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FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012
Federal Funding for
Environmental Research and
Development 2013
P...
NationalCouncilforScienceandtheEnvironment
TheNationalCouncilforScienceandtheEnvironment(NCSE)isanot-for-profit organizati...
FederalFundingfor
Environmental Research and Development
Fiscal Year 2013
Developed by the National Council for Science an...
FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013
4
T
T
Acknowledgements
he National Council for Science and Enviro...
FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013
5
• Energy conservation and alternative energy research.
• Enviro...
FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013
6
Table of Contents
Executive summary ..............................
FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013
7
FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012
T
An E...
FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013
8
• Advance scientific knowledge of the integrated natural and hu...
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NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - U.S. Global Change Research Program

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NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - U.S. Global Change Research Program

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NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - U.S. Global Change Research Program

  1. 1. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012 Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 Peter Saundry and Rica Santos January2014 An Exclusive service for Affiliates of the National Council For Science and the Environment
  2. 2. NationalCouncilforScienceandtheEnvironment TheNationalCouncilforScienceandtheEnvironment(NCSE)isanot-for-profit organization that improves the scientific basis for environmental decision-making. NCSEspecializesinbringingtogether diverseinstitutionsandindividualstoadvance environmental science, education, and their applications in five strategic areas: • StrengtheningEducationandCareers; • CommunicatingSciencetothePublicthroughtheonlineEncyclopediaofEarth; • OrganizingtheNationalConferenceonScience,PolicyandtheEnvironment; • DevelopingScienceSolutionstoSpecificEnvironmentalChallenges;and • PromotingScience-DrivenPolicyfortheEnvironment. UniversityAffiliateProgram and Community College Affiliate Program NCSE’s University Affiliate Program works in collaboration with over180 member institutions to strengthen academicenvironmentalprogramsacrosstheUnitedStates.Membershipbenefitsandservicesinclude: • Conferencesand meetingstoaddress all issuesrelatedtoenvironmental programs, theirfacultyand students; • Analysis andreportson environmental, sustainabilityand energyprogramsoncampusesnationwide; • Annual report and conference funding forenvironmental research and education; • ComplimentaryparticipationintheNationalConference onScience,PolicyandtheEnvironment; • Free campus-wide environmental andenergynewsservices; • Participation in multi-institutional collaborations to secure federal funding; • Internship opportunities through NCSE’s online environmental internship clearinghouse; • Sabbatical opportunities; and • Peer communication and collaboration on allenvironmental issuesof interest to members. Council of Environmental Deans and Directors The Council of Environmental Deans and Directors (CEDD) brings together environmental leaders at NCSE member institutions to improve the quality, stature and effectiveness of interdisciplinary environmental programs. CEDD supports curriculum advancement, interdisciplinary scholarship, leadership development, and improved program management through projects including: • Agriculture & Environment • Campus to Careers Study • ClimateSolutionsCurricula • CurriculumStudy • Energy Education • Environment & Human Health • InterdisciplinaryTenure • Public Policy Cover photos: Center photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of Energy; Other photos courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  3. 3. FederalFundingfor Environmental Research and Development Fiscal Year 2013 Developed by the National Council for Science and the Environment Peter Saundry and Rica Santos January2014
  4. 4. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 4 T T Acknowledgements he National Council for Science and Environment (NCSE) is pleased to acknowledge and express its deep appreciation to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The AAAS R&D Budget and Policy Program has provided the budget analysis behind this report for the past thirteen years, first under Kei Koizumi and, in recent years, under Patrick Clemins and Matthew Hourihan, with significant help from Kelly Anderson. This report is made possible by members of the NCSE University Affiliate Program and the Community College Affiliate Program listed in Appendix C and Appendix D Statement Regarding Data Sources (applies to all Tables and Charts) All date is drawn from OMB R&D data, Budget of the United States Government, agency budget justification, agency budget documents, and historical data. Yearly values are adjusted for inflation using OMB's GDP deflators. Nominal values are unadjusted. FY 2013 are estimates adjusted for the full-year continuing resolution and sequestration. Foreword his Handbook provides an overview of the entire federal environmental R&D portfolio fol- lowed by chapters about individual federal agencies. The budget analysis for this Handbook has been conducted in partnership with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) over the course of thirteen years, in order to maintain consistency with AAAS publications on R&D in the federal budget. Budget definitions and assumptions relevant to the analysis of environmental R&D in the federal budget are discussed in Appendix A. This report defines environmental sciences as the systematic study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of the various biological and physical components of the earth’s environment and the interactions between the earth’s environment and humanity. The following areas are included in the definition of environmental R&D: • Environmental physical sciences such as atmospheric sciences, geological sciences, oceanography, and other non-biological terrestrial sciences. • Environmental life sciences such as environmental biology, forestry, marine biology, and related fields. • Environmental engineering and other sciences, including R&D related to prevention, control, regulation, and clean-up.
  5. 5. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 5 • Energy conservation and alternative energy research. • Environmental social sciences such as environmental economics and other fields that study human social and cultural activities related to environmental conditions. • Environmental data and information sciences related to the environment, such as collection, storage, standardization, and management R&D. • Studies that utilize any or all of the above to address pollution problems or activities that impair the sustained functioning and productivity of the earth’s environment. The following areas are not included in the definition of environmental research: • Most human health R&D such as the much of the work carried out by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences and some other federal agencies. However, human health R&D focused on specific environmental problems such as the Superfund program are included. • Extraterrestrial environmental sciences such as studies of other planets. • Studies that focus primarily on resource extraction and utilizing environmental resources as distinct from how those practices impact the environment (which are included). Thus mining and fishing technology, studies of agricultural crops, livestock and their use are not generally included except where the focus is on environmental impact (e.g., studies of turtle excluder devices and the impact of agricultural practices on the environment are included.) We have made no effort to analyze activities by specific “fields of science” or “scientific disciplines” except when an agency organizes its activities along those lines. To produce the narrative of this report, NCSE has drawn extensively from the budget documents, web sites, and other resources of the agencies of the federal government. We have attempted to represent the work of the agencies in a balanced and objective way. The amount of text devoted to various agencies and programs reflects approximately the level of expenditures invested in environmental research and development by those agencies and programs. Given that a typical page in this report covers approximately $100 million of in environmental research and development, the level of detail we are able to provide is limited. We encourage readers to explore the web sites and documents of the respective agencies and programs for additional details. Where possible Fiscal Year 2012 budget for continuing budgets is provided, or proposed budgets for FY 2014 for new programs. Note these are the entire budgets of the program of usually include more than just R&D. Because terms such as “environmental science” and even “research” and “development” have imprecise definitions, estimates of federal funding for environmental R&D must be considered approximations. That is not to say the data and descriptions of particular programs are not accurate, rather that definitions are important in deciding which programs and projects to include in the analysis. A broader definition of “environmental science” that included topics related to human health might add several billion dollars to the overall funding level. A narrower definition that omitted areas related to energy might reduce overall funding by over a billion dollars. We have attempted to maintain consistency over time in order to identify trends and changes in funding for environmental R&D. The budget of the federal government and the activities of its agencies are subject to change — sometimes significant change at short notice. We again encourage readers to explore the web sites and documents of the respective agencies and programs for the latest information.
  6. 6. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 6 Table of Contents Executive summary ............................................................................................7 1. Department of Energy......................................................................................9 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration..................................................31 3. National Science Foundation...........................................................................46 4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ..............................................65 5. Department of Agriculture...............................................................................74 6. Department of the Interior...............................................................................82 7. Environmental Protection Agency.....................................................................89 8. Department of Defense..................................................................................96 9. National Institutes of Health...........................................................................102 10. Department ofTransportation ......................................................................106 11. Department of Homeland Security................................................................110 12. Smithsonian Institution and Army Corps of Engineers ......................................114 13. U.S. Global Change Research Program..................................................................118 Appendix A: Definitions and Assumptions...........................................................120 Appendix B: Acronyms ....................................................................................122 AppendixC:NCSE UniversityAffiliate ProgramMembers......................................123 Appendix D: NCSE Community College Affiliate Program Members......................XXX
  7. 7. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 7 FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012 T An Exclusive service for Affiliates of the National Council For Science and the Environment 11. U.S. Global Change Research Program ($2,428 million) he U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) coordinates and integrates federal re- search on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP began as a presidential initiative in 1989 and was mandated by Congress in the Global Change Research Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-606), which called for a comprehensive and integrated United States research program which will assist the Nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change. Source:OMBR&Ddata,BudgetoftheUnitedStatesGovernment,agencybudgetjustification,agencybudgetdocuments,andhistoricaldata. *ARRAadds$5.7billionin EnvironmentalR&DinFY2009. YearlyvaluesareadjustedforinflationusingOMB’sGDPdeflators.Nominalvaluesareunadjusted Thirteen departments and agencies participate in the USGCRP, which was known as the U.S. Climate Change Science Program from 2002 through 2008. The program is steered by the Subcommittee on Global Change Research under the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, overseen by the Executive Office of the President, and facilitated by an Integration and Coordination Office. During the past two decades, the United States, through the USGCRP, has made the world’s largest scientific investment in the areas of climate change and global change research. The USGCRP engages in a variety of activities aimed to strengthen and strategically direct climate change research in the United States, and improve the flow of that information to policy-makers, Federal, state, and local decision-makers, and the public. The Program coordinates Federal research efforts through the following four strategic goals:
  8. 8. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 8 • Advance scientific knowledge of the integrated natural and human components of the Earth system; • Provide the scientific basis to inform and enable timely decisions on adaptation and mitigation; • Build sustained assessment capacity that improves the Nation’s ability to understand, anticipate, and respond to global change impacts and vulnerabilities; and • Advance communications and education to broaden public understanding of global change and develop the scientific workforce of the future. U.S. Global Change Research Program by Agency (budget authority in millions of dollars) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 Change FY 12-13 Actual Actual Estimate Percent National Science Foundation 321 333 333 -0.1% Department of Energy 186 212 231 9.0% Department of Commerce (NOAA) 338 327 364 11.5% U.S. Department of Agriculture 75 115 123 6.6% Department of Interior 64 59 68 14.9% U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 20 18 20 10.9% Health and Human Services 4 6 6 0.0% National Aeronautics & Space Admin 1,431 1,422 1,522 7.0% All Other 8 19 20 0.5% TOTAL 2,447 2,511 2,685 6.9% Note: Because DOD research activities are conducted for defense-related missions, they are not included in this USGCRP budget crosscut. Source: AAAS estimates of R&D from OMB R&D data, Budget of the U.S. Government, and agency budget documents. Figures are rounded to the nearest million. Changes calculated from unrounded figures. FY 2013 are estimates adjusted for the full-year continuing resolution and sequestration. Advances in these areas have been documented in numerous assessments commissioned by the program and have played prominent roles in international assessments such as those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Program results and plans are documented in the program’s annual report, Our Changing Planet. Led by a team of Principals from each of the USGCRP’s thirteen participating agencies, the US- GCRP engages in a variety of activities aimed to strengthen and strategically direct climate change research in the United States, and improve the flow of that information to policy-makers, federal, state, and local decision-makers, and the public. These activities include international events, large-scale pro- gram elements, and smaller thematic interagency working groups. Current activities include: • Climate and Global Change • Integration of the Biological Sciences • Integration of the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences • Multiple Space and Time Scales, Natural Variability, and Extremes • Complexity, Thresholds, and Tipping Points • U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program • Understanding Vulnerability to Global Change • Science to Support Regional and Sectoral Responses • Science to Support Global-Scale Responses • Tools and Approaches for Iterative Risk Management

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