走出技術自主路:自由軟件開源軟件掂唔掂?

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自由軟件開源軟件運動與社運

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走出技術自主路:自由軟件開源軟件掂唔掂?

  1. 1. 走出技術自主路 自由軟件開源軟件 掂唔掂? 自由軟件開源軟件運動 與社運
  2. 2. Mainframe <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Honeywell-Bull_DPS_7_Mainframe_BWW_March_1990.jpg </li></ul>
  3. 3. Source Code 源碼 <ul><li>Computer Instructions are coded in binary format 00101... </li></ul><ul><li>A more human friendly method to program computer: </li></ul><ul><li>/* Hello World program */ </li></ul><ul><li>#include<stdio.h> </li></ul><ul><li>main() </li></ul><ul><li>{ printf(&quot;Hello World&quot;); } </li></ul>
  4. 4. Source Code 源碼 (cont.) <ul><li>Convert source code into binary instructions by a computer compiler </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical market – one supplier for all computer needs </li></ul><ul><li>Source code by itself own had no commercial value -> freely distributed </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Apple_Computer_Logo.svg </li></ul>
  6. 6. Apple ][+ Clone 翻版蘋果 <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Taiwanese_Apple_II_clone_Cosmo.jpg (GFDL) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Change in Computer Industry <ul><li>Personal computers - hardware and software could be sold separately </li></ul><ul><li>Money could be made by closing up source code </li></ul><ul><li>Some programmers sold the copyright of the source code of collaborative projects and stole of work of others </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T Unix incident </li></ul>
  8. 8. Richard M. Stallman <ul><li>http://www.stallman.org/saintignucius.jpg </li></ul>
  9. 9. Responses to the Theft <ul><li>Release source code that could not be used commercially </li></ul><ul><li>Release source code that must remain freely available -> Software Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>1983 GNU project, Unix Clone </li></ul><ul><li>1985 Free Software Foundation, Free as in Free Speech, General Public License (GPL) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rise and Fall <ul><li>GNU project was very successful, released lots of useful software </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient of USD240,000 MacArthur Fellowship </li></ul><ul><li>Next step was to implement the &quot;heart&quot; of the operating system – kernel was missing </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong bet on the latest micro-kernel design </li></ul><ul><li>People problems </li></ul>
  11. 11. Linus Torvalds and the Penguin <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Linus_Torvalds.jpeg (GFDL) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.isc.tamu.edu/~lewing/linux/ </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Next Generation <ul><li>Linus Torvalds, a new comer, provided an alternative kernel, Linux, v0.01 release in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Linux was built upon the GNU project and released under GPL </li></ul><ul><li>Torvalds was pragmatic, accepted the co-existence of proprietary and Free Software, promote fun </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Source Movement was found to promote business use </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Open Source and Linux Hype <ul><li>Open Source and Linux became 'profitable' concepts during the dot com boom </li></ul><ul><li>VA Linux (NASDAQ:LNUX) offered at $30, highest at $320, first day closed at $239.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction on Linux taking over the desktop market long overdue </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Open Source and Linux Hype <ul><li>Open Source and Linux became 'profitable' concepts during the dot com boom </li></ul><ul><li>VA Linux (NASDAQ:LNUX) offered at $30, highest at $320, first day closed at $239.25 </li></ul><ul><li>-> 14 Apr 2008 closed at $1.83 </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction on Linux taking over the desktop market long overdue </li></ul>
  15. 15. Enabling Factors <ul><li>Re-usability of Source Code </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking-pot Economy (Ghosh, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Long Tail (Anderson, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Long_tail.svg </li></ul>
  16. 16. Disabling Factors <ul><li>Inertia – don't want to change </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom as a system destabilizer </li></ul><ul><li>(M$ as a standard and a damage brand) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital technology may not be the main factors </li></ul>
  17. 17. Food for Thought <ul><li>Persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Where to draw the line? </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics wins </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics rely on the Radicals </li></ul>

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