt (if serrated or eccentric) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shorten rear strut length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could also Wash Out light (or high) wing </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Installation & Rigging: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Check: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If in sideslip = rudder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reset in-flight adjustable trim tab or bend fixed trim tab to compensate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If nose low or high = elevator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reset trim tab(s) accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All are Trial and Error adjustments so re-test fly to verify and keep trying until it’s right </li></ul>
  63. 63. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Cable </li></ul><ul><li>CRES or carbon steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon steel cheaper and stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preformed </li></ul><ul><li>Must be at least 1/8 inch diameter for Primary Controls </li></ul>
  64. 64. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Non-flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1x7 or 1x19 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 strand of 7 or 19 wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only for straight runs with no change in direction </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7x7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Straight runs or with large pulleys for small direction changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7x19 (formerly Extra Flex.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use on any system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is most common </li></ul></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Also: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 x 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only used on very small cable runs for non-critical applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually only for control surface position indicators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 x 19 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for larger than 3/8” diameters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Nylon-coated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made by extruding a nylon coating over CRES cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases service life as keeps clean and less vibration (= less work hardening) </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Cable </li></ul><ul><li>LockClad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On some older aircraft for high altitude flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is regular cable surrounded by Aluminum tube swaged on entire length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature affects length less </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Woven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Army-Navy 5-tuck splice or Roebling Roll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very time consuming to make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only produce 75% of cable strength </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Nicopress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper sleeves squeezed onto cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeezes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Terminal end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Cable end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check with Go-NoGo gauge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops 100% of cable strength </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Nicopress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use 2 sleeves in series for splice = also 100% of cable strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to place slippage mark on edge of sleeve(s) and cable when done </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Swaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal Swaged (squeezed) onto cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops 100% of cable strength </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Swaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Go-NoGo gauge to check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply slippage marks after </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Proof Load Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull with 60% of cable strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>see AC 43.13-1B for strengths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply gradually and hold for 3 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OK = no slippage in terminal(s) </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Proof Load Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull with 60% of cable strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply gradually and hold for 3 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OK = no slippage in terminal(s) </li></ul></ul>From AC 43.13-1B
  76. 76. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect for wear, corrosion, breakage, distortion, or any damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some damage is hidden = should periodically remove cable and inspect thoroughly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Especially look at where passes over pulleys or through fairleads or within 1 foot of swaged-on terminal </li></ul>
  77. 77. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Wear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace when is worn 40-50% of outer wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual to see if wear of wires is blending together = 40-50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps between wires = excess of 50% wear and must be replaced </li></ul></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul>
  79. 79. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t confuse wear with manufacturer’s splice </li></ul><ul><li>Splice OK </li></ul>
  80. 80. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Wear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If LockClad or Nylon Coated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replace if outer cover is worn through </li></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Damage or Corrosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass rag over length and will snag on broken wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T USE HAND! </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>If suspect = remove and bend in loop to make broken wires stand out = replace </li></ul>
  83. 83. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Damage or Corrosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion is especially prevalent in battery compartments, lavatories, wheel wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anywhere a concentration of vapors, fumes or liquids can occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior corrosion is not bad but probably also has internal corrosion = replace </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>If cable is kinked or twisted wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace as wires/strands will not return to original position and strength is less </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure no splice is closer than 2 inches to any pulley or fairlead </li></ul>
  85. 85. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Pulleys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are phenolic with sealed bearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No lubrication necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replace if bearing is rough or dry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for direction change over 3 o </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Pulleys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for wear patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically rotate any which don’t normally rotate much = loosens and evens wear </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Pulleys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for wear patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically rotate any which don’t normally rotate much = loosens and evens wear </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Pulleys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure cable or pulley guards are used to help keep cable on pulley </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Fairleads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent cable chafing on structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum deflection allowed is 3 o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenolic, plastic, or nylon (= soft material) so fairlead wears instead of cable </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Seals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used on pressurized aircraft where cable passes through pressure vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are filled with special grease and shaped so cable passes through but not air pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect for proper lube and insure all snap rings are in place (or might jam cable) </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Cable Connectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some aircraft use spring-loaded “quick disconnects” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows “quick” removal of cable section for inspection and/or replacement </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Bellcranks and Quadrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bellcranks transmit lateral movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase range or mechanical advantage in system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Bellcranks and Quadrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bellcranks transmit lateral movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase range or mechanical advantage in system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Quadrants convert cable to push-pull movement </li></ul>
  94. 94. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul>
  95. 95. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension varies with temperture as Aluminum structure changes size more than steel cable </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some aircraft have chart to give proper tension (in pounds) for the ambient temperature at time of checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small aircraft usually give range of acceptable tensions (for flexibility of temperatures) </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some aircraft have chart to give proper tension (in pounds) for the ambient temperature at time of checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small aircraft usually give range of acceptable tensions (for flexibility of temperatures) </li></ul></ul>
  98. 98. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><li>Use Tensiometer to check tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure Riser is proper for cable size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hook on cable in middle of as long a run as is accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeeze trigger and read scale </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><li>Use Tensiometer to check tension </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use chart to convert scale reading to pounds of tension </li></ul></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><li>Use Tensiometer to check tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some large aircraft use automatic tension devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps tension constant regardless of temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><li>Use Turnbuckles to adjust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has threaded ends into barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One end is left hand thread, one end is right hand thread = turn barrel to change overall length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrels available in short and long versions to give some flexibility in installations </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul><ul><li>Use Turnbuckles to adjust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t lube threads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have no more than 3 threads sticking out of barrel or 4 threads into barrel when properly tensioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety with wire or clips </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel Adjustment & Tension: </li></ul>
  104. 104. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses all direct mechanical linkages instead of cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall has less play or slop in systems than cable </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems: </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses seamless Aluminum tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each end has fitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually riveted into tube </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have replaceable bearing (rod ends) or fork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If replace make sure Witness Hole (Check Hole) is blocked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t put wire through </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insures enough threads are engaged </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect for condition carefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dents, scratches, gouges, etc. in tube bad as is thin walled and will then crack or fail easily (= monocoque structure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check bearings/rod ends for wear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small amount in each = large amount in system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  108. 108. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bellcranks, Torque Tubes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems use Bellcranks and Torque Tubes to change motion directions or convert from lateral motion to rotary motion </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rigging usually accomplished by adjusting the length(s) of various tubes in the system </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be checked anytime any tube or rod end is replaced or any control surface is replaced </li></ul>
  110. 110. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation of tubes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center rod ends in forks and tighten check nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows tubes to rotate slightly during ops with minimal damage to rod ends and forks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  111. 111. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Flight Controls Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push-pull Systems Rigging: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation of tubes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If installing on a bolt or stud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put open end of rod end away from structure or put large area washer under nut </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If bearing comes out of rod end = won’t disconnect tube completely </li></ul></ul></ul>
  112. 112. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul>
  113. 113. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If surface is out-of-balance = flutter or buffeting of surface = control problems, uncomfortable ride, premature and extreme wear </li></ul><ul><li>Need to check after repairs or painting </li></ul>
  114. 114. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basically we want the Moments fore and aft of the surface hinge line to be equal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think Weight and Balance with the hinge line as CG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally adjusted by adding weight forward of the hinge line as most repairs and paint are aft </li></ul>
  115. 115. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balance is checked and adjusted Statically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= the surface is not in motion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The surface is removed from the aircraft and installed on a balance fixture using the hinge bolts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually 2 knife-edges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be level and in draft-free environment </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All trim tabs should be in a neutral position </li></ul><ul><li>The surface must be level </li></ul>
  118. 118. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure whether is Overbalanced or Underbalanced and how much </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overbalance = chord angles down at the leading edge (nose heavy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underbalance = chord angles down at the trailing edge (TE heavy or nose light) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally want surface to be somewhat Overbalanced </li></ul></ul>
  119. 119. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure whether is Overbalanced or Underbalanced and how much </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer will give figures and formulas to determine value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to measure force and calculate moment (like Wt. & Bal. problem) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May need special tool (like Cessna 310) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  120. 120. Airplane Assembly <ul><li>Control Surface Balancing: </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Assembly & Rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Rigging Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Airplane Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Control Surface Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Biplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If necessary to add weight, only do so at specified locations and check again after </li></ul></ul>

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