THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL (NETWORKS, EXCHANGES AND RELATIONSHIPS) ON THE RETENTION OF MATURE-AGED NURSES IN HOSPITAL SE...
Background Contextand Research Problem<br />Global ageing of the population and predicted labour shortages(OECD, 2003; Pla...
Current Initiatives<br />
Research into Retirement Factors<br />Research into retirement has looked at push factors which push people out of the wor...
Research into Workplace Relationships<br />Many theorists recognise that relationships are a fundamental drive which affec...
Social Capital Theory<br />There are similarities and differences in traditional capital and social capitalBoth involve an...
Retirement Factors<br />Research Gaps<br />GAP: MOW and motivations to work<br />GAP: Not measured using SCT<br />GAP: Ben...
Aims and Research Questions<br />The research aims to investigate the association between workplace relationships and inte...
Theoretical Frameworkadapted from Lin’s 1991 analysis<br />Level of Sociability<br />IndependentVariables<br />DependentVa...
Measures<br />
Significance and Expected Outcomes <br />Theoretical contribution:  Whilst many individual and organizational benefits fro...
References<br />AbuAlRub, R., Omari, F., & Al-Zaru, I. (2009). Support, satisfaction and retention among Jordanian nurses ...
References cont…<br />Department of Treasury, 2004 A more flexible and adaptable retirement income system  Canberra: Depar...
References cont…<br />Jackson, N., Walter, M., Felmingham, B., & Spinaze, A. (2006). Will older workers Change their retir...
References cont…<br />O'Malley, M. (2000). Creating Commitment: How to Attract and Retain Talented Employees by Building R...
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The Impact of Social Capital on the Retention of Mature-Aged Nurses in Hospital Settings

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  1. 1. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL (NETWORKS, EXCHANGES AND RELATIONSHIPS) ON THE RETENTION OF MATURE-AGED NURSES IN HOSPITAL SETTINGS <br />Lee-anne Bye<br />
  2. 2. Background Contextand Research Problem<br />Global ageing of the population and predicted labour shortages(OECD, 2003; Platman, 2004; ABS, 2006; Department of Treasury, 2004)<br />Significant shortages within specific skill areas (ABS, 2006; Department of Treasury, 2004; OECD, 2003)<br />Nursing shortages globally and within Australia: 40,000 shortage by 2010 (Levett-Jones & Fitzgerald 2005) predicted to last beyond 2020 (Fitzgerald 2007)<br />In 2005 two-thirds of the nursing workforce in Australia were classed as Baby Boomers (Schofield & Beard, 2005) aged from mid-40s to 60 years (Bell & Narz, 2007)<br />Withthe average retirement age for women - 47 years in 2007(ABS, 2009)<br />
  3. 3. Current Initiatives<br />
  4. 4. Research into Retirement Factors<br />Research into retirement has looked at push factors which push people out of the workplace (organizational factors such as high stress) and pull factors which pull from outside (such as desire to spend time with family) (Shacklock & Brunetto, 2005).<br />Research and solutions for nurses have sought to address some of the push factors that operate within the organization (eg low pay, lack of autonomy and career advancement) and pull factors (increasing flexibility) (Coomer & Barriball 2007; Davidson et al 1997; Shader et al 2001; Fitzgerald 2007).<br />What has been neglected is looking at what ‘pull’ factors exist within the workplace – what does work provide? <br />Meaning of work: work fulfils not only economic, but other basic psychological and social functions (Gill, 1999; Loscocco & Kalleberg, 2001; Shacklock & Brunetto, 2005) such as meeting relational needs <br />
  5. 5. Research into Workplace Relationships<br />Many theorists recognise that relationships are a fundamental drive which affects satisfaction in the workplace… (Ducharme & Martin, 2000; Gill, 1999; Hodson, 2004; Holahan & Moos, 1982; Humphrey, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007; Jackson, Walter, Felmingham, & Spinaze, 2006; O'Malley, 2000;Patrickson & Ranzijn, 2004; Shacklock & Brunetto, 2005; Yammarino & Bubinsky, 1987)<br />…and that can affect decisions to stay (Barnes-Farrell 2003; Shacklock, Brunetto & Nelson 2009; Jackson, et al., 2006)<br />These findings are replicated for nurses in the general area of job satisfaction (Day, Minichiello, & Madison 2006; Larrabee et al 2003; Fitzgerald 2007; Cohen 2006) <br />and the specific area of retention (Tourangeau & Cranley, 2006; Boumans, de Jong, & Vanderlinden, 2008; AbuAlRub, Omari, & Al-Zaru, 2009; Estryn-Be´har 2007; (Moseley, Jeffers, & Paterson 2008; Shader et al 2001)<br />
  6. 6. Social Capital Theory<br />There are similarities and differences in traditional capital and social capitalBoth involve an Investment , and mobilisation of Resources, leading to Surplus Value/Gain (Adler & Kwon,2007; Lin 1991)<br />Social capital relates to the assets that reside in and are available through relationships (Dess & Shaw, 2001)<br />Resources and benefits can be possessed by Individual or Social Unit (Leana & van Buren, 1999)<br />Benefits include: status, career mobility, information exchange, innovation, job satisfaction, well-being (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998; Lee, 2008; Haley-Lock, 2007; Adler & Kwon, 2002)<br />The type of network structure and relationships can vary and produce specific benefits (open/bridging or closed/bonding) (Lee, 2008; Totterdell, Holman, & Hukin, 2008; Flap & Volker, 2001).<br />Benefit of closed networks: belonging, support, trust (Flap & Volker, 2001)<br />Benefit of Affective Commitment and Retention largely unexplored in Social Capital literature <br />
  7. 7. Retirement Factors<br />Research Gaps<br />GAP: MOW and motivations to work<br />GAP: Not measured using SCT<br />GAP: Benefits of Affective Commitment and Retention not covered.<br />
  8. 8. Aims and Research Questions<br />The research aims to investigate the association between workplace relationships and intention to stay in mature-aged nurses in hospital settings. <br />To what extent does existing social capital in the workplace contribute to the intention to stay of mature-aged nurses in hospital settings?-Does this effect differ according to level of sociability or partner status?<br />What management practices could improve social capital in a hospital/nursing setting?<br />
  9. 9. Theoretical Frameworkadapted from Lin’s 1991 analysis<br />Level of Sociability<br />IndependentVariables<br />DependentVariable<br />Intervening Variables<br />Investment in SOCIAL CAPITAL<br />Moderating Variable<br />EMBEDDED RESOURCES (closed networks)<br />-1. Identity/Belonging2. Trust3.Support4. Teamwork<br />Provides access to Resources<br />SURPLUS VALUE/GAIN<br />Job Affective Satisfaction Commitment *Team *Org <br />INTENT TO STAY<br />If mobilised produce<br />will result in<br />Provides access to Exchanges<br />Moderating Variable<br />SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY<br />Exchanges with <br />Co-workers <br />
  10. 10. Measures<br />
  11. 11. Significance and Expected Outcomes <br />Theoretical contribution: Whilst many individual and organizational benefits from social capital have been researched and discussed, the benefits of affective commitment and worker retention has not been explored.<br />Practical contribution: This research could prove beneficial in the aim to retain older workers in key skills areas such as nursing (within Australia and globally).<br />
  12. 12. References<br />AbuAlRub, R., Omari, F., & Al-Zaru, I. (2009). Support, satisfaction and retention among Jordanian nurses in private and public hospitals. International Nursing Review, 56(3), 326-332.<br />Adler, P., & Kwon, S. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17-40.<br />Alexander J, Bloom J & Nuchols B, 1994 “Nursing turnover and hospital efficiency: an organizational-level analysis” Industrial Relations, 33(4): 505-520<br />Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006) Labour force Australia, Catalogue 6202.0Canberra:ABS<br />Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009 4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, March 2009: Retirement and retirement intentions, Canberra: AGPS<br />Barnes-Farrell, J. (2003). Beyond health and wealth: Attitudinal and other influences on retirement decision-making. In G. Adams & T. Beehr (Eds.), Retirement: Reasons, Processes, and Results. New York: Springer Publishing Co.<br />Bell N & Narz M 2007 ‘Meeting the challenges of age diversity in the workplace’ The CPA Journal, 77(2): 56-59<br />Bollen K & Hoyle R 1990 Perceived cohesion: A conceptual and empirical examination, Social Forces 69(2):479-504<br />Boumans, N., de Jong, A., & Vanderlinden, L. (2008). Determinants of early retirement intentions among Belgian nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(1), 64-74.<br />Caplan, R. D., Cobb, S., French, J. R. P., Van Harrison, R., & Pinneau, S. R., Jr. (1975). Job demands and worker health. Washington, DC: US. Department of Health, Education, & Welfare. <br />Cohen, J. (2006). The aging nursing workforce: How to retain experience nurses. Journal of HealthCare Management, 51(4), 233-245.<br />Coomer, B. and K. Barriball (2007). "Impact of job satisfaction components on intent to leave and turnover for hospital-based nurses: A review of the research literature." International Journal of Nursing Studies 44: 297-314.<br />Davidson H, Folcarelli P, Crawford S, Duprat L, & J, C. (1997). The effects of health care reforms on job satisfaction and voluntary turnover among hospital-based nurses Medical Care 35(6), 634-645.<br />Day, G., Minichiello, V., & Madison, J. (2006). Nursing morale: What does the literature reveal? Australian Health Review, 30(4), 516-524.<br />
  13. 13. References cont…<br />Department of Treasury, 2004 A more flexible and adaptable retirement income system Canberra: Department of Treasury<br />Dess, G., & Shaw, J. (2001). Voluntary turnover: Social capital and organizational performance. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 446-456.<br />Ducharme, L., & Martin, J. (2000). Unrewarding work, coworker support, and job satisfaction. Work and Occupations, 27(2), 223-243.<br />Estryn-Be´har, M., Van derHeijden, B., Ogin´ska, H., Camerino, D., Le Ne´zet, O., Conway, P., Fry, C., Hasselhorn, H., & Group, t. N. S. (2007). The Impact of Social Work Environment, Teamwork Characteristics, Burnout, and Personal Factors Upon Intent to Leave Among European Nurses. Medical Care, 45(10), 939-950.<br />Ferres N, Connell J, Travaglione A 2002, Co-worker trust as a social catalyst for constructive employee attitudes, Journal of Managerial Psychology. 19(6): 608-622<br />Fitzgerald, D. (2007). "Aging, experienced nurses: Their value and needs." Contemporary Nurse 24(2): 237-243.<br />Flap, H., & Volker, B. (2001). Goal specific social capital and jobsatisfaction: Effects of different types of networks on instrumental and social aspects of work. Social Networks, 23, 297-320.<br />Gill, F. (1999). The meaning of work: lessons from sociology, psychology, and political theory. Journal of Socio-Economics, 28, 725-743.<br />Haley-Lock, A. (2007). Up close and personal: Employee networks and job satisfaction in a human service context. Social Service Review, December.<br />Hamilton M & Hamilton H, 2006 Rich Boomer, Poor Boomer: Retirement prospects for the not-so-lucky generation, The Australia Institute<br />Hodson, R. (2004). Work Life and Social Fulfillment: Does Social Affiliation at Work Reflect a Carrot or a Stick? Social Science Quarterly, 85(2), 221-239.<br />Holahan, C., & Moos, R. (1982). Social support and adjustment: Predictive benefits of social climate indices. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10(4), 403-415.<br />Humphrey, S., Nahrgang, J., & Morgeson, P. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: a meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1332-1356.<br />
  14. 14. References cont…<br />Jackson, N., Walter, M., Felmingham, B., & Spinaze, A. (2006). Will older workers Change their retirement plans in line with Government thinking? A review of recent literature on retirement intentions. Australian Bulletin of Labour, 32(4), 315-344.<br />Johlke, M. C., & Duham, D. F. (2001). Supervisory communication practices and boundary spanner role ambiguity. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13, 87–111.<br />Larrabee, J., Janney, M., Ostrow, C., Withrow, M., Hobbs, G., & Burant, C. (2003). Predicting Registered Nurse Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave. Journal of Nursing Administration, 33(5), 271-283.<br />Leana, C., & van Buren, H. (1999). Organizational social capital and employment practices. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 538-555.<br />Lee, R. (2008). Social capital and business and management: Setting a research agenda International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(3), 247-273.<br />Lin, N. (1991). "Building a network theory of social capital." Connections 22(1): 28-51.<br />Levett-Jones T, FitzGerald M “A review of graduate nurse transition programs in Australia.” The Australian journal of advanced nursing  2005;23(2):40-5.Loscocco, K., & Kalleberg, A. (2001). Age and the meaning of work in the United States and Japan. Social Forces, 67(2), 337-356.<br />Meyer J, Allen N & Smith C 1993Commitment to Organizations and Occupations: Extension and Test of a Three-Component Conceptualization, Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4): 538-551<br />Moseley, Jeffers, & Paterson 2008Moseley, A., Jeffers, L., & Paterson, J. (2008). The retention of the older nursing workforce: A literature review exploring factors that influence the retention and turnover of older nurses. Contemporary Nurse, 30, 46-56.<br />OECD, 2003 ‘Maintaining a prosperous society’ Ageing Research Report, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development<br />Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242-266.<br />
  15. 15. References cont…<br />O'Malley, M. (2000). Creating Commitment: How to Attract and Retain Talented Employees by Building Relationships That Last. New York: John Wiley & Sons.<br />Patrickson, M., & Ranzijn, R. (2004). Bounded choices in work and retirement in Australia. Employee Relations, 26(4), 422-432.<br />Platman K, 2004 ‘Flexible employment in later life: public policy panaceas in the search for mechanisms to extend working lives’ Social Policy & Society, 3(2): 181-188<br />Richer, S. F., & Vallerand R. J. (1998). Construction et validation de 1’Cchelle dusentiment d’appartenancesociale [Construction and validation of the Feeling of Social Relatednessscale]. Revue Europdenne de Psychologie Appliquke, 48, 129-137.<br />Schofield D & Beard J 2005, ‘Baby boomer doctors and nurses: demographic change and transitions to retirement’ The Medical Journal of Australia, 183(2): 80-83<br />(Shacklock, K., & Brunetto, Y. (2005). Employee's Perceptions of the Factors affecting their Decisions to Retire. International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 10(5), 740-756.<br />Shacklock, K., Brunetto, Y., & Nelson, S. (2009). The different variables that affect older males’ and females’ intentions to continue working. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 47(1), 79-101.<br />Shader, K., Broome, M., Broome, C., West, M., & Nash, M. (2001). Factors influencing satisfaction and anticipated turnover for nurses in an academic medical center. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(4), 210-216.<br />Totterdell, P., Holman, D., & Hukin, A. (2008). Social networkers: Measuring and examining individual differences in propensity to connect with others. Social Networks, 30(4), 283-296.<br />Tourangeau, A., & Cranley, L. (2006). Nurse intention to remain employed: understanding and strengthening determinants. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55(4), 497-509.<br />Yammarino, F., & Bubinsky, A. (1987). On job satisfaction: It's the relationships that count. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 54(4), 804-808<br />
  16. 16. Thank you for listening….<br />Questions?<br />

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