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The Rise ofDemocracy600 B.C.-1790 <br />
Democracy<br />BeforeDemocracy the most common formofgovernmentwasanabsoluterulerlikekings, dictators, pharahons etc. <br ...
The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:Solon<br />The first man thatintroducedpoliticalreformsthatgavepoliticalrightsto the pe...
The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome: Cleisthenes<br />AfterSolonanother man continuedhis work. This man isknownasCleisthene...
Compare and ContrastAthens and Sparta: The RoleofGovernment on the LivesofIndividuals<br />
Compare and ContrastAthens and Sparta: Rights and PrivligesofCitizens and Non Citizens<br />
The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:Golden Age<br />Pericles led Athensfor 32 yearsfrom 461 B.C.to 429 B.C.ThisAgeofParicle...
The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:GreekPhilosophers<br />Greekphilosophersusedlogic and reasonto investigate the nature o...
Greeks set lastingstandards in philosophy and politics.<br />Theywere the first tothinkofthreebranchesofgovernment:<br />-...
The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome: Roman Republic<br />In 509 B.C. a groupofaritocratesoverthrew a king and formed a repu...
The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:Roman Law<br />Romanstriedto create a system oflawsthatcouldbeuniversallyapplied. Some ...
Allpersonswereconsideredinnoncentuntilprovenguilty
The burdenofproofrested the accuserratherthan the accused
Anylawthatseemedunreasonable or grosslyunfaircouldbe set aside. </li></ul>Writtenlawsgave the ideasof “a governmentoflawsn...
Religious impact on Democracy: Islam<br />Manyof the idealscrucialfor the shapingofdemocracycamefromChristianity, Judaism ...
The worthof the individual
The equalityof people beforeGod. </li></li></ul><li>Religious impact on Democracy: Judaism<br />Unlikelyothergroups at tho...
Religious impact on Democracy: Christianity<br />Christianityis the nameof the religionfoundedbyJesusthatderivedby the nam...
Religious impact on Democracy:Renaissance and Reformation<br />Durong the Middle Ages the mostpowerfulchurchhadbecome the ...
The Reformationwas a religiousreformmovementthatbegan in 16 thcenturythatoriginatedfrom the Renaissance questionings.<br /...
DemocraticDevelopments in England: MedivalReforms<br />A reallyimportanteventthatoccuredduring the MedivalTimewas the crea...
DemocraticDevelopments in England:The Magna Carta <br />When Henry diedhistwosons Richard and John becamekings. King John ...
The 12 Clauestatedthat the kingcannotdemandtaxeswithout the consentof the people. The Claue 39 statedthateachpersonhad the...
Advantages and DisadvantagesofSigning the Magna Cartafrom King Prospective<br />
DemocraticDevelopments in England: The Tudors<br />The struggletolimit the powerof the authority continuedover the centuri...
The Tudors Family Tree<br />Henry VIII<br />
DemocraticDevelopments in England: The PetitionOf Right <br />The first Stuart toreign on England was Edward I. <br />Thre...
The petitionof right isseenas a veryimportantlandmark in historybecauseit put toan end todifferentthings. Thishelped the g...
Imprisonongcitizensillegally
Housingtroops in citizens’ home
Militarygovernment in peacetime</li></ul>Edward I<br />PetitionofRights<br />
DemocraticDevelopments in England: The GloriousRevolution and the Bill ofRights<br />After Charles I, Charles II reigned a...
The kingisnotseenanymoreas a God and man understandthattheyhave the right tooverthrowanunjustking. </li></ul>England hadbe...
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Final Democracy Presentation

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Final Democracy Presentation

  1. 1. The Rise ofDemocracy600 B.C.-1790 <br />
  2. 2. Democracy<br />BeforeDemocracy the most common formofgovernmentwasanabsoluterulerlikekings, dictators, pharahons etc. <br />The idea that people can governthemselves, alsoknownasdemocracy, evolvedveryslowly.<br />Democracyduringcrisis<br />
  3. 3. The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:Solon<br />The first man thatintroducedpoliticalreformsthatgavepoliticalrightsto the people ofAthenswasSolon.<br />Hispoliticalreformsincluded a fairer code oflaws and the right of a citizen tobringchargesagainstunjustice. <br />Hiseconomicreformsstarted a overseastrade and demandedproductssuchasgrapes and olives. <br />Hesaidthathe “stoodwith a strong shieldbeforebothparties ( common people and nobles) and allowedneithertowinanunfairvictory”<br />Solonis a veryimportant man, heis the onethattook the first steptowarddemocracy. <br />
  4. 4. The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome: Cleisthenes<br />AfterSolonanother man continuedhis work. This man isknownasCleisthenes.<br />HeworkedtowardmakingAthens a full democracybyreorganizing the assembly. <br />Hecreated the CouncilofFiveHundred: thatproposedlaws and counseled the assembley. Thisis the first timecitizens are abletoparticipate in democracy. <br />BecauseofthisCleisthenesisregardedas the fatherofdemocracy in Athens. <br />
  5. 5. Compare and ContrastAthens and Sparta: The RoleofGovernment on the LivesofIndividuals<br />
  6. 6. Compare and ContrastAthens and Sparta: Rights and PrivligesofCitizens and Non Citizens<br />
  7. 7. The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:Golden Age<br />Pericles led Athensfor 32 yearsfrom 461 B.C.to 429 B.C.ThisAgeofPariclesbecameknownas the Golden Age. <br />DuringthisperiodPericlesincreased the numberofpaid public officials, and payedjurors. ThankstohimAthensevolvedinto a directdemocracy. <br />A directdemocracyis a formofgovernment in whichcitizensruledirectly and notthroughrepresentatives. <br />During the Golden Age the first steptowardtoday’sdemocracywasmadethankstoPericles.<br />Unfortunatelydemocracyended in Greeceaftter the Golden Agebecauseofaninvasionof King Philip and hisson Alexander the Great thatstartedruling on Greece. <br />Greecehasswitchedfromhaving a democarcyintohaving a monarchy, a governmentcontrolledbyonlyoneperson. <br />
  8. 8. The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:GreekPhilosophers<br />Greekphilosophersusedlogic and reasonto investigate the nature of the universe, human society and morality. <br />Theyusedreason and intelligence todiscoverpredicatbelpatternsthatthetcallednaturallaws. <br />Theywere the first oneto put in discussion the powerof nature and whythings are the way they are.<br />The first greatpholospherwasSocratesthatencouragedhisstudentstoexaminetheirbeliefs. HisgreaterpupilwasPlatothathad a vision of a perfectlygoverned society. <br />Hispupilthen, Aristotole, examined the nature of the world, humanbelief, though and knowledge. <br />
  9. 9. Greeks set lastingstandards in philosophy and politics.<br />Theywere the first tothinkofthreebranchesofgovernment:<br />- Legistlativebranchto pass out laws<br />- Executive branchtocarry out the laws<br /><ul><li>Judicialbranchtosettledisputesaboutlaws</li></ul>Thiswas a veryimportantevent. Itwas the first timethat a personofgroupof people ahveall the power. <br />Socrates<br />
  10. 10. The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome: Roman Republic<br />In 509 B.C. a groupofaritocratesoverthrew a king and formed a republic.<br />A republicis a formofgovernment in whichpowerrestswithcitizenswhogave the right toelect the leaderswhomakegovernmentdecisions. <br />The romansestablished a governmentwith separate branches:<br />Twoofficialscalledconsulescommanded the army<br /> The legislative branchdivided in two:<br />The Senate: was the aristocraticbranch, otcontrolledforeign and financialspolicies and advised the counsels<br />The twoassemblies: includedallclassesofcitizens . <br />
  11. 11. The LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome:Roman Law<br />Romanstriedto create a system oflawsthatcouldbeuniversallyapplied. Some of the mostimportantprinciplesof Roman law are:<br /><ul><li>Allcitizenshad the right top equal treatment under the law
  12. 12. Allpersonswereconsideredinnoncentuntilprovenguilty
  13. 13. The burdenofproofrested the accuserratherthan the accused
  14. 14. Anylawthatseemedunreasonable or grosslyunfaircouldbe set aside. </li></ul>Writtenlawsgave the ideasof “a governmentoflawsnotofmen” whereevenrulers and otherpowerful people couldbeheldaccountablefortheiractions. <br />Thiswas a greatstepfordemocracy, fromnow on all the lawshadtobeobyedbecausewritten down. <br />Without the Greece and Roman legacydemocracywouldoftakingmany more yearstobegintodevelop. <br />
  15. 15. Religious impact on Democracy: Islam<br />Manyof the idealscrucialfor the shapingofdemocracycamefromChristianity, Judaism and Islam.<br />Islam wasbased on the teachingsof the prophet Muhammad. Heemphasis the dignityofallhumanbeings and the brotherhoodofall people. <br />The following are the the Islam ideasthathelpeddemocracygrew:<br /><ul><li>The duty of the individual and the community to combat opression
  16. 16. The worthof the individual
  17. 17. The equalityof people beforeGod. </li></li></ul><li>Religious impact on Democracy: Judaism<br />Unlikelyothergroups at thosetimes,thatwerepolytheists, so believed in more thanoneGod, Hebrewsweremonotheists, believe in onlyoneGod.<br />The religionof the HebrewswascalledJudaism. <br />The Jews, like the romans, had a written code oflaw: The Ten Commandments.<br />Theselawsfocused on morality and ethics, and less on politicallaws. <br />The prophetswere the onethatexpandedthisteaching, they are saidtobe the messengersfromGod. <br />The Jewsbelievedthat the responsabilityofeverypersonisto oppose injustice and oppression and that the community should assist the unfortunates.<br />
  18. 18. Religious impact on Democracy: Christianity<br />Christianityis the nameof the religionfoundedbyJesusthatderivedby the name Christ. <br />One man, the apostle Paul establishedChristianityacross the Roman Empire. Hestressed the essentialequalityofallhumanbeings.<br />Theseideas spread in twoways:<br />-INDIRECT: Startedwhen the Jewswereexiledfromtheirhomeland in 70 A.D. Theyfledtodifferent part of the world bringingtheirbeliefswiththem. <br />- DIRECT: the Roman Empire spread Judeo- Christian ideas. By 380 ithadbecome the officialreligionof the Empire. <br />
  19. 19. Religious impact on Democracy:Renaissance and Reformation<br />Durong the Middle Ages the mostpowerfulchurchhadbecome the Roman Catholic Church, the Church thatdevelopedfrom Roman Christianity. <br />In 1300s a cultural movementarouse in italy, the Renaissance, from the french word rebirth. <br />Thismovementwasmarkedby the rediscoveries and intrests in the Greek and Latin manuscripts. <br />Duringthisperiod people valuesweredirectedtowardhumankind and culture. Poeplebegantobe more criticaltoward the Church.<br />The Renaissance emphasized the individualism: the believeof the importanceofanindividual and self-evidence and humanism, trytobe the best humanyou can be. <br />
  20. 20. The Reformationwas a religiousreformmovementthatbegan in 16 thcenturythatoriginatedfrom the Renaissance questionings.<br />Thosewho wanted toreform the churchwerecalledprotestantsthatstressed the importanceof a directrelationshipwithGod.<br />Itstartedwith Martin Luther in 1521 in Germanywhenhesaidthat people couldbesavedonlythroughfaith in God. <br />At the end thismovementbrought a division in religion: Christanity and Protestantism<br />A factorthathelped the Reformationhasbeen the printing press. The printing press wasinvented in 1455 by Johannes Gutenberg ofGermany. Thanksto the printing press, millionsofcopiesof the biblecouldbemade and people werenotobbligatedto go to Church.<br />Bychallanging the high authorities the reformationcontributed on the growthofdemocracy. The idea of the individual ,thatwasrediscoveredfrom the Greekmanuscriptsduring the Renaissance, will play a significant part in the democraticrevolutions. <br />
  21. 21. DemocraticDevelopments in England: MedivalReforms<br />A reallyimportanteventthatoccuredduring the MedivalTimewas the creationof the first jurial trial createdby King Henry II thatruledfrom 1154-1189.<br />This court wouldhave a judgetoreview the crime and ask 12 people, usually people closeto the of the personaccused, toanswerquestions. These people werecalledjury. <br />Beforethis court people thatwereaccusedwouldhavetosurvive a duel or some typeofphysicallypainful and dangerousordealtobe free. <br />Thesetrialswere:<br />- Trial by water: dunkingstoolssubmerged in water meansinnocent, ifitfloats the personisguilty. <br /><ul><li>Trial of endurance: Heat a pieceofiron and the personwouldhavetocarryitfor a short distanceoftime. The handsbundeged and thenwaitone week. Ifithealed the personisinnocent, ifitsinfectedtehpersonisguilty.</li></ul>- Trial byfire: itworkslike the trial offirebutinsteadof a heatedpieceofviron the personneededtowalkwithfire on theirfeet. Graduallyitbecameunified under onelaw system called common law. Thislawreflectedcustoms and principlesestablishedovertime. <br />Thislawbecameeveryimportant and itbecame the basisof the legal system in many english speakingcountriesincluded the UnitedStates. <br />
  22. 22. DemocraticDevelopments in England:The Magna Carta <br />When Henry diedhistwosons Richard and John becamekings. King John fought a costly war against France and raisedtaxes. <br />This led to a conflictbetween the nobles and the King . In 1215 The noblesrebelled and presentedto King john a writtenform, the Magna Carta. Itis a contractbetween the nobles and the kingthatgives the nobles more rights. <br />The Magna Carta has 63 clauses, twothatestablishedlegalrightsto the individuals: the claue 12 and the claue 39. <br />
  23. 23. The 12 Clauestatedthat the kingcannotdemandtaxeswithout the consentof the people. The Claue 39 statedthateachpersonhad the right tojury trial and protectionoflaws. <br />Therewasalsoanotherveryimportantlawcalled the due processoflaw. Thislawstatedthat the kingcouldnotpunishhis people onlybecausehe wanted to. <br />After the Magna Carta a Parlimentwascreatedby John’sgrandson Edward I thatgatheredall the lords and leadingcitizensof the towns and created a ModalParlimentthatvoted on taxes and helpedhimestablishlaws. <br />Thiswasoneof the mostimportantturningpointfor the historyofdemnocracy. Itis the first timewesee a contractbetween a king and the people thatgives more right to the people ratherthanto the king. <br />
  24. 24. Advantages and DisadvantagesofSigning the Magna Cartafrom King Prospective<br />
  25. 25. DemocraticDevelopments in England: The Tudors<br />The struggletolimit the powerof the authority continuedover the centuries.<br />Kingsstartedclaimingthattheyhad the right not just torulebuttohave the absolutepower. TheyclaimedthattheirpowerwascomingfromGod . Thiswasknownas the theoryof the divine right. Thereforetochallange a kingyouwastochallangealsoGod. <br />Elisabeth I was the last of the Tudors, and whenshedied in 1603 shewassucceededbut the Stuarts, the relativesfrom Scotland. <br />
  26. 26. The Tudors Family Tree<br />Henry VIII<br />
  27. 27. DemocraticDevelopments in England: The PetitionOf Right <br />The first Stuart toreign on England was Edward I. <br />Three factorscaused a conflictduring Edward’sreign:<br /><ul><li> First the Puritains, or religiousreformersweretryingtochange the Church. </li></ul>- Second the King used the Star Chamber, a royal court oflaw, and ignored the Parliment, so hewasaccusedoftyranny. <br />The thirdwas the issueofmoney. Elisabeth hadleft a big depth and Edward wanted more moneytokeepaside in case of war and so raisedtaxes.<br />The problemscontinuedwith Edward’sson Charles thatbecameking in 1625. Heaskedmoneyto the Parliment and the Parlimenttriedtolower the royalpower. <br />Charles wasthenobbligatedtoaccept The Petitionof Right. <br />
  28. 28. The petitionof right isseenas a veryimportantlandmark in historybecauseit put toan end todifferentthings. Thishelped the growthofdemocracy: <br /><ul><li>TaxingwithoutParlimentconsent
  29. 29. Imprisonongcitizensillegally
  30. 30. Housingtroops in citizens’ home
  31. 31. Militarygovernment in peacetime</li></ul>Edward I<br />PetitionofRights<br />
  32. 32. DemocraticDevelopments in England: The GloriousRevolution and the Bill ofRights<br />After Charles I, Charles II reigned and afterhim James II, hisyoungerbrotherthathad a daughter and a son. Hisdaughter Mary was the oldest and the Parlimentaskedfor Mary tosucceed, alsoifusually the sonis the onethattakes on the throne. <br />The kingaccepted. Mary and hishusband William becameco-rulersof England in 1689. Thisiseventisknownas the GloriousRevolution, because no bloodhasbeenspilled.<br />The mainachievementsot the GloriousRevolution are:<br /><ul><li>English citizenswereguaranteed the ruleoflaw, parlimentarygovernment, individualliberties, and constitutuionalmonarchy.
  33. 33. The kingisnotseenanymoreas a God and man understandthattheyhave the right tooverthrowanunjustking. </li></ul>England hadbecome a constitutionalmonarchy, where the powerof the ruler are restrictedby the constitution and lawsof the country. <br />
  34. 34. DemocraticDevelopments in England: The GloriousRevolution and the Bill ofRights<br />Thatsameyear Mary and William signed the Bill ofRights, or summaryof the rights and libertiesconsideredessentialfor the people. <br />Three waysthat the Bill ofRightslimitedthpowerof the english monarchwas:<br /><ul><li>Forbiddentosuspand
  35. 35. can’ttaxwithoutconsentof the Parliment
  36. 36. can’traise the armyduringpeacetimewithoutconsentof the Parliment</li></ul>Thistwoeventshad a great impact and completed the processthatbeganwith the Magna Carta. Thisalso set anexample fot the future revolutions, in particularto the American Revolution. <br />
  37. 37. Enlightenment: <br />The Enlightenmentisanintellectualmovementthatdevelopedduring the 17 th and 18 thcenturies.<br />Therewerefiveimportantphilosophersduringthisperiod:<br /><ul><li>Hobbes, gaveview on human nature abdbelievedthat people are by nature selfish and ambitious.
  38. 38. Lockegave a positive viewofhumanityandsaidthat people hadby nature right to life, liberty and property.
  39. 39. Voltaire proposedtolerancefreedomofrelifion and free speech
  40. 40. Rousseau called the social contract, an agreement among free individualsto create a governmentthatwouldrespondto the people’swill.
  41. 41. Montesquieuconcludedthat liberty could best besafeguardedbyseparationofpowersbydividing the governmnetintothree separate branches ( legislative, executive, and court)</li></ul>Thisbecame the ideasofEnlightenmnet. Theseinspired the American and FrenchRevolution. <br />
  42. 42. Enlightenment: American Revolution<br />After the French and Indian War the King higheredtaxesfor the colonists. <br />The colonistsprotestedsaying “ no taxationwithoutrepresentation” , the colonistsdidin’thave a representative in the Parliment.<br />The American Revolutionisevent in which the colonists’ fightforIndependencefrom Great Britain.<br />The American issued the DeclarationofIndependece on July4 1776, and gainedtheirfinalindependencefiveyearslater in 1781. <br />The ideasof the Enlightenment , espesciallyLocke’s, greatlyinfluenced the CommiteeofFive. <br />The CommiteeofFivewas the group in chargetowrite the DeclerationofIndependence. <br />
  43. 43. In 1787 a groupof people met in Philadelphia, and wrote the Constitutionof the UnitedStates. <br />Whilecreatingthisdocument the leadersdebated on anissue: IsItpossibleytohave a governmentthatis strong and stablewithouttyranny? The answerwas yes. <br />In ordertohavethistypeofgovernment the people agreedtohave a representativegovernmnet: one in whichcitizenselectrepresentativestomakelaws and policiesforthem. Thiswasan idea inspiredbyRosseau. <br />Thentheycreated a federal system, where the powersof the government are divided in: federal ,or central, government and the states, or local, government. Thisfederal system wasbased on the writingsofMontesquieu. <br />Bycreatingthesetwo system therewasbalanced and none of the twohadtomuchpower. <br />Signingof the DeclerationofIndependence<br />
  44. 44. Enlightenment: The FrenchRevolution<br />The fighttowindemocraticfreedomsfor the people in France isknownas the FrenchRevolution.<br />The fighteruptswhen the peasentsattck the Bastille, the mosthatedprisonthatsymbolizedautocarticrule, in 1789. <br />After the revolution France adopted the Declarationof the Rightsof Man and ofCitizens, thisdocumentwasstronglyinfluencedby the Enlightenmentideas and the American DeclerationofIndependence. <br />ThisDeclerationguaranteeded the rightsof liberty, equality and fraternity. <br />The New Assemblyunfourtunatlydidn’tsucceed and aftergoingto war France wasovertakenby a new leader: Napoleon Bonaparte and a dictorshipstarted. Itwasnotuntil the mid 1800s thatdemocracydeveloped in France. <br />The FrenchRevolutionillustrates the failingofdemocracy. Itdemostratesthatitisnotenoughtohave a representativegovernment. <br />Fordemocracyto work a society musthave a rulelaw, the acceptenceofmajoritydecisionsby the minority and protectionforcivilrights and liberties. <br />Attackof the Bastille, 1789<br />
  45. 45. Enlightenment: StruggleforDemocracyContinues<br />Today people preferdemocracyas a formofgovernment. <br />The mostrecentimportantinternationaldemocraticassemblycreatedis the UnitedNations. <br />Itwascreatedafter The Second World War in 1945. Its goal wasto work for world peace. <br />Oneof the branchesof the UnitedNationscalled the GeneralAssmbleyissimilartodemocracy. Eachnationhas a representative and theydiscusstheirproblems and trytofind a peacefulsolution. <br />Oneof the mostimportantdocumentsis the Universal DeclerationofRights. Thisdocumentdrawsdemocraticideas and sets a worldwide standard foreconimic, social and politicalrights. The declerationwascreatedtohaveaninternational code ofconduct. <br />Democracyis a verydifficultthingtoachieve and can beeasilybelost , itisan idea whostrenghtcomesfrom the leaders and mostimportantfrom the people.<br />
  46. 46. PrimarySources<br />Modern World History: PatternsofInteraction, McDougalLittell, 2001<br />
  47. 47. Conclusion<br />The mostimportant stage for the creationofmoderndemocracyhasbeen the LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome. The first steps are always the mostimportant and theyweremadeby the Greece and Romans. Withoutthesetwolegacydemocracywouldoftakenmany more yearstobediscovered . All the otherstages are based on the AncientGreece and Roman legacy. The twomostimportant people fordemocracyhavelivedduringAncientGreece, and theywereSolon and Cleithenes. Theywere the first tobringdemocracyinto the world. Itwas the first timethatpoliticalreformsweremadefor the citizens and gavethemrightstowardunjustice. People startedvoting and citizensstartedtobeallequal. In AncientGreeceanimportant leader calledPericlesstartedpayingjurors and public office. ThankstohimGreecedeveloped in a directdemocracy. Duringthatperiodphilosophersquestioned a lotofimportantthingsthathelped people understand the world in a different way. The philosophersencouragepoepletoexaminetheirbeliefs and people startedthinkingaboutbeingabletogovernthemselves so having a democracy. Theyalsowere the first tothinkabout the threebranches in the government (legistlative,branch, executive branch, and jusicalbranch). The romansbelievedthatlawsshoudbebased on principles, just like the Grecce. Theywere the first tohave a written code oflawsthatcouldbeuniversallyapplied. Theywerealso the first tohave a republic. Thankstothiswritten code al people, aslorulerscouldbeheldaccountablefortheiractions. Forallthesereasons ,the first stage, LegacyofAncientGreece and Rome, is the mostimportant stage for the creationofmoderndemocracy.<br />

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