FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013
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FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012
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An E...
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NASA’s activities are carried out through ten centers: the Godd...
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Airborne Science: The Airborne Science project is responsible f...
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and Pleiades supercomputer systems and the associated network c...
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Global Precipitation Measurement ($XX million): The Global Prec...
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GRACE-II recommended in the decadal survey. GRACE-FO includes a...
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Earth Science Program Management: The Earth Science Program Man...
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associated with rainfall interacts with other aspects of the gl...
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2013, and will re-evaluate the Aura mission extension in terms ...
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EarthSystemSciencePathfinder($188.3million)
The Earth System S...
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detects sub visible clouds in the upper troposphere.
EarthScie...
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information technologies that enable new Earth observation mea...
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Mission Summary
Satellite(DateLaunched) Summary
ACRIMSAT(1999)...
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FurtherReading
•NASA budget documents — http://www.nasa.gov/ne...
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FY 2013 R&D REPORT January 6 2014 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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FY 2013 R&D REPORT January 6 2014 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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FY 2013 R&D REPORT January 6 2014 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. 1. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 1 FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012 N An Exclusive service for Affiliates of the National Council For Science and the Environment 1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration ($1,654 million) ASA provides approximately one-fifth of all federal environmental R&D funding. Nearly all of NASA’s environmental R&D comes under the NASA’s Earth Science theme, which advances knowledge of the integrated Earth system, the global atmosphere, oceans (including sea ice), land surfaces, ecosystems, and interactions between all elements, including the impacts of humans. NASA Earth Science operates 13 satellite missions making calibrated global observations with high spatial and temporal resolution. Two missions (ICESat, QuikSCAT) recently ended their main scientific missions after extended lifetimes. NASA aircraft and surface instruments calibrate, complement, and expand the value of satel- lite measurements. NASA supports computing capability and capacity for Earth system modeling. NASA missions produce nearly 4 terabytes of data daily, and NASA maintains the world’s largest scientific data and information system for processing, archiving, and distributing Earth system data to worldwide users.
  2. 2. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 2 NASA’s activities are carried out through ten centers: the Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, Headquarters, Kennedy Space Center, Stennis Space Center, Ames Research Center, Marshall Flight Center, Dryden Flight Research Center, Johnson Space Center and Glenn Research Center. About one-third of the Earth Science Research budget is competed each year through Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES), with successful investigations funded usually through three-year grants. Thus, many of the research activities carried out in FY 2014 will be tasks initiated in FY 2012 and FY 2013. Most NASA R&D is performed either by industrial firms (about half ) or intramurally (about a quarter). Universities and colleges perform only a tenth of NASA overall R&D but approximately a quarter of NASA’s “basic” research. The agency is also a significant contributor to the U.S. Global Change Research Program (providing 57 percent of the total—see Chapter 13), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, and the World Climate Research Programme. Earth Science Research NASA's Earth Science Research program develops a scientific understanding of Earth and its response to natural or human-induced changes. Earth is a system, like the human body, composed of diverse components interacting in complex ways. Understanding Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system is necessary in order to improve our predictions of climate, weather, and natural hazards. The Earth Science Research program addresses complex, interdisciplinary Earth science problems in pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of the Earth system. This strategy involves six interdisciplinary and interrelated science focus areas, including: • climate variability and change; • atmospheric composition; • carbon cycle and ecosystems; • water and energy cycle; • weather; and • Earth surface and interior. NASA's Earth Science Research program pioneers the use of both space-borne and aircraft measurements in all of these areas. NASA's Earth Science Research program is critical to the advancement of the interagency US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). NASA's Earth Science Research program also makes extensive contributions to international science programs such as the World Climate Research Programme. Earth Science Research and Analysis Research and Analysis is the core of the research program and funds the analysis and interpretation of data from NASA's satellites. This project funds the scientific activity needed to establish a rigorous base for the satellites’ data and their use in computational models.
  3. 3. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 3 Airborne Science: The Airborne Science project is responsible for providing manned and unmanned aircraft systems that further science and advance the use of satellite data. NASA uses these assets worldwide in campaigns to investigate extreme weather events, observe Earth system processes, obtain data for Earth science modeling activities, and calibrate instruments flying aboard Earth science spacecraft. NASA Airborne Science platforms support mission definition and development activities. For example, these activities include instrument development flights; gathering ice sheet observations as gap fillers between missions (e.g., Operation IceBridge); serving as technology test beds for Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) missions; and serving as the observation platforms for research campaigns, such as those that are competitively selected under the Sub-Orbital portion of Earth Venture. Interdisciplinary Science: Interdisciplinary Science includes science investigations, as well as calibration and validation activities, that ensure the utility of space-based measurements. In addition, it supports focused fieldwork (e.g. airborne campaigns) and specific facility instruments upon which fieldwork depends. Carbon Cycle Science: Carbon Cycle Science Team funds research on the distribution and cycling of carbon among Earth's active land, ocean, and atmospheric reservoirs. Carbon Monitoring System: Carbon Monitoring System complements NASA’s overall program in carbon cycle science and observations by producing and distributing products to the community regarding the flux of carbon between the surface and atmosphere, as well as the stores of carbon on the surface. Global Modeling and Assimilation Office: The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office creates global climate and Earth system component models using data from Earth science satellites and aircraft. Investigators can then use these products worldwide to further their research. Ozone Trends Science: The Ozone Trends Science project produces a consistent, calibrated ozone record that can be used for trend analyses and other studies. Space Geodesy: The Space Geodesy project provides global geodetic positioning and support for geodetic reference frames, which are necessary for climate change and geohazards research. Geodesy is the science of measuring Earth’s shape, gravity and rotation, and how these change over time. The Space Geodesy project began in 2011 and is a Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) partnership with participation from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Maryland. Fellowships and New Investigators: Fellowships and New Investigators supports graduate and early career research in the areas of Earth system research and applied science. Earth Science Directed Research and Technology: Earth Science Directed Research and Technology funds the civil service staff that work on emerging Earth Science flight projects, instruments, and research. Computing and Management ($XXX million) The Computing and Management area consists of three projects: High End Computing Capability (HECC): High End Computing Capability focuses on the Columbia
  4. 4. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 4 and Pleiades supercomputer systems and the associated network connectivity, data storage, data analysis, visualization, and application software support. It serves the supercomputing needs of all NASA mission directorates and NASA-supported principal investigators at universities. The Science funding supports the operation, maintenance, and upgrade of NASA's supercomputing capability, while the Strategic Capabilities Assets Program provides oversight. The two systems, with approximately 117,500 computer processor cores, support NASA's aeronautics, human exploration, and science missions. Scientific Computing: The Scientific Computing project funds NASA's Earth Science Discover computing system, software engineering, and user interface projects at Goddard Space Flight Center, including climate assessment modeling. Scientific Computing supports Earth science modeling activities based on data collected by Earth science spacecraft. The system is separate from HECC, so it can be close to the satellite data archives at the Center. The proximity to the data and the focus on satellite data assimilation makes the Discover cluster unique in the ability to analyze large volumes of satellite data quickly. The system currently has approximately 31,400 computer processor cores. Directorate Support: The Directorate Support project funds the Science Mission Directorate’s institutional and crosscutting activities including: National Academies’ studies, proposal peer review processes, printing and graphics, information technology, the NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship program, working group support, independent assessment studies, and other administrative tasks. EarthSystematicMissions($XXXmillion) Earth Systematic Missions (ESM) includes a broad range of multi-disciplinary science investigations aimed at understanding the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced forces and changes. Understanding these forces will help determine how to predict future changes, and how to mitigate or adapt to these changes. The ESM program develops Earth-observing research satellite missions, manages the operation of these missions once on orbit, and produces mission data products in support of research, applications, and policy communities. Interagency and international partnerships are a central element throughout the ESM program. Several of the on-orbit missions provide data products in near-real time for use by US and international meteorological agencies and disaster responders. Five of the on-orbit missions involve significant international or interagency collaboration in development. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), one of the ESM program’s foundational missions, involves collaboration with the US Geological Survey. GPM is a partnership being developed in cooperation with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and the GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission is a partnership between NASA and the German Space and Earth Science agencies. The SWOT, GRACE-FO and SAGE III missions entered formulation and are now funded under separate budget lines. The request also includes funds for NASA to assume responsibility for several Earth measurements previously held by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NASA will begin study on continuing the long history of measurements of solar irradiance, atmospheric ozone, and Earth’s radiation of energy to space. A newly created Land Imaging project will ensure continuity of Landsat land imaging data by funding the development of a sustained, space-based, global land imaging capability. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) recently entered operations after its successful launch on February 11, 2013 and is now funded under Earth Systematic Mission, Other Missions and Data Analysis.
  5. 5. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 5 Global Precipitation Measurement ($XX million): The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will advance the measurement of global precipitation. A joint mission with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, GPM will provide the first opportunity to calibrate measurements of global precipitation (including the distribution, amount, rate, and associated heat release) across tropical, mid- latitude, and Polar Regions. The GPM mission has several scientific objectives:  Advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive remote-sensing techniques;  Advance understanding of global water/energy cycle variability and fresh water availability;  Improve climate prediction by providing the foundation for better understanding of surface water fluxes, soil moisture storage, cloud/precipitation microphysics and latent heat release in Earth’s atmosphere;  Advance numerical weather prediction skills through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous rain rates; and  Improve high-impact natural hazard event (flood and drought, landslide, and hurricanes) and fresh water-resource prediction capabilities through better temporal sampling and wider spatial coverage of high-resolution precipitation measurements. ICESat-2: The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) mission will serve as an ICESat follow-on satellite to continue the assessment of polar ice changes. ICESat-2 will also measure vegetation canopy heights, allowing estimates of biomass and carbon in above ground vegetation in conjunction with related missions, and allow measurements of solid earth properties. ICESat-2 will continue to provide an important record of multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance and cloud property information. It will also provide topography and vegetation data around the globe in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The ICESat-2 mission is a Tier 1 mission recommended by the National Academies. It entered formulation in FY 2010. During FY 2012, the mission lost its opportunity for a co-manifested launch with the US Air Force, thus necessitating the procurement of a dedicated launch vehicle. Based on the cost and schedule analysis of the ICESat-2 design, NASA established a launch readiness date of May 2017 at mission confirmation. Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP): The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission will provide a capability for global mapping of soil moisture with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage. Future water resources are a critical societal impact of climate change, and scientific understanding of how such change may affect water supply and food production is crucial for policy makers. Uncertainty in current climate models result in disagreement on whether there will be more or less water regionally compared to today. SMAP data will help enable climate models to be brought into agreement on future trends in water resource availability. SMAP science objectives are to acquire space-based hydrosphere state measurements over a three-year period to: understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles; estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface; quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes; enhance weather and climate forecast skill; and develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capabilities. GRACE Follow-On: The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-on (GRACE-FO) mission will allow scientists to gain new insights into the dynamic processes in Earth's interior, into currents in the oceans, and into variations in the extent of ice coverage. Data from the mission, combined with other existing sources of data, will greatly improve scientific understanding of glaciers, hydrology. GRACE-FO will obtain the same extremely high-resolution global models of Earth's gravity field, including how it varies over time, as in the original GRACE mission (launched in 2002). The GRACE-FO data is vital to ensuring there is no gap in gravitational field measurements between the currently operating GRACE mission and the higher-capability
  6. 6. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 6 GRACE-II recommended in the decadal survey. GRACE-FO includes a partnership with Germany. GRACE-FO has entered into the detailed design phase formulation (Phase B) and a lifecycle cost range is now provided as part of the budget submission. OtherMissionsandDataAnalysis($XXXmillion) Earth Systematic Missions Other Missions and Data Analysis include operating missions and their science teams. Mission science teams define the scientific requirements for their respective missions and generate the algorithms used to process the data into useful data products. The research projects execute competitively selected investigations related to specific mission measurements. Deep Space Observatory (DSCOVR): The Deep Space Observatory mission is a multi-agency (NOAA, US Air Force, and NASA) mission planned for launch in 2014 with the primary goal of making unique space weather measurements from the Lagrange point L1. Lagrange point L1 is on the direct line between Earth and the Sun. NASA will complete the integration of the two Earth- observing instruments, the Earth Poly-Chromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) to the DSCOVR satellite. NASA will also develop and implement the necessary algorithms to enable the “Earth at noon” images from the satellite once on orbit. Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT): The Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission will improve our understanding of the world's oceans and terrestrial surface waters. The mission, through broad swath altimetry, will make high-resolution measurements of ocean circulation, its kinetic energy, and its dissipation. These measurements will improve ocean circulation models leading to better prediction of weather and climate. The mission will also revolutionize knowledge of the surface water inventory on the continents by precise measurement of water levels in millions of lakes and water bodies and the discharge of all major rivers. This will allow for deeper understanding of the natural water cycle and the informed control of this resource. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III – (SAGE III): SAGE III will provide global, long-term measurements of key components of Earth's atmosphere. The most important of these are the vertical distribution of aerosols and ozone from the upper troposphere through the stratosphere. In addition, SAGE III also provides unique measurements of temperature in the stratosphere and mesosphere and profiles of trace gases such as water vapor and nitrogen dioxide that play significant roles in atmospheric radative and chemical processes. These measurements are vital inputs to the global scientific community for improved understanding of climate, climate change and human-induced ozone trends. Land Imaging: The successful launch of the NASA-US Geological Study (USGS) Landsat Data Continuity Mission (soon to be Landsat-8) mission in February 2013 enables near-term continuation of the 40-year Landsat record and avoids an immediate gap in land imaging data. In FY14 NASA will initiate the definition of a sustained, space-based, global land imaging capability for the nation, ensuring continuity following LDCM. Near-term activities led by NASA, in cooperation with USGS, will focus on studies to define the scope, measurement approaches, cost, and risk of a viable long-term land imaging system that will achieve national objectives. Evaluations and design activities will include consideration of stand-alone new instruments and satellites, as well as potential international partnerships. It is expected that NASA will support the overall system design, flight system implementation, and launch of future missions, while USGS will continue to fund ground system development, post-launch operations, and data processing, archiving, and distribution.
  7. 7. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 7 Earth Science Program Management: The Earth Science Program Management budget supports the ESM Program Office at GSFC, the Earth System Science Pathfinder Program Office at LaRC and the Earth Science Flight Project Office at JPL. This budget also supports:  The GSFC conjunction assessment risk analysis function, which determines maneuvers required to avoid potential collisions between spacecraft and to avoid debris;  The technical and management support for the international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, which coordinates civil space-borne observations of Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit;  NASA’s efforts in support of the Big Data Research and Development Initiative, which will advance state-of-the-art core technologies needed to collect, store, preserve, manage, analyze, and share huge quantities of data; and  The Independent Program and Assessment Office, which supports various project reviews for flight projects in Earth Science. Ocean Surface Topography Science Team: Ocean Surface Topography Science Team uses scientific data to measure global sea surface height. The data is collected from the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) and Jason satellites. Precipitation Science Team: The Precipitation Science Team uses scientific data received from the TRMM satellite to study weather and climate processes. This science team also supports improvements to the TRMM retrieval algorithms and the development of algorithms for the GPM mission. Ocean Vector Winds Science Team: Ocean Vector Winds Science Team uses scientific data received from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite, which measures ocean surface wind vectors by sensing ripples caused by winds near the ocean’s surface. From these data, scientists can compute wind speed and direction thus acquiring hundreds of times more observations of surface wind velocity each day than is possible from ships or buoys. Land Cover Project Science Office (LCPSO): The Land Cover Project Science Office maintains over 40 years of calibration records for the Landsat-1 through Landsat-7 series of satellites. The office also provides community software tools to make it easier for users to work with this data. In collaboration with USGS, LCPSO supports improvements in the Landsat-7 long-term acquisition plan and provision of preprocessed data sets for land-cover change analysis. Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT): The QuikSCAT mission carries the SeaWinds instrument, originally designed to measure ocean surface wind speed and direction under nearly all-weather conditions. Since the antenna stopped rotating in 2009, several years past its design life, the sensor has become the standard for cross-calibration with other ocean wind scatterometers, enabling both the continuation of the high-quality ocean winds dataset and the operational forecasts. QuikSCAT launched in 1999 and is currently in extended operations. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the QuikSCAT mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will re-evaluate the QuikSCAT mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): TRMM measures precipitation, clouds, and lightning over tropical and subtropical regions and extends our knowledge about how the energy
  8. 8. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 8 associated with rainfall interacts with other aspects of the global climate. The TRMM sensor suite provides a three-dimensional map of storm structure, yielding information on rain intensity and distribution. TRMM launched in 1997. It is a joint mission with Japan. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the TRMM mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will reevaluate the TRMM mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM): OSTM, or Jason-2, measures sea surface height and enables scientists to assess climate variability and change, and water and energy cycles. This mission is a follow-on mission to Jason, which launched in 2008 and recently completed its prime operations phase. OSTM is a joint mission with NOAA, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the OSTM mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will re-evaluate the OSTM mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP): Suomi NPP launched in October 2011 to ensure critical continuity in the nation’s operational meteorological measurements from the afternoon orbit. The five instruments on Suomi NPP provide visible and infrared multi-spectral global imagery, atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, total ozone and stratospheric ozone profiles, and measurements of Earth’s radiation balance. In addition to a wide range of applications studies, the NASA science focus areas served by Suomi NPP include atmospheric composition, climate variability and change, carbon cycle, ecosystems, water and energy cycles, and weather. Terra: Terra is one of the Earth Observing System flagship missions. It enables a wide range of interdisciplinary studies of atmospheric composition, carbon cycle, ecosystems, biogeochemistry, climate variability and change, water and energy cycles, and weather. Terra launched in 1999 and is a joint mission with Japan and Canada. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the Terra mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will reevaluate the Terra mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Aqua: Aqua, another of the Earth Observing System flagship missions, also operates in the afternoon constellation of satellites, known as the A-Train. Aqua improves our understanding of Earth’s water cycle and the intricacies of the climate system by monitoring atmospheric, land, ocean, and ice variables. Aqua launched in 2002 and is a joint mission with Brazil and Japan. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the Aqua mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will re- evaluate the Aqua mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Aura: The Aura mission enables study of atmospheric composition, climate variability and weather by measuring atmospheric chemical composition, tropospheric/stratospheric exchange of energy and chemicals, chemistry-climate interactions, and air quality. Aura is also part of the A- Train. Aura launched in 2004. It is a joint mission with the Netherlands, Finland, and the United Kingdom. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the Aura mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in
  9. 9. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 9 2013, and will re-evaluate the Aura mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT): The ACRIMSAT was launched in December 1999 to monitor total solar irradiance, which contributes to assessments of climate variability. ACRIMSAT data will be correlated with possible global warming data, ice cap shrinkage data, and ozone layer depletion data. It is theorized that as much as 25 percent of Earth's total global warming may be solar in origin, due to small increases in the Sun's total energy output since the last century. By measuring incoming solar radiation and correlating the radiation with measurements of ocean and atmosphere currents and temperatures, as well as surface temperatures, climatologists will be able to improve their predictions of climate and global warming over the next century. Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE): The SORCE mission measures the total and spectral solar irradiance incident at the top of Earth’s atmosphere. SORCE will provide state- of-the-art measurements of incoming X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation in order to address long-term climate change, natural variability and enhanced climate prediction, and atmospheric ozone and Ultraviolet-B radiation. These measurements are critical to studies of the Sun, its effect on the Earth system, and its influence on humankind. SORCE launched in 2003 and is in extended operations. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the SORCE mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will re-evaluate the SORCE mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Jason: The Jason mission makes precise measurements of ocean height to support the study of ocean circulation and sea level rise. Jason enables oceanographers to monitor global ocean circulation, improve global climate predictions, and monitor events such as El Niño conditions and ocean eddies. Jason launched in 2001 and is a collaboration between NASA and the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES). The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the Jason mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will re-evaluate the Jason mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Earth Observing-1 (EO-1): The Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite is an advanced land-imaging mission with relevance to various areas of Earth Science, including carbon cycle, ecosystems, biogeochemistry, and Earth surface and interior. EO-1 launched in 2000 and is in extended operations. The 2011 Earth Science senior review endorsed the EO-1 mission for continued operations through 2013 and preliminarily through 2015. The next senior review will occur in 2013, and will re-evaluate the EO-1 mission extension in terms of scientific value, national interest, technical performance, and proposed cost in relation to NASA Earth Science strategic plans. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM): The Landsat Data Continuity Mission is the eighth in the Landsat series of satellites that have been continuously observing Earth's land surfaces by recording data since 1972. This data is a key tool for monitoring climate change and has led to the improvement of human and biodiversity health, energy and water management, urban planning, disaster recovery and agriculture monitoring. This results in incalculable benefits to the US and global economies.
  10. 10. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 10 EarthSystemSciencePathfinder($188.3million) The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program provides an innovative approach to Earth science research by providing frequent regular, competitively selected opportunities that accommodate new and emerging scientific priorities and measurement capabilities. This results in a series of relatively low-cost, small-sized investigations and missions. These missions are led by principal investigators whose scientific objectives support a variety of studies, including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, or solid Earth. ESSP projects include space missions, space-based remote sensing instruments for missions of opportunity, and extended duration airborne science missions. The ESSP program also supports the conduct of science research utilizing data from these missions. ESSP projects often involve partnerships with other US agencies and/or international organizations. This portfolio of missions and investigations provides opportunity for investment in innovative Earth science that enhances NASA’s capability for better understanding the current state of the Earth system. Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) ($XX million) — will monitor the concentration levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a critical component of Earth's atmosphere. Since the beginning of the industrial age, the concentration of CO2 has increased by about 38 percent. Scientific studies indicate that CO2 is one of several greenhouse gases that trap heat near Earth's surface. Most scientists have concluded that substantial increases in CO2 will generate an increase in the overall Earth's surface temperature, referred to as global warming. Historical records provide evidence of this trend. Additional detail can be found in the OCO-2 section of this document. Venture Class Missions ($XX million) — Frequent flight opportunities for high- quality Earth science investigations that are low cost and that can be developed and flown in five years or less. The investigations will be selected through open competitions to ensure broad community involvement and encourage innovative approaches. Successful investigations will enhance our capabili ty to understand better the current state of the Earth system and to enable continual improvement in the prediction of future changes. Solicitations will alternate between space- borne and airborne/suborbital opportunities. Other Missions and Data Analysis ($XX million) — ESSP Other Missions and Data Analysis includes operating missions and mission-specific research. These innovative missions will provide Earth science to enhance understanding of the current state of the Earth system and to enable continual improvement in the prediction of future changes. • The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3, or OCO-3, is a space instrument that will investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion. • The Aquarius spacecraft observes and models seasonal and year-to-year variations of sea- surface salinity and how these variations relate to changes in the water cycle and ocean circulation. • Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measures minute changes in Earth’s gravity field by measuring micron-scale variations in the separation between the two spacecraft that fly in formation 220 kilometers apart in low Earth orbit. • CloudSat measures cloud characteristics to increase understanding of the role of clouds in Earth’s radiation budget. • Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) provides data on the vertical structure of clouds, the geographic and vertical distribution of aerosols and
  11. 11. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 11 detects sub visible clouds in the upper troposphere. EarthScienceMulti-MissionOperations($XXXmillion) The Earth Science Multi-Mission Operations (MMO) program acquires, preserves, and distributes observational data from operating spacecraft to support Earth Science focus areas. This is accomplished primarily by the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), which has been in operations since 1994. EOSDIS acquires, processes, archives, and distributes Earth Science data and information products. These products are created from satellite data and arrive at the rate of more than four terabytes per day. NASA Earth Science information is archived at eight Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and four disciplinary data centers located across the United States. The DAACs specialize by topic area, and make their data available to researchers around the world. The MMO budget supports the science data Segment for Suomi NPP, and data archive and distribution for upcoming missions including OCO-2, SMAP, GPM and ICESAT-2. EOSDIS data centers also support Earth Science suborbital campaigns. A system plan for 2015 and beyond will take into account evolutionary needs for new missions being developed in response to the National Academies decadal survey. These investments will enable the system to keep technologically current, and incorporate new research data and services. The EOSDIS project provides science data to a wide community of users, including NASA, Federal agencies, international partners, academia, and the public. EOSDIS provides users with the services and tools they need in order to use NASA’s Earth science data in research and creation of models. EOSDIS archives and distributes data through standardized science data products, using algorithms and software developed by Earth Science investigators. The EOSDIS project also funds research opportunities related to EOSDIS. Current programs include Advanced Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) and Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs). ACCESS projects increase the interconnectedness and reuse of key information-technology software and services in use across the spectrum of Earth science investigations. ACCESS also supports the deployment of data and information systems and services that enable the freer movement of data and information. ACCESS researchers develop needed tools and services to aid in measurable improvements to Earth science data access and usability. Through the MEaSUREs activity, researchers investigate new types of sensors to provide three-dimensional profiles of Earth’s atmosphere and surface. Emphasis is placed on linking data from multiple satellites, and then facilitating the use of this data in the development of comprehensive Earth system models. EarthScienceTechnology($XXmillion) Advanced technology plays a major role in enabling Earth research and applications. The Earth Science Technology Program (ESTP) enables previously infeasible science investigations; improves existing measurement capabilities; and reduces the cost, risk, and/or development times for Earth science instruments. NASA has been increased funding for the Advanced Technology Initiatives project to support more robust technology space flight validation. This will help to reduce the cost and risk of new flight missions by providing more mature instruments. Program elements are: Instrument Incubator —This project develops instrument and measurement techniques at the system level, including laboratory breadboards and operational prototypes for airborne validation. Currently, 35 Instrument Incubator efforts are funded. For example, several instrument prototypes for measuring carbon dioxide are under development. Another effort is developing technologies that enable light measurement in across the spectrum from ultraviolet to visible to infrared. Instrument Incubator also supports the development of a unique type of Lidar that could one day be used to make 3-D wind measurements. Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) — This project develops end-to-end
  12. 12. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 12 information technologies that enable new Earth observation measurements and information products. The technologies help process, archive, access, visualize, communicate, and understand science data. Advanced Technology Initiatives — This project enables development of critical component and subsystem technologies for instruments and platforms, mostly in support of the Earth science decadal survey. Current awards focus on areas such as pace-qualified laser transmitters, passive optical technologies, and microwave and calibration technologies. Other awards support measurements of solar radiance, ozone, aerosols, and atmospheric gas columns for air quality and ocean color for coastal ecosystem health and climate emissions. AppliedSciences($XXmillion) The NASA Applied Sciences program leverages NASA Earth Science satellite measurements and new scientific knowledge to provide innovative and practical uses for public and private sector organizations. It also enables near-term uses of Earth science knowledge, discovers and demonstrates new applications, and facilitates adoption of applications by non-NASA stakeholder organizations. Applied Sciences projects improve decision-making activities to help the Nation better manage its resources, improve quality of life, and strengthen the economy. NASA develops Earth science applications in collaboration with end-users in public, private, and academic organizations.
  13. 13. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 13 Mission Summary Satellite(DateLaunched) Summary ACRIMSAT(1999) ACRIMSATisthelatestinaseries oflong-termsolar-monitoringmissions thatadvanceunderstandingofEarth’senergybalance. Aqua(2002) AquacarriessixinstrumentstoobservetheEarth’soceans,atmosphere,land,iceand snowcovers, andvegetation, to advance understanding of Earth’s climate and itsvariations. Aura(2004) Auracarriesinstrumentsthatmonitoratmospheric tracegasesandadvance understanding of thechemistry and dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere. CALIPSO (2006) CALIPSOcollectsdataontheeffectsofcloudsandaerosols (airborneparticles)onchanges intheEarth’sclimate. CloudSat (2006) CloudSatusesadvancedradarto“slice”throughclouds toseetheirvertical structure, providing a completely new observational capability from space. EarthObserving-1(NMP)(2000) NMP EO-1 is an advancedland-imaging mission that will demonstrate new instrumentsandspacecraftsystemsforfollow-onLandsatmissions. GOESI-M(1994) GOESI-MsatellitesaretheprimaryelementofU.S.weathermonitoringandforecast operationsandareakeycomponentofNOAA’sNationalWeatherServiceoperations. GRACE (2002) GRACEmapsvariationsintheEarth’sgravityfield.Ithastwoidenticalspacecrafts flying about 220 kilometers apart in a polar orbit 500 kilometers above the Earth. Jason-1 (2001) Jasonis anoceanography missionto monitorglobal oceancirculation, improveglobal climatepredictions,andmonitoreventssuchasElNinoconditions andoceaneddies. LAGEOS1&2(1976) LAGEOS,orLaserGeodynamicsSatellitessupportgeodynamicalstudiesoftheEarth.Among other things, LAGEOSprovide data ontectonic platemovements associatedwithcontinental drift. Landsat7(1999) Landsat 7 systematically provides well-calibrated, multispectral, moderate resolution, substantially cloud-free, Sun-lit digital images of the Earth’s continental andcoastalareaswithglobalcoverageonaseasonalbasis.Itcoversthe UnitedStatesevery16days.OperationsweretransferredtoUSGSinFall2000. NOAA-N (2005) NOAA-Nisthelatestpolar-orbitingsatellitedevelopedbyNASAfortheNationalOceanicand AtmosphericAdministration(NOAA).NOAA-NcollectsinformationaboutEarth’satmosphereand environment to improve weather prediction and climate research across the globe. OperationIceBridge(2009) OperationIceBridgetakesgeophysicalmeasurementsofchangesinpolaricesheets andseaiceduringagapinthespace-basedobservationsofICESatandICESatII. OSTM (2008) OSTMcarriestheinstrumentJason-2whichmeasuresseasurfaceheighttoan accuracy of < 3.3 cm every ten daysfor determining oceancirculation, climate change andsea-levelrise.Thisisafollow-ontotheTOPEX/PoseidonandJason-1satellites. QuikSCAT(1999) QuikSCAT records sea-surface wind speed and direction data under all weather and cloud conditions over Earth’s oceans. SeaStar (SeaWiFS) (1997) SeaStarcarries theSeaWiFSinstrument,whichisdesignedtomonitorthecoloroftheworld’soceans. SeaWinds (ADEOS II) (2002) TheSeaWindsscatterometerisaspecializedmicrowaveradarthatmeasures near-surface wind velocity (both speed and direction) under all weather and cloudconditionsoverEarth’soceans.ThisisatwinsistertotheQuikSCATsensor. SORCE (2003) SORCEprovidesmeasurementsofincomingx-ray,ultraviolet,visible,near-infrared, and total solar radiation in support of understanding long-term climate change, natural variability and enhanced climate prediction, and atmospheric ozone and UV-B radiation. Terra(1999) Terra(formerlyEOSAM-1)istheflagshipsatelliteofNASA’sEarthobservingsystems. Terraprovides global dataonthestateoftheatmosphere,land, and oceans,as well as their interactions with solar radiation and with one another. TRMM (1997) TRMMisajointmissionbetweenNASAandtheNationalSpaceDevelopmentAgency(NASDA)of Japan.TRMM is particularly devoted to determining rainfall in the tropics and subtropics of the Earth.
  14. 14. FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 14 FurtherReading •NASA budget documents — http://www.nasa.gov/news/budget/index.html •NASA Earth Science — http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/

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