Chapter 1 housing and human needs

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Chapter 1 housing and human needs

  1. 1. Housing and Human Needs
  2. 2. People and Their Housing  Housing – as the word is used in this text, means any dwelling that provides shelter.  Housing is your Near Environment, a small and distinct part of the total environment in which you live  Your total environment includes all your interactions with people and buildings as well as different geographical areas outside your dwelling place, neighborhood, and local community.  Housing affects your actions, and in turn, your actions affect your housing.
  3. 3. Housing Choices  For example, if you live in a small apartment, you will not be able to host large parties.  You will not have enough room, and your neighbors might complain about the noise.  However, if you want to host large parties, you might choose to live in a large house that is set apart from other houses.
  4. 4. Meeting Needs Through Housing  Needs – are the basic requirements that people must have filled in order to live.  All people have physical, psychological, and other needs.  They share the need for shelter in which to eat, sleep, and carry on daily living activities.  Psychologist Abraham Maslow prioritized human needs into a pyramid, as each type of need is met, you progress up the pyramid to the next level.
  5. 5. Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs
  6. 6. Physical Needs  Physical Needs – the most basic human needs.  They have priority over other needs because they are essential for survival.  Physical needs include shelter, food, water, and rest.  They are sometimes called basic needs or primary needs.
  7. 7. Shelter  The need for shelter and protection from the weather has always been met by a dwelling of some type.  Archeologists are social scientists who study ancient cultures by unearthing dwelling places of past civilizations.  Archeological findings reveal how ancient structures were made and used, and how they met the need for shelter – a basic universal need.
  8. 8. Earliest Dwellings: Pueblo  The earliest dwellings were in natural settings, such as caves and overhanging cliffs.  The Pueblo Native Americans used adobe, which is a building material made of sun-dried earth and straw.  They also used rafters made from native materials.
  9. 9. Earliest Dwellings: Apache  Apache Native Americans built houses from tree branches.  Their houses offered protection from the scorching sun, while cooling breezes circulate through the branches.
  10. 10. Earliest Dwellings: Nomads  Some tribes throughout the world called nomads periodically move their residences depending on weather, available farmland, and other factors.  A yurt is a portable hut made of several layers of felt covered with canvas.  These huts are use din summer as the people move to more fertile areas.
  11. 11. Food and Water  In the past, people located their housing near sources of food and water.  Today, areas within dwellings are set aside storing, preparing, and eating food.  However, people still like to prepare food and eat outside.
  12. 12. Psychological Needs  Once the basic physical needs are met, people strive to meet the psychological needs, which are higher on Maslow’s pyramid of human needs.  Psychological needs are needs related to the mind and feelings that must be met in order to live a satisfying life.
  13. 13. Security  Housing provides security from the outside world.  It offers protection from physical danger and the unknown.  It helps you feel safe and protected.  Living in a dwelling that is well built and locate din an area from from crime can help you feel secure.
  14. 14. Love and Acceptance  Housing affects your feelings of being loved and accepted.  If you have your own bedroom or private place, you know that others care about you.  They have accepted you as a person who has needs.  When you are assigned household chores, it is because you have been accepted as part of a group.
  15. 15. Esteem  You need to feel esteem, or the respect, admiration, and high regard of others.  Your housing tells other people something about you and can help you gain esteem.  You also need self-esteem, awareness and appreciation of your own worth.  Living in a pleasant, satisfying home can help you gain self-esteem.
  16. 16. Self-Actualization  When you meet the need for self-actualization, you have developed to your full potential as a person.  You have become the best you can be, and you are doing what you do best.  For self-actualizing people, housing is more than a place to live.  It is the place where each person can progress towards becoming what he or she is capable of being.
  17. 17. Other Needs Met Through Housing  Recognizing the levels of human needs as described by Maslow can help you understand how important needs are in relation to housing.  Beauty, self-expression, and creativity are also important needs.  They can be achieved through your housing decisions.
  18. 18. Beauty  Beauty is the quality or qualities that give pleasure to the senses.  What is beautiful to you may not be beautiful to someone else.  An appreciation of beauty develops over time as exposure to it increases.
  19. 19. Self-Expression  Showing your true personality and taste is called self- expression, evident when you choose colors to decorate your house.  Those colors are often a clue to your personality.  For example, if you have an outgoing, vibrant personality, you might show it by using bright, bold colors inside your house.
  20. 20. Creativity  Creativity is the ability to create imaginatively.  It can be described as combining two or more things or ideas into a new whole that as beauty or value.  Your housing provides opportunities for you to express your creativity.
  21. 21. Factors Affecting Housing Choices  There are many factors that influence choices in housing.  These include person priorities, family relationships, space needs, costs, roles, and lifestyle.
  22. 22. Personal Priorities  Personal priorities are strong beliefs or ideas about what is important.  When you choose something freely and take action on that choice, you are acting on a personal priority.  All personal priorities you hold, such as family, friendship, money, status, religion, and independence, form your personal-priority system.  Whenever you decide between two or more choices, you use your personal-priority system.
  23. 23. How Needs and Personal Priorities Relate  Your needs and personal priorities are closely related.  For example, you need a place to seep.  A cot can satisfy this need.  However, the cot may not meet your priority for comfort.  If you have a choice, your personal priority for comfort may cause you to choose a bed with a mattress instead of the cot.
  24. 24. Space  People have spatial needs.  While too much space can make people feel lonely, they need a certain amount of space around them to avoid feeling crowded.  They way space is used also influences the amount that is needed.  In places where space cannot be added or removed, the right furnishings can make the space seem larger or smaller.
  25. 25. Privacy  People need privacy to maintain good mental health.  Sometimes they need to be completely alone, where others cannot see or hear what they are doing.  A chair that is set apart from other furnishings in a room can create privacy.
  26. 26. Family Relationships  Decisions in families that value relationships are made to benefit all family members, not just some.  A family is two or more people living together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.  When concern for family relationships is an important personal priority, several areas of the house can be designed for group living.
  27. 27. Costs  For most people, the cost of housing is an important factor in making housing decisions.  Whether people rent or buy housing, it costs money.  When money is very limited, people choose dwellings that provide just enough space for their needs.
  28. 28. Roles  Roles are patterns of behavior that people display in their homes, the workplace, and their communities.  Examples are: wife, mother, sister, co-worker, teacher, hospital volunteer, etc.  The roles people have can affect the type of housing they choose and the way the housing is used.  To fulfill the role of student, a home needs a quiet area for studying.  The role of wage earner can also impact housing choices.  A lawyer may work from home, needing an office for working and a seating area for greeting clients.
  29. 29. Housing Needs Vary  On almost a daily basis, you can be sure of change.  Life situations and circumstances cause change and affect they way you live.  In group housing, people generally are not related.  Retirement complexes and college residence halls, are some common examples.  The occupants live in separate units within the group dwelling.  People in residential dwellings, on the other hand, are usually related to each other.
  30. 30. Households  The most common residential dwelling is a household.  A household is a group of people sharing the same dwelling  The size of a household can vary, but most households contain families.  There are five basic types of families.
  31. 31. Nuclear Family  This family includes couples and their children.  The children are either born into the family or adopted.  None of the children are from a previous marriage.
  32. 32. Single-parent Family  These families consist of a child (or children) and only one parent, often because a parent has died or left home.  Other single-parent families consist of a never-married adult with one or more children.
  33. 33. Stepfamily  This family consists of parents, one or both of whom have been married before.  The family also includes one or more children from a previous marriage.
  34. 34. Childless Family  These families consist of a husband and wife who have not had children.  For some couples this is a temporary condition, delaying the arrival of children until their finances improve.  For others, they may be unable to have children or chooses to remain childless, for whatever reason.
  35. 35. Extended Family  There a two basic types of extended families, which are formed by adding one or more relatives to a household already identified.  One type consists of several generations of a family, such as children, parents, and grandparents.  The second type of extended family consists of members from the same generation, such as brothers, sisters, and cousins.
  36. 36. Single Person Household  The smallest household is a single-person household, which consists of one person living alone in the dwelling.  That person may be someone who has never married or whose marriage has ended because of the loss of a spouse through death, desertion, or divorce.
  37. 37. Life Cycles  Life cycles are another way to view your housing needs.  A life cycle is a series of stages through which an individual or family passes during its lifetime.  In each stage, you have new opportunities and face new challenges.
  38. 38. Individual Life Cycle  Each person follows a pattern of development called an individual life cycle  It is divided according to age groups into the following four stages:  Infancy  Childhood  Youth  Adulthood  Each stage can be divided into sub stages.
  39. 39. Family Life Cycle  Just as you have a place in an individual life cycle, your family has its place in the family life cycle.  A family life cycle has six stages.  In addition, one or more sub stages may exist within each stage.
  40. 40. Beginning Stage  The beginning stage is the early period of the marriage when the couple is without children.  The husband and wife make adjustments to married life and to each other.
  41. 41. Childbearing Stage  The childbearing stage is the time when the family is growing.  It includes the childbearing periods and the years of caring for preschoolers.
  42. 42. Parenting Stage  The parenting stage occurs when the children are in school.  This stage includes the years of caring for school- age children and teenagers.
  43. 43. Launching Stage  The launching stage is the time when the children become adults and leave their parents’ house.  They may leave to go to college, take a job, or get married.
  44. 44. Midyears Stage  The midyears stage is the time between when the children leave home and the parents retire.  When all the children have left home, the couple is again alone.
  45. 45. Aging Stage  The aging stage begins with retirement.  Usually, at some point in this stage, one spouse lives alone after the death of the other.  As people live longer, the length of this stage increases.
  46. 46. Life cycles and Housing Needs  As you move from one stage or sub stage of a life cycle to another, your housing needs change.  Therefore, you should consider what stage or sub stage of the life cycles you are in as you plan your housing.  If you think about both your present and future needs, your housing can help you live the kind of life you desire.
  47. 47. Housing and The Quality of Life  Quality of life is the degree of satisfaction obtained from life.  Housing is considered “good” when it provides people with satisfying surroundings that can improve their quality of life.
  48. 48. Personal Quality of Life  Quality of life is important to you as an individual.  Your idea of an improved quality of life may not appeal to someone else.  Your housing environment helps you meet your needs and personal priorities.  It also adds satisfaction to your life and, therefore, improves the quality of your life.
  49. 49. Quality of Life for Society  The future of a society depends on individuals and groups who work to make life better for everyone.  Some of the work is social in nature.  People must also work together and use their resources of time, money, and energy to maintain and support beautiful surroundings.  Examples of such surroundings are well-kept buildings and natural landscapes.
  50. 50. Human Ecology  Human ecology the study of people and their environment, is the focus of considerable research.  People are concerned about the problems caused by pollutants entering streams, lakes, and underground water supplies.  Instead of wishing for the good old days to return, people must move forward to find solutions for today’s problems.

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