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Joints of the human body


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joints of the human body

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Joints of the human body

  1. 1. Joints of the Human Body • Joint Classification • Synovial Joints –Characteristics of synovial joint –Types of synovial joints Naming Joints: –Pectoral Girdle –Upper Limb –Pelvic Girdle –Lower Limb
  2. 2. • Joint is a point of connection between two bones • Strands of connective tissue, ligaments, hold the bones together and ensure the stability of joints
  3. 3. Joint Classification • Joints are classified according to their motion capabilities: – Synarthroses • Immovable – Amphiarthroses • Slightly movable – Diarthroses • Allow the greatest amount of motion
  4. 4. Joint Classification Cont’d • Joints are further classified by the that joints them: – Fibrous joint • Allow no movement • E.g. sutures of the scull – Cartilaginous joints • Allow limited movement • E.g. intervertebral discs – Synovial joints • Allow large range of movements • E.g. hip joint material
  5. 5. Characteristics of Synovial Joints • • • • • • Hyaline cartilage – A protective layer of dense white connective tissue that covers the ends of the articulating bones Joint cavity Synovial membrane – Covers joint cavity, except over the surfaces of the articular cartilages – Secretes the lubrication fluid Synovial fluid – Lubricates the joint Capsule – May or may not have thickenings called intrinsic ligaments Extrinsic ligaments – Support the joint and connect the articulating bones of the joint
  6. 6. Types of Synovial Joints • There are three basic types of synovial joints: – unilateral (rotation only about one axis) – biaxial joints (movement about two perpendicular axes) – multiaxial joints (movement about all three perpendicular axes)
  7. 7. Types of Synovial Joints Cont’d • Synovial are further classified into: 1. Hinge Joint 2. Pivot Joint 3. Condyloid Joint 4. Saddle-shaped joint 5. Ball and Socket Joint 6. Plane Joint
  8. 8. 1. Hinge (Ginglymus) Joint • Uniaxial • Has one articulating surface that is convex, and another that is concave • E.g. humero-ulnar elbow joint, interphalangeal joint
  9. 9. Pivot Joint • Uniaxial • E.g. head of radius rotating against ulna
  10. 10. Condyloid (Knuckle) Joint • Biaxial (flexion-extension, abductionadduction) • The joint surfaces are usually oval • One joint surface is an ovular convex shape, and the other is a reciprocally shaped concave surface • E.g. metacarpophalangeal joint
  11. 11. Saddle Joint • Biaxial (flexion-extension, abductionadduction) • The bones set together as in sitting on a horse • E.g. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
  12. 12. Ball and Socket Joint • Multiaxial (rotation in all planes) • A rounded bone is fitted into a cup=like receptacle • E.g. shoulder and hip joints
  13. 13. Plane (Gliding) Joint • Uniaxial (permits gliding movements) • The bone surfaces involved are nearly flat • E.g. intercarpal joints and acromioclavicular joint of the vertebrae
  14. 14. Joints of the Pectoral Girdle
  15. 15. Sternoclavicular Joint • Connects the sternum to the clavicle • the only joint connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton • true synovial joint strengthened by an intracapsular disc and extrinsic ligaments
  16. 16. Acromioclavicular Joint • unites the lateral end of the clavicle with the acromion process of the scapula • where shoulder separations often occur in sports such as hockey, baseball, and football
  17. 17. Glenohumeral Joint • • • • Connects the upper limb and the scapula A typical multiaxial joint has a wide range of movement at this joint compromise = relative lack of stability
  18. 18. Upper Limb Joints
  19. 19. Elbow Joint • There are three joints at the elbow: – humero-ulnar joint • medial (with respect to anatomical position) • between the trochlea of the humerus and the olecranon process of the ulna – humero-radial joint • lateral • between the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius – radio-ulnar joint • between the radius and the ulna
  20. 20. Elbow Joint Cont’d Humerus Humero-Ulnar Joint Humero-Radial Joint Radio-Ulnar Joint Radius Ulna
  21. 21. Joints of the Pelvic Girdle
  22. 22. Hip Joint - Between the head of the femur and the cup (acetabulum) of the hip bone (os coxae) – Like shoulder joint, hip joint is: • ball and socket joint • multiaxial joint that allows flexionextension, abduction-adduction and circumduction
  23. 23. Illium
  24. 24. Hip Joint Cont’d • unlike shoulder joint, hip joint is very stable • in fact it is the body’s most stable synovial joint due to: – deepened socked (via lip or fibrocartilaginous labrum ) – an intrinsic and very strong extrinsic ligaments • dislocation in sports is not common, but can occur in car collisions • dislocate the head posteriorly or drive it through the posterior lip of the actetabulum
  25. 25. Lower Limb Joints
  26. 26. Knee Joint • Tibiofemoral or knee joint • incredible range of movement (flexion – extension)
  27. 27. Knee Joint Cont’d • however, the knee joint is relatively stable due to additional structural supports from: – menisci • shock-absorbing fibrocartilaginous discs – anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments • in the centre of the joint – lateral and medial collateral ligaments • extending from the sides of the femur to the tibia and fibula – the musculature that surrounds it
  28. 28. Knee Joint Cont’d • movements: – primary action is flexion-extension (e.g. squat or jump) – when flexed, medial and lateral rotation can also occur
  29. 29. Ankle Joint • talocrural or ankle joint • involves several bones: – medial and lateral malleoli of the tibia and fibula – head of the talus – calcaneus (heel bone) Lateral malleolus Medial malleolus Talus Calcaneus