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  1. 1. United Nations Cultural Organization MODEL CURRICULA FOR JOURNALISM EDUCATION A COMPENDIUM OF NEW SYLLABI UNESCO Series on Journalism Education
  2. 2. MODEL CURRICULA FOR JOURNALISM EDUCATION A COMPENDIUM OF NEW SYLLABI UNESCO Series on Journalism Education Edited and introduced by Fackson Banda
  3. 3. Published in 2013 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France © UNESCO 2013 All rights reserved ISBN 978-92-3-001186-4 The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. Cover photo: ©Shutterstock/Jozsef Bagota p.30: ©Shutterstock/Cienpies Design p.42: ©Shutterstock/Sergey Nivens p.54: ©Shutterstock/donatas1205 p.66: ©Shutterstock/REDAV p.90: ©Shutterstock/STILLFX p.104: ©Shutterstock/Elnur p.128: ©Shutterstock/JIANHAO GUAN p.140: ©Shutterstock/Kamira p.156: ©Shutterstock/Sam DCruz p.194: ©Shutterstock/Blazej Lyjak Graphic design: UNESCO Cover design: UNESCO Typeset: UNESCO Printed by UNESCO Printed in France
  4. 4. 3 CONTENTS LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 4 I. FOREWORD 5 II. INTRODUCTION 7 The global academic culture of journalism education 10 The contextualized applications of the UNESCO Model Curricula and their implications for the future 14 In search of specialized journalistic literacies 19 III. USER’S GUIDE AND OVERVIEW OF SYLLABI 23 References to Parts I to III 27 IV. SYLLABI 29 Media sustainability 31 Data journalism 43 Intercultural journalism 55 Community radio journalism 67 Global journalism 91 Science journalism, incorporating bioethics 105 Gender and journalism 129 Humanitarian journalism 141 Reporting human trafficking 157 Safety and journalism 195 V. APPENDICES 209 1. Useful resources in journalism education 210 2. Background information on the Bureau of the Dutch National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Violence against Children 211 VI. CONTRIBUTORS 213 List of syllabus authors 214 List of peer reviewers 215 List of UNESCO staff 217
  5. 5. 4 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AEJMC Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication AJIC Asian Institute of Journalism and Mass Communication AMI African Media Initiative AMIC Asian Media Information and Communication Centre ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations BNRM Bureau of the Dutch National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Violence against Children CNPq Brazilian National Council for Research and Scientific Development COP Conferences of the Parties CPJ Committee to Protect Journalists ECREA European Communication Research and Education Association EJC European Journalism Centre ESRC Economic and Social Research Council in the United Kingdom GMMP Global Media Monitoring Project ILO International Labour Organization IOM International Organization for Migration IPDC (UNESCO) International Programme for Development of Communication IWMF International Women’s Media Foundation JIT joint investigation team LGU local council owned/funded MDGs Millennium Development Goals MMR mumps–measles–rubella MoHE Ministry of Higher Education NGO non-governmental organization NWICO New World Information and Communication Order OSCE Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe PBL project-based learning PUS public understanding of science SADC Southern African Development Community UNODC United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime WAN/IFRA World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers WFSJ World Federation of Science Journalists WJEC World Journalism Education Council WJEC-1 First World Journalism Education Congress WJEC-2 Second World Journalism Education Congress WJEC-3 Third World Journalism Education Congress
  6. 6. 5 I. FOREWORD This publication represents an important instalment in our UNESCO Series on Journalism Education. It comes at a time when journalism education globally is undergoing significant changes, especially following the ongoing technological evolution as well as the global financial and economic crisis that surfaced in 2008. Since then, media institutions, particularly in developed countries, have come under pressure to adjust to the new realities. More importantly, however, this new global reality poses important challenges for journalism education and how it can take such challenges on board, particularly in a strategic rethink of journalism curricula. In many ways, this present publication is UNESCO’s response to these challenges, which, if not seriously taken up, will have dire consequences for media practice and journalism education in the developing world. Furthermore, this publication is an important step in looking again at the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education developed in 2007. The piloting of the Model Curricula by some seventy journalism training institutions in over sixty countries has thrown up even fresher – and perhaps more significant challenges – for journalism education to adapt to specialized knowledge and skills acquisition. There is a demand for new and often specialized literacies reflecting a fast-changing social, political, economic and technological order. As a result, contemporary newsrooms and classrooms must not only learn to navigate the treacherous waters of financial and economic sustainability but also – as part of that sustainability agenda – take on board the particular literacies of science communication, data mining, human trafficking, gender, etc. These issues are, among others, the subject matter of the syllabi presented here. Finally, it is important to acknowledge the fact that each of the syllabi that make up this compendium represents UNESCO’s outreach to build issue- based strategic partnerships with key journalism education experts and media development institutions globally. The authors agreed to prepare the syllabi at no cost to UNESCO, knowing that their intellectual and scholarly efforts represented
  7. 7. 6 a major contribution towards redefining the global vision for journalism education. For this, UNESCO will remain indebted to them. Janis Karklins Assistant director-general for communication and information, UNESCO
  8. 8. 7 II. INTRODUCTION Fackson Banda This compendium of new syllabi represents UNESCO’s strategic response to the question: How can journalism education continue to renew itself? This is the question that the Third World Journalism Education Congress (WJEC-3) posed to its delegates. There are two aspects to this question. The first recognizes the historical trajectories through which journalism education has evolved. The second is a call to renegotiate the future trajectory of journalism education. These questions are framed in an increasingly complex social, political and economic context. In the aftermath of the 2008 global economic and financial crisis, journalism faced its most trying moment, especially in the developed world. And so did journalism education, posing challenges for the future. As Howard Finberg noted during a speech to the European Journalism Centre (EJC), ‘We need to innovate inside the classroom with new forms of teaching. We need to innovate to make getting a journalism education easier’ (2012). Partly in response to this call for innovation, Dane S. Claussen points to an important study by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, which concluded that US journalism needed, among other things, analytical thinkers with a strong ethical sense, as well as journalism skills, specialized expertise, including insights into medicine, economics and other complex topics, and first-hand knowledge of societies, languages, religions and cultures (Claussen, 2012). Such a role of journalism, incorporating different strands of knowledge, is clearly recognized globally, beyond the United States of America (USA). For example, as Berger and Foote (2013) note, genuine university training in journalism is not only a practice within the rubric of academic freedom, it should (and often does) operate to promote freedom of expression rights and access to journalistic skills and platforms to gain such rights. Another journalism education-related freedom is the freedom to use the learning provided. Journalism skill sets are easily transferable to other fields. In some cases, students study journalism with no intention to enter the profession. Instead they learn high-level information and
  9. 9. 8 communication skills to further their liberal arts studies or to pursue a related profession. Another trend worth mentioning is the shift towards greater understanding of the conditions under which journalism education can be effective, taking into account the fact that journalism education is indeed on the increase, despite the challenges that it is facing. As Berger and Foote observe, the explosive growth of global journalism education has also attracted private sector involvement. In many regions worldwide, and especially in developing countries, commercial entities have entered the fray, although this emerging type of journalism education has sometimes been susceptible to criticism based on quality issues and the possible exploitation of students. In the 1980s, the Asian media boom and its corresponding increase in private media created increased demand for formal journalism education in many countries in the region. In the 1990s, there was considerable journalism education growth in the Middle East and Africa. And by 2000, university-level journalism education courses were nearly universal. Indeed, in China and India, journalism education programmes continue to proliferate at a mind-numbing rate. Citing a census of journalism education started in 2007 by the World Journalism Education Council (WJEC), Berger and Foote (2013) report that nearly 3,000 global programmes were registered on the census database, with the bulk of these programmes spread fairly evenly between North America, Europe and Asia. This growth is in a response to a bullish educational market. As a Knight Foundation study report concludes: Fully 85 percent of the journalists surveyed say they would benefit greatly or very greatly from more training and staff development. International journalists, mostly Latin American distance-learning alumni of the Knight Center at the University of Texas, were more likely to say they would benefit from additional training. Nine in 10 said they would benefit greatly or very greatly. Even among U.S. journalists, the rate of great and very great benefit was 75 percent. This shows growing demand from the 2002 Newsroom Training survey, when only 54 percent of journalists said they would benefit a lot from training.
  10. 10. 9 Overall, only 3 percent of the journalists surveyed see little or no benefit in training, or say they just don’t know. There is almost total agreement – 97 percent of the respondents – that training would benefit them in some way, with half saying they would receive very great benefit. (McLellanand Newton, 2012) With such mushrooming journalism programmes globally, the need for quality cannot be overemphasized. As Berger and Foote argue, the ultimate goal of journalism education, regardless of its provider, is to empower not only the student but journalism itself. In other words, the quality of journalism education is supposed to have an impact on the quality of citizenship and society. Journalism education educates not only practitioners, but the public as well. This goal suggests a significant role for journalism educators: to serve media industry interests as a means toward the greater goal of serving the public, and to also directly promote news literacy (Berger and Foote, 2013). To this end, through UNESCO, 195 Member States set and promote press freedom standards appropriate to free, independent and pluralistic media – online and offline. A key part of that mandate consists in building the capacities of such media institutions, especially in a fast-changing technological context with new challenges to freedom of expression. The development of the UNESCO Model Curricula – which provide frameworks for these specialized syllabi – is thus an attempt by UNESCO to set standards based on good practice internationally, as a resource on which stakeholders around the world can draw in order to improve the quality of journalism education in their countries. The effort derives from a conviction that professional journalistic standards are essential to a media system that can foster democracy, dialogue and development. By improving the quality of journalism education, UNESCO believes that both journalism educators and students stand a better chance of influencing journalistic production at the news-institutional level. In turn, newsrooms that are staffed by well-trained and critically minded journalists are likely to positively influence the processes of democracy and development in their societies, especially in the developing world. A quality journalism education is a guarantor not only of democracy and development, but also of press freedom itself.
  11. 11. 10 Against this background, then, this compendium brings together ten specialized syllabi, some of which drew their inspiration from two separate intellectual engagements with the UNESCO Model Curriculum: ▶ a preconference workshop on 8 August 2012 in Chicago at the Convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) under the theme ‘Teaching Journalism in Developing Countries and Emerging Democracies: The Case of UNESCO’s Model Curricula’; ▶ An UNESCO special panel on ‘Universalizing journalism education? An interrogation of UNESCO’s Evolving contribution to the field’ held on 27 September in Istanbul alongside the Fourth European Communication Conference of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA). The Model Curricula were launched in 2007 at the first World Journalism Education Congress (WJEC-1) convened in Singapore. By the end of 2012, they had been adapted by at least seventy journalism schools in sixty countries in diverse linguistic, social and cultural contexts. Since 2007, UNESCO has attempted to evaluate the relevance impact of the Model Curricula on the quality of journalism education globally, taking into account the particular national and institutional contexts of their application. The two academic panels referred to above (in Chicago and Istanbul) are good examples of the forms such an evaluative exercise has taken. Taken together, UNESCO’s evaluative attempts offer a threefold analytical framework for envisioning journalism education in the future. Key ingredients in this framework are (i) the academic culture of journalism education globally; (ii) the contextual applications of the Model Curricula and their implications for the future; and (iii) a search for new specialized syllabi to incorporate emerging issues. The global academic culture of journalism education An important issue here is the place of journalism in the broad academic culture of the university, something that pertains to its theoretical and research credentials, and also how these relate to its practical dimension and to the place of such hands-on activity within the academy. During the first 2005 consultative
  12. 12. 11 meeting in Paris involving experts in journalism education, it was agreed that in the best of circumstances, a journalism curriculum – not to mention its faculty and students – should nest comfortably within the intellectual and academic culture of the university and be invigorated by it. So the initial discussion of the curricula included a thorough review of the frustrations as well as the successes of journalism educators, and it included much talk about ‘journalism’ as opposed to ‘media’ or ‘mass communication’, as the core subject of a proposed programme (see Banda and Schmitz Weiss, 2013). This discussion was happening at a time when some countries were undergoing their own reforms in the way they approached journalism education. For example, in October 2005 the Brazilian National Council for Research and Scientific Development (CNPq), a national academic funding agency, updated the key areas of scientific knowledge. As Sonia Virginia Moreira argued, this educational policy reform resulted in the confirmation of journalism as a field of research in communication, to emphasize the theoretical aspect of journalism. For its part, communication was already treated as an integral subject area of applied social science, with emphasis on the practical aspects directly linked to industry. After several debates involving professors and researchers, representatives of the main scientific societies signed a final document which defined six sub-areas of knowledge in communication: cyber culture and communication technology; audiovisual communication; movies, radio and television; organizational communication, public relations and advertising; mediation and communicational interfaces; and theories of communication. Nine journalism areas of expertise were included on the list – Brazilian, communitarian, scientific, digital, business, specialized, online, segmented and rural – in addition to three topics related to the field: history of editing, the press and journalism (Banda and Schmitz Weiss, 2013). Of course, such a policy reform had its own problems, including the fact that journalism courses were henceforth required to be taught by degree or diploma holders and not what Moreira calls ‘journalist-professors’. This requirement meant that many of the professionals from industry were prevented from continuing to teach in the universities. Thankfully, there was also a group of young professionals in the 1980s who had migrated from the newsroom to the classroom. Many of them became involved with journalism and/or communication research, and were thus better able to transition to teaching theoretical aspects of
  13. 13. 12 journalistic practice in addition to the practice itself, and to integrate the two sides of the coin as well. Still, the main paradox faced by Brazilian journalism educators, as a result of the policy reform above, was the requirement for training courses to be better equipped in order to reproduce the professional environment in so-called ‘laboratories’, as the academy had lost its link to the newsroom, previously represented informally in the courses by the journalist-professor model of instruction. Today, the bridge between media organizations and the academic world is yet the subject of a complex reconstruction – a topic that the UNESCO Model Curricula had partly addressed through emphasis on student internships. This Brazilian case illustrates a global trend in efforts to make journalism a legitimate and respected field of study within the university context. This is clearly demonstrated by the Principles of Journalism Education declared at WJEC-1 in Singapore in 2007. Among the eleven principles is the following attestation: We are unanimous that journalism education provides the foundation as theory, research, and training for the effective and responsible practice of journalism. Journalism education is defined in different ways. At the core is the study of all types of journalism. Journalism should serve the public in many important ways, but it can only do so if its practitioners have mastered an increasingly complex body of knowledge and specialized skills. Above all, to be a responsible journalist must involve an informed ethical commitment to the public. This commitment must include an understanding of and deep appreciation for the role that journalism plays in the formation, enhancement and perpetuation of an informed society. (WJEC, 2008) The Principles are unequivocal in stressing that ‘at the heart of journalism education is a balance of conceptual, philosophical and skills-based content. While it is also interdisciplinary, journalism education is an academic field in its own right with a distinctive body of knowledge and theory.’ The Principles further reiterate that ‘journalism is a field appropriate for university study from undergraduate to postgraduate levels. Journalism programmes offer a full range
  14. 14. 13 of academic degrees including bachelors, masters and Doctor of Philosophy degrees as well as certificate, specialized and mid-career training.’ In this regard, it is worth noting what was concluded in a report of a discussion on the ‘Ultimate Journalism Education’ convened at WJEC-2 in South Africa in 2010: ‘Journalism, on its own, does not constitute enough of substance to make up a full three or four-year degree program. Journalism education needs to draw on, interact with and contribute to other forms of knowledge in the university’ (Nordenstreng, 2010). The Principles also highlight that ‘journalism educators should be a blend of academics and practitioners; it is important that educators have experience working as journalists’. The above observations were a point of further discussion in Istanbul. In her presentation, Dr Incilay Cangöz, a Turkish associate professor at Anadolu University, noted that any journalism curricula needed to reflect the constantly changing demands of the media industry while focusing on larger political and social issues. On the other hand, her Spanish counterpart, Professor Pilar Carrera of Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, challenged the notion of an ‘interdisciplinary’ journalism education, arguing that journalism education needed to be recognized by academia as a ‘strong, focused and autonomous journalistic field’ (Banda and Schmitz Weiss, 2013). These views, together with the main lines of the UNESCO Model Curricula, constitute a synthesis of the substantive content of journalism education according to what could be called the ‘WJEC philosophy’ (Nordenstreng, 2010). Arguably, such a philosophy regards journalism as a social practice whose knowledge and skills base is interdisciplinary in nature. As such, it can easily be located in an academic context, where it can draw upon other disciplines while preserving its professional autonomy. Here, a vital distinction to make is that the presenters were concerned about the practice of journalism in institutional settings, as opposed to non-institutional or non-professional settings, such as the blogosphere (as with citizen journalism). Such a ‘professionalized’ perspective of journalism (highlighting for instance issues of public interest, accuracy and verifiability) continues to be an important consideration in discussions of the Model Curricula. This is because journalism education at institutions of higher learning is still seen and valued as a process by which students become critically aware of the professional ethics that inform the practice of journalism, including
  15. 15. 14 the institutional constraints that are placed on such journalistic practices. At the same time, such professional standards are relevant to assessing whether particular extra-institutional mass communication counts as journalism. Concomitantly, they are relevant to journalism education for non-professionals, such as courses serving volunteers in community radio settings, and participants engaging in user-generated content on websites. The contextualized applications of the UNESCObModel Curricula and their implications for thebfuture One of the key challenges facing UNESCO in serving an international constituency is in developing curriculum resources that are representative of a diversity of national and regional experiences, and which afford adaptation in a range of circumstances. This challenge is amplified by the need to also respond to the global unevenness as regards wider changes in both media and education. The Istanbul panel in particular deliberated on these wider issues of the ‘universalizing’ project in journalism education by critically scrutinizing two of UNESCO’s draft new syllabi – on data journalism and media sustainability. Both syllabi are contained in this present compendium. In this vein, some scholars have legitimately and rightly questioned whether the UNESCO model curriculum design can be ‘universal’. For example, Dr Kim Sawchuk of Concordia University, speaking during the Istanbul UNESCO special panel, pointed out that she was ‘suspicious of the term and notion of the universal’, calling for a pedagogical ‘negotiation’ in journalism. She called on her counterparts to ‘create journalism programmes that work from the particularities of the locale and are sensitive to that locale’ (cited in Banda and Schmitz Weiss, 2013). However, part of the problem could be resolved by putting the concept of a ‘model’ in its proper social-scientific methodological perspective as a tool for making sense of the complexity of journalism education as practised in different locales. To this end, we can cite Michael Pool (2007, p. 22), who observes that: An important criterion for the choice of a model is its likely fruitfulness in generating further insights. Models have: ▶ Positive features – ways in which the two are alike.
  16. 16. 15 ▶ Negative features – ways in which the two are unlike. ▶ Neutral features – ones that are neither obviously positive or negative. Citing Mary Hesse, Pool reminds us that ‘we do not know how far the comparison extends – it is precisely in its extension that the fruitfulness of the model may lie’ (2007, p. 22). In short, a model will not resemble that of which it is a model in every respect. Therefore, the UNESCO Model Curricula should perhaps best be seen as an abstraction, with the clear concomitant implication that their application would not (and should not) match every conceivable national context of application. They would resemble such a context either positively, negatively or neutrally, following Pool’s explanation above. Where the Curricula have been potentially positive to a context, their adaptation in a local condition has been relatively seamless, accompanied perhaps by minor adjustments. Where they have been negative, but nevertheless still aspirational, they have been more heavily adjusted to suit the local context, particularly in situations where training institutions have organizational and infrastructural inadequacies (for instance, in Iraq) (Pavlik et al., 2012). Thus, as Rukhsana Aslam of the Pacific Media Centre observes, although there is little to disagree on regarding the broad principles of the Model Curricula, their adaptation to Pacific countries is mainly constrained by the availability of relevant human expertise, availability of resources and a positive environment, resulting in Pacific journalism training institutions not strictly following the UNESCO guidelines but reflecting them to varying degrees (Aslam, 2012). Arguably, the more pessimistic criticisms of the Model Curricula have generally focused more on their negative (non-congruent) aspects, although in fairness even these negative aspects are a valuable source of empirical data which is informing their updating. Furthermore, such criticisms have overly simplified the contextual differences between and among countries. For example, to assume, as Eric Freedman and Richard Shafer do, that adapting the Model Curricula will result in students who are ‘overqualified for low-paid domestic journalism jobs that are available, although they may be good candidates for employment by government or business’, is to hold a static view of developing countries and emerging democracies. Many such countries have clear aspirations and potential for an educational and organizational shift to top-notch, cutting-edge, quality journalism
  17. 17. 16 education. And contrary to developed countries, the job situation is improving rather than declining in many cases (Freedman and Shafer, 2010). In fact, the very introduction of the UNESCO-designated potential centres of excellence and reference in journalism in Africa was predicated on the idea that it was possible to cultivate modern journalism schools within Africa that could generate high-quality graduates of the type envisaged by the Model Curricula (Berger and Matras, 2007). An underlying assumption, ignored by such critics, is that there are educational standards to which all countries aspire and that the Model Curricula serve as an embodiment of such standards. Such a theory of change is clearly what is driving many media development actors across the continent (Susman-Peña, 2012). In addition, such criticisms are rebutted in part by the increasing number of countries turning to the Model Curricula as an important resource for their own curriculum redesigns. By 2011, a number of journalism education/training institutions in Afghanistan, China, Guyana, Iran, Jamaica, Lesotho, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Pakistan, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania had either adapted, or were in the process of adapting, the Model Curricula. Gabon, Congo, Uzbekistan and Myanmar have also expressed interest in adapting them. As indicated above, UNESCO records some seventy journalism training institutions in over sixty countries having adapted the Model Curricula. By 16 May 2012, the UNESCO web site had registered 12,223 downloads of the publication, across the following linguistic platforms: English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Nepali (Banda and Schmitz Weiss, 2013). There are also many in-country training institutions actively using the Model Curricula as a resource for their curriculum reviews. For example, by the end of 2012, during a curriculum development and harmonization capacity-building workshop co-organized by the University of Lagos, University of Ibadan and Lagos State Polytechnic with financial support from UNESCO’s International Programme for Development of Communication (IPDC), eleven more journalism training institutions in Nigeria made commitments to adjust their pedagogical practices in line with the Model Curricula. They included Lagos State University, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Redeemer’s University, University of Nigeria and Covenant University. The rest were Times Journalism Institute, International Institute of Journalism, Ahmadu Bello University, Pan African University, Yaba College of Technology and Al-Hikma University (UNESCO, 2012).
  18. 18. 17 It is also important to consider that such criticisms ignore the fact that the Model Curricula serve to identify curricular gaps both in the developing and developed countries – gaps which seem to reinforce the significance of specialized reporting of the complexities of those societies. For example, after reviewing the Model Curricula in the context of journalism education curricula in the United States, Claussen concluded, among other things, that: ▶ Model Curricula several times refers to the importance of journalism students having ‘knowledge’ of journalism’s ‘role in developing and securing democracy,’ a focus of efforts by Jeremy Cohen, the late Cole Campbell, and various individuals identified with civic, public, citizen and/or community journalism, and yet another wakeup call when one notes how few U.S. journalism students seem to have any interest at all in covering politics and/or government. ▶ An international and development journalism syllabus, by Brazil’s Sonia Virginia Moreira, requires students to read UNESCO’s International Principles of Professional Ethics in Journalism. Here in the United States, where almost none of the media ethics textbooks or monographs bother to reprint even the Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics, let alone other professional groups’, who would know that such a document existed? ▶ The politics and government reporting syllabus, written by Argentina’s Jorge Liotti for university seniors, reminds us that in U.S. journalism education we don’t spend much time on the full spectrum of ‘interest groups, other sources of power,’ which Liotti lists as: ‘Armed Forces, trade unions, religious organizations, private companies, NGOs. Nonformal groups of pressure: terrorists, guerrillas, drug and weapon dealers, demonstrators, activists, picketers …. Seminar: Challenges of reporting and writing in a hostile environment.’ Terrorists, guerrillas, and drug dealers might not have much power as political interest groups in the United States or as in some other countries, but not so the others. (Claussen, 2007) It is worth re-emphasizing that the Model Curricula were an international project, involving scholars from Australia, Benin, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Ghana, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Qatar, Singapore, South Africa and the USA, while scholars from most of those countries and others wrote and/or
  19. 19. 18 reviewed various drafts (Claussen, 2007). Each expert thus brought their unique sociocultural perspective in a project that sought to unify such perspectives in a shared journalism education curriculum design from which all countries could learn something. Against this background, then, several lessons have emerged over the years about how the Model Curricula have been adapted to suit the local context. In the Asian case, for example, the Asian Media Information and Communication Centre (AMIC), a long-time UNESCO partner, used free online tools like Google Translate to address the need to translate the Model Curriculum into regional languages like Hindi, Thai Malay and Indonesian, among others. Naturally, if this were to be replicated on a larger scale, a more systematic translation process would be necessary, but it was a step towards disseminating knowledge resources more widely. In addition, AMIC sought to add local resource materials that are different but relevant to each country and in-country region. A related issue was AMIC encouraging institutions to allocate more resources and provide support for infrastructure and retraining in order to effectively adapt the Model Curricula. In the Iraqi context, representing a conflict/postconflict environment, an adaptive, instructional approach was used, offering the journalism educators and policy- makers there an opportunity to choose from a menu of strategic and professional recommendations arising from a series of consultations between international experts and Iraqi journalism educators and policy-makers. The strategic recommendations of this UNESCO-supported process included: ▶ Offering elective courses in both Iraq and the Kurdish region to provide students with the opportunity of choice. That is, students in Baghdad should have as a choice the opportunity to study Kurdish history and culture, while students in Sulaimaniya should have the choice of studying the history of Iraq as an elective. This would help lessen the gap between the regions by promoting cultural understanding and acceptance and, ultimately, reconciliation; ▶ The need for the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) to reconsider its stance on the use of distance education technology and implement elements of online course instruction throughout Iraqi higher education. This would allow for education for all, especially in remote areas, and would help resolve space and logistical constraints while placing Iraq and KRG in the modern educational sphere;
  20. 20. 19 ▶ The need for the curriculum department in the MoHE to launch a professional development programme that would enable its members to identify and define needs, propose change and development, and collaborate with the global academic communities. Professional recommendations bordered on the need for enhanced collaboration between training institutions and the industry. To that end, it was recommended that media professionals – both inside and outside Iraq – should be called upon to provide industry insight to students as guest speakers and expert mentors, thus enhancing communication skills and exchange of knowledge and experience. Another recommendation was that student internships should be encouraged and supported more fully by university administrators. Public–private sector partnerships should be developed to promote internships, guest speaker activities, job shadowing, interviews and project-based learning (PBL). In addition, as a special innovation to the UNESCO Model Curricula, the proposed curriculum for Iraq included a virtual foreign correspondent internship programme for students in Iraq. This pioneering programme would be among the first of its kind in the world for an emerging democracy, and would be an opportunity for students and news-gathering organizations to transcend the travel difficulties into and out of Iraq with valuable learning experiences that could produce valuable news coverage. The Iraqi students would serve as interns with out-of-Iraq news media, but from inside Iraq (Pavlik et al., 2012). In search of specialized journalistic literacies As Gordon Stuart Adam observes, the Appendix to the UNESCO Model Curricula has a rich collection of syllabi, which organize some of the well-recognized thinking in journalism education by some of its most-respected professors. Considered alongside the main report, which provides a basic curricular blueprint, the Appendix provides a powerful step into the content and organization of journalism studies. It does this with a measured flexibility. The various syllabi are open-ended, and can and should be adapted to cultural realities and local conditions. In the meantime, they provide a window into pedagogical method (Banda and Schmitz Weiss, 2013).
  21. 21. 20 In this vein, UNESCO is continually taking action to expand on the range of syllabi to reflect the diversity of journalism practices. This has taken the form of modularizing specialized journalistic literacies, ranging from media sustainability, data journalism, intercultural journalism and community journalism to global journalism – which form the thematic fulcrum of this compendium. In developing these modules, UNESCO has been partially addressing the scholarly critique of the Model Curricula, and updating them in relation to specific sociocultural circumstances, based on critical assessment and reflection (Nordenstreng, 2010). As such, these specialized literacies extend the Model Curricula to include new syllabi covering emerging or particularly relevant themes in journalism education globally. Such syllabi have a common thread running through them: journalism must respond to the context in which it is taught, practised and researched. As a consequence, they help to extend our theoretical understanding of journalism as a responsive, dynamic and evolving practice, and thus are a significant new step beyond the Model Curricula. Journalism education is an important vehicle through which the individual and institutional practices of journalists improve. By thus highlighting new areas of teaching that are often under-theorized and under- practised in the media, UNESCO is helping to expand the bounds of knowledge and skills of journalism teachers and practitioners and setting the agenda for cutting- edge journalistic practice. As an attempt to cultivate a truly ‘universal’ appeal for such syllabi – a lesson all so frequently referenced in our evaluation of the UNESCO Model Curricula – the following guidelines were provided for the authors contributing to this compendium: ▶ The syllabus should highlight case studies or examples from as wide a range of countries as possible, ensuring especially the inclusion of developing country instances. Online and free resources are especially encouraged; ▶ The syllabus should include bibliographic reference materials from a wide variety of national contexts, again not neglecting developing countries; ▶ The idea informing the two guidelines above is to (i) enhance the global utility of the syllabi, and (ii) broaden the horizons of each national application as regards knowledge of practice in other countries; ▶ The syllabus should be as gender-sensitive as possible, particularly in its use of language;
  22. 22. 21 ▶ The syllabus should be flexibly written so that it can appeal to a wide range of audiences, including journalism educators, media professionals, policy-makers and the general public. To sum up: the syllabi herein contained make a case for envisioning journalism education as a constantly changing practice of a particular type of communication in the public interest. In particular, they signal the ongoing debate about the academic positioning of journalism education globally, the contextual applications of the UNESCO Model Curricula and their implications for the future, and the continuing search for new specialized syllabi that respond organically to a plethora of emerging societal issues. With regard to the first issue, there appears to be ongoing healthy debate on how journalism education continues to feed off and into other better established academic disciplines. For their part, the various national adaptations of the Model Curricula have shown their value, and have arguably helped contribute in part to the establishment of journalism education as an effective contributor to the promotion of free, independent and pluralistic media. Even so, calls for updating the Model Curricula continue to reshape – and thus revitalize – their contributions by making them respond to emerging issues through the development of more specialized syllabi. The international experiences in all this are part of what UNESCO calls the ‘knowledge society‘, and they continue to strengthen the place of journalism education within changing global and local contexts.
  23. 23. 23 III. USER’S GUIDE AND OVERVIEW OFbSYLLABI How can these syllabi be used? In many ways, the utilization of these syllabi is heuristic, with users bringing their own experiences to the process. As with the UNESCO Model Curricula themselves, these specialized syllabi are not a prescription; rather, they can be adapted to suit particular national and/or institutional contexts of teaching and learning. While efforts have been made to ensure they have an international appeal, there are invariably still limitations. With this in mind, the following are possible ways to use the syllabi: ▶ As a teaching resource to supplement an already existing course: Some institutions already have courses and/or modules on the subjects addressed in these syllabi. In that case, the syllabi could be used as a further resource. Many of the readings suggested may easily be recommended for existing courses; ▶ As a new stand-alone module to be introduced into any training programme: Where such areas are absent, any one of these syllabi could be used as an innovation to introduce or integrate into existing programmes new subject areas that could enrich the overall knowledge and skills set of students; ▶ As a training manual: Any journalism trainer may wish to adapt these syllabi for their own purposes, relying on the lists of recommended readings they present; ▶ As a reading resource for practising journalists: Practising journalists can find the readings, especially those that are readily available online, listed in these syllabi useful for their own intellectual enrichment and professional practice. More importantly, the syllabi themselves expand upon these suggested methods of deployment, in addition to including more choices for users. The list of contributors at the end of the book includes email addresses to facilitate easy contact, in case you wish to initiate discussion with them.
  24. 24. 24 This compendium consists of specialized syllabi, as an attempt to reflect the diversity of journalistic practice. The syllabi include those relating to: ▶ media sustainability ▶ data journalism ▶ intercultural journalism ▶ community radio journalism ▶ global journalism ▶ science journalism, incorporating bioethics ▶ gender and journalism ▶ humanitarian journalism ▶ reporting human trafficking ▶ safety and journalism. Clearly, all these respond to specific human needs. The global financial and economic crisis of 2008 resulted in a realignment of media formations, with many in the developed countries migrating to online publishing as a way of reducing the costs associated with production. Although this phenomenon has not particularly affected the developing world, it signals a possible scenario, clearly making it necessary for journalism educators to rethink existing models of sustainability. For example, India’s newspapers, such as the Times of India, registered an upswing in their circulation while their Western counterparts continued to deteriorate in their circulation (Firstpost, 2012). But even in the West, the picture is actually not so clear-cut. For example, the Economist magazine has generally registered growth in its circulation (Mark, 2012). In itself, this raises questions about the quality of the journalistic content, and the extent to which it addresses the informational needs of audiences. It is possible that, in the wake of the financial crisis, many people would want to read independent economic analyses in order to make better informed choices about their economic futures. So there is a lesson here to be learned about how media ought to respond in times of great need – a lesson that journalism educators would do well to learn fast. Data journalism extends investigative journalism to include how data – both quantitative and qualitative – can be processed to answer fundamental investigative questions in journalistic practice. The near ubiquity of digital information now available renders data journalism a professional reality for many
  25. 25. 25 journalists, opening up new possibilities when it is combined with the traditional ‘“nose for news” and ability to tell a compelling story’ (Gray et al., 2013). Intercultural journalism, for its part, is underpinned by the 2001 UNESCO Declaration on Cultural Diversity and the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. It inculcates the kind of intercultural competence required to handle stories in a culturally diverse manner, enabling journalists to acquire skills of interaction and discovery that promote acquisition of new knowledge of cultural practices and the ability to use them to operate under constraints of real-time communication and collaboration (see e.g. Davis et al., 2005). Community radio journalism builds upon the premise and promise of participatory communication, seeing journalism as an emancipatory practice in which poor and marginalized communities have their voices amplified through radio against the background of the professional routines of conventional journalism which often privilege the powerful in society. It also recognizes the near ubiquity of the radio medium, especially in the developing world. Global journalism extends the idea of community into a nexus of global and local relationships in which journalism is implicated. As a living practice, journalists must have a broad and critical understanding of the principles and practice of journalism on a global platform, while being responsive to the local realities. Science journalism is a key part of what is generally referred to as the popularization of the public understanding of science. Recognizing its educational, democratic and developmental potential, science journalism has become a key part of journalistic practice, finding major support among members of the World Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) (see e.g. WFSJ, 2013) and other such networks of specialist media practitioners. An important part of such public understanding of science must be the ability by citizens, including journalists, to monitor, make use of, and critically assess scientific knowledge, hence the incorporation of bioethics in this particular syllabus. Gender and journalism highlights the importance of gendered analysis in journalistic practice. Informed by UNESCO’s Global Priority Gender Equality, this syllabus is an attempt at teaching how journalists can use gender as an analytical framework for understanding, researching and presenting news stories. All
  26. 26. 26 too often, the voices of women are inadvertently silenced in the news content, rendering them passive and voiceless. As a study by the International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF) found out, there were glass ceilings for women in twenty of the fifty-nine countries studied, commonly visible in middle and senior management positions. Slightly more than half of the companies sampled had an established company-wide policy on gender equity, ranging from 16 per cent of such companies in Eastern Europe to 69 per cent in western and sub-Saharan Africa (see e.g. IWMF, 2010). Such studies reinforce the need to incorporate gender into journalism education, signalling the fact that, while the findings above do not suggest that women have failed to advance in both number and occupational status in recent years, women are still lacking adequate access to the journalism profession in many newsrooms across the globe. Humanitarian journalism recognizes the centrality of human rights in reporting, especially in conflict or post-conflict situations. As such, this syllabus aims to equip students with conceptual knowledge and practical skills relating to the role of the journalist – as a duty bearer – in the promotion and protection of human rights in times of peace or crisis. Anti-human trafficking and journalism extends the idea of humanitarian journalism to the scourge of human trafficking. As a form of investigative journalism, it also places human rights at the centre of human trafficking, with a special focus on women and children. Safety and journalism go hand in glove. Journalists need to practise their craft safely. As a result, they need a firm understanding of the national, regional and international safeguards available to them. They also need a special grounding in the practicalities of playing it safe as they go about their trade. A related issue is one of advocacy to news media institutions themselves to provide a degree of protection within their means – as well as to policy-makers to provide a policy and legal environment in which impunity will be punished as a deterrent to would-be offenders. In part, this syllabus is a direct response to the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists which UNESCO coordinates.
  27. 27. 27 References to Parts I to III Aslam, Rukhsana. 2012. UNESCO J-Education Model: How Has it Fared in the PaciĹc? www.pmc.aut.ac.nz/ articles/unesco-j-education-model-how-has-it-fared-paciŰc (Accessed 20 February 2013.) Banda, F. and Schmitz Weiss, A. (eds). 2013. Teaching Journalism in Developing Countries and Emerging Democracies: The Case of UNESCO’s Model Curricula. Report of the proceedings of the 2012 AEJMC Pre-Conference Workshop, hosted by the International Communication Division of AEJMC and UNESCO and the UNESCO special panel at the Fourth European Communication Conference of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA). www.unesco.org/new/ Űleadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/news/unesco_model_curricula_report.pdf (Accessed 8 April 2013.) Berger, Guy and Foote, Joe. 2013. Tomorrow’s training: transformations in the provision of journalism education (forthcoming chapter). Berger, Guy and Matras, Corinne. 2007. Preface to Criteria and Indicators for Quality Journalism Training Institutions and Identifying Potential Centres of Excellence in Journalism Training in Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Claussen, Dane S. 2012. A truly bold idea for U.S. J&MC education: sincerely trying true excellence for once. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 211–17. Claussen, Dane S. 2007. Editor’s note: a model J&MC curriculum for developing countries is progress for them, perhaps at least reminders for ‘developed’ U.S. J&MC education. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, Vol. 62, pp. 237–40. Davis, N., Cho, M. O. and Hagenson, L. 2005. Intercultural competence and the role of technology in teacher education. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 384–94. Finberg, Howard. 2012. The future of journalism education: a personal perspective. Keynote speech delivered at the European Journalism Centre twentieth anniversary celebration, 4bJune 2012. Maastricht, Netherlands. www.newsu.org/future-journalism-education (Accessed 31 January 2013.) Firstpost. 2012. New Yorker discovers India’s paid media, but misses the point. www.Űrstpost.com/business/ new-yorker-discovers-indias-paid-media-but-misses-the-point-476340.html (Accessed 8 April 2013.) Freedman, Eric and Shafer, Richard. 2010. Ambitious in theory but unlikely in practice: a critique of UNESCO’s Model Curriculum for Journalism Education for Developing Countries and Emerging Democracies. Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 135–53. Gray, J., Bounegru, L. and Chambers, L. (eds). 2013. The Data Journalism Handbook: How Journalists Can Use Data to Improve the News. http://datajournalismhandbook.org/1.0/en/introduction_0.html (Accessed 8 April 2013.) International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF). 2010. Global Report on The Status of Women in the News Media. Washington DC.: IWMF. Mark, L. 2012. Reader-nomics: The Economist shows Newsweek there is life left in print. www.thedrum.com/ opinion/2012/10/25/reader-nomics-economist-shows-newsweek-there-life-left-print-0 (Accessed 8 April 2013.) McLellan, Michele and Newton, Eric. 2012. Digital Training Comes Of Age: How Knight Journalism Fellows and Trainees BeneĹt – And Why They Want Even More. Miami, Fla: Knight Foundation. www.
  28. 28. 28 knightfoundation.org/media/uploads/publication_pdfs/KFTrainingFieldReportWEB.pdf (Accessed 31 January 2013.) Nordenstreng, Kaarle. 2010. World Journalism Education Congress, Rhodes University, South Africa, 5–7 July 2010. Panel 6: Driving the future of journalism curricula. www.uta.Ű/cmt/en/ contact/staff/kaarlenordenstreng/publications/WJEC2010_Curriculum_ per cent20Panel_ per cent20Proceedings1.pdf (Accessed 12 February 2013.) Pavlik, J. V., Laufer, P. D., Burns, D. P. and Ataya, R. T. 2012. Reforming Iraqi journalism and mass communication higher education: adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for journalism education to Iraqi higher education. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 268–85. Pool, Michael. 2007. User’s Guide to Science and Belief, 3rd edn. Oxford: Lion. Susman-Peña, Tara. 2012. Making Media Development More Effective. Washington DC: Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA). UNESCO. 2012. 11 more institutions to adapt UNESCO Model Curricula for journalism training. UNESCO Abuja Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 6. World Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ). 2013. World Conference of Science Journalists taking shape! www.wfsj.org/news/news.php?id=304 (Accessed 8 April 2013.) World Journalism Education Council (WJEC). 2008. WJEC’s Principles of Journalism Education. http://wjec. ou.edu/principles.php (Accessed 11 February 2013.)
  29. 29. 29 IV. SYLLABI These are model syllabi that are offered in the expectation that they will be adapted to local and national conditions. Each syllabus contains ideas, methods and material that may serve as inspiration to other teachers and planners.
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31 MEDIA SUSTAINABILITY Robert G. Picard Media sustainability is concerned with the factors needed for independent media to develop, flourish, and endure so they can make contributions to the benefit of society. Key factors of sustainability are the capability to maintain operations by creating self-generating revenue streams, effective governance and management of the media enterprise, and promotion of journalistic and media professionalism. Other factors are more systemic, and are affected by government and society, such as a functioning economy, protections of free expression, and governmental transparency. This course explores the factors in sustainability and examines what those starting and working in media need to be concerned about and what they can do to improve the sustainability of their operations. The course is designed to provide students a clear understanding of the conditions that need to be pursued to make media sustainable.
  32. 32. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 32 Level of course: Final year bachelor’s degree/master’s level. Mode: Lectures, seminar discussions and activities. Pedagogical approach or method: The course is designed to give students a realistic understanding of the environments in which media organizations operate and to help students assess sustainability challenges and identify strategies for overcoming them. It will be best taught using lectures, case discussions, role playing, readings and activities with visiting professionals. Because it is designed to engage students in exploring how the challenges manifest themselves and what journalists and media operators are doing to cope with and overcome them, the course includes weekly assignments that investigate how the factors of sustainability are affecting media industries and specific media and what journalists and managers are doing about them. Number of hours per week: three hours of class time; two hours of reading and research. Course description: This eight-week course is designed to explore these fundamental issues and reveal the responsibility of journalists and media firms to improve the environment in which they operate and to engage in strategies and practices that promote sustainability. It recognizes differences among nations, governments, roles of media, sizes of media enterprises, and journalism cultures and practices, and focuses on underlying commonalities and needs. Grading and assessment protocols Seminar discussion participation: 20 per cent Class assignments: 50 per cent Final exam: 30 per cent. Required resources: computers with internet access to readings and researching contemporary challenges to sustainability.
  33. 33. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 33 Course outline Week 1: Introduction to media sustainability Topics: What is media sustainability? Why is it important? What roles do media, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and others play in pursuing it? Fundamental requirements of sustainability: technology; audience; relative absence of economic, governmental and social constraints; how sustainability is linked to media development. Seminar discussion and activity: What factors present the greatest sustainability challenges to media in the students’ country? After identifying issues, break the students into groups, assign them a challenge, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- or three-page report showing why and how the challenge affects sustainability. Assignment: Two-page report on how the economy, technology, and audience influence sustainability of a particular medium (newspapers, magazines, radio, television, digital media) in a selected country. Readings: Center for International Media Assistance (2007), IREX (n.d.), Konrad- Adenauer-Stiftung (2006), Nelson and Susman-Peña (2009), UNESCO (2008). Week 2: Governmental factors in sustainability Topics: How regulation and laws promote or hinder development and sustainability of independent media. Why do freedom of expression and government transparency affect sustainability? How does licensing and registration of media and journalists affect sustainability, and how can it be done in a fair manner? How does the government response to attacks on journalists and media affect sustainability? Why do some libel laws make media unsustainable? Can international standards that define legitimate limitations on the media affect media growth? What place is there for government direct or indirect subsidy, and how can this be reconciled with independence?
  34. 34. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 34 Seminar discussion and activity: What governmental factors present the greatest sustainability challenges to media in the students’ country? After identifying factors, break the students into groups, assign them one of the factors, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- to three-page report showing why and how the factor affects sustainability. Assignment: Two-page report on how a particular governmental factor influences media sustainability in a particular country. Readings: Cowan and Westphal (2010), Freedom House (n.d.), Friedrich-Ebert- Stiftung (n.d.), Reporters sans Frontieres/Reporters without Borders (n.d.), United Nations (1948), UN Human Rights Committee (n.d.). Week 3: Sustainability of community media Topics: What are ‘community media’? What role do they play in communities? What kinds of factors distinguish them from purely commercial operations in terms of sustainability? What unique sustainability challenges do they face? Seminar discussion and activity: What advantages and disadvantages do community media have when dealing with the fundamental factors in media sustainability? After identifying the advantages/disadvantages, break the students into groups, assign them an advantage or disadvantage, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- to three-page report showing why and how the factor affects sustainability. Assignment: Two-page report on the sustainability challenges facing a particular community media operation in the students’ country. Readings: Buckley (2011), Fairbain (2009), Fraser and Restrepo Estrada (2001). Week 4: Making media startups sustainable Topics: What sustainability issues should concern those establishing digital media enterprises? What is the nature of entrepreneurship? How do you connect with audiences and create communities? How do you avoid the failure problems of many young companies? What, then, is the place of ‘entrepreneurial journalism’?
  35. 35. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 35 Seminar discussion: What kinds of financing and cost arrangements do you need when starting a digital media operation and how do you fund its operations for the initial eighteen to twenty-four months? After identifying financial and cost issues, break the students into groups, assign them one of the arrangements, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- to three-page report showing why and how the arrangement affects sustainability. Assignment: Interview (in person, telephone, or by email) the manager of a relatively young media organization about the challenges it has encountered in starting up and keeping alive. Write a two-page report based on the interview. Readings: J-Lab (n.d.a, n.d.b), Poynter Institute (n.d.). Week 5: Roles of management and governance in sustainability Topics: Why creating the capability to continue operations must be the primary task of those leading a media enterprise. What sustainability issues should concern a manager? What is the role of directors of the company in sustainability and what should concern them? How do you manage company resources, dependence on sources of funding and supplies, and debt? How does editorial independence reconcile with the interests of managers, boards and owners? How can owners be ethical in pursuing the business sustainability of their media outlets? Seminar discussion: Why is it important to have clear responsibilities for ensuring sustainability in a media operation, and how should that responsibility be assigned? After identifying governance arrangements, break the students into groups, assign them an arrangement, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- to three-page report showing how and why and it affects sustainability. Assignment: Write a two-page report reflecting on how you would set up an ideal governance structure to pursue sustainability and what responsibilities you would give to the board and management and why. Readings: African Media Initiative (n.d.), Berger (n.d.), Global Reporting Initiative (n.d.), Jarvis (2010), Radio for Peacebuilding Africa (n.d.), Thomas (2009), Vitols (2011).
  36. 36. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 36 Week 6: The importance of business models and sources of financial resources Topics: What is a business model and why is it more than merely sources of money? What is needed to make it a business model effective? How should journalists and media managers think about their sources of revenue? Is there a standard business model everyone should pursue? Seminar discussion: Why and how do different media and different units of the same medium have different business models and revenue sources? After identifying differences, break the students into groups, assign them a form of business model, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- to three-page report showing why and how it affects dependence and sustainability. Assignment: Write a two-page report describing the business model of a chosen media company. Readings: African Media Initiative (2011), Folkenflik (2009), Foster (2011), Jarvis (2011), Picard (2010a, n.d.), www.opensocietyfoundations.org/reports/digitization- media-business-models, WAN/IFRA (2011). Week 7: Financial aspects of sustainability Topics: Why are efficient expenditures, effective uses of capital, caution with debt and liabilities, cash flow management, strategic uses of accounting, operational self sufficiency, and continuous renewal of resources important to sustainability? How do you plan for future income and unexpected expenses? Seminar discussion: Discuss how you oversee financial aspects without being an accountant. Review a company’s operating statement and balance sheet to learn how to ‘read’ it. Discuss what big questions should be asked when reading financial statements. After identifying issues, break the students into groups, assign them a measure of company performance and health, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- to three-page report showing why and how it affects sustainability. Assignment: Write a two-page review of the implications of a financial statement of a company. Readings: Picard (2010b, 2011a), Small Business Notes (n.d.).
  37. 37. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 37 Week 8: Journalism and media professionalism; credibility; cooperation and industry strength Topics: Why is organizing and supporting journalism and media professional and trade associations important for sustainability? How is quality of content related to credibility and trust? Why are training programmes for those working in media critical to professionalism? Why are market research and reliable industry statistics crucial for developing sustainability? How do ethical standards and fairness/balance in journalism affect sustainability? Seminar discussion: Discuss the existing media organizations and press freedom advocacy groups in your country and their functions. What are their strengths and weaknesses? What kind of organizations are missing, and what would be gained by having and supporting them? After identifying organizations, break the students into groups, assign them an organization, and have them jointly produce and share with others a two- to three-page report about that organization and what it is doing to promote industry sustainability. Assignment: Write a two-page review of working conditions for journalists and media sustainability in your country based on reports of international professional associations and advocacy groups. Suggest what journalists in the country might do to address the issues raised. Readings: International Press Institute (n.d.), International Principles of Professional Ethics in Journalism (n.d.), Society of Professional Journalists (n.d.). Background readings for the instructor Abbott et al. (2011), Coyne and Leeson (2009), Howley (2009), Locksley (2009), Picard (2011b), Reader and Hatcher (2011), Senevirtane (2012), USAID (2012). Relevant online resources for research and contemporary information ▶ African Media Initiative (AMI), www.africanmediainitiative.org/ ▶ Asian Media Information and Communication Centre (AMIC), www.amic. org.sg/ ▶ Center for Digital Democracy, www.democraticmedia.org
  38. 38. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 38 ▶ Center for International Media Assistance, www.cima.ned.org/media- development/sustainability ▶ Center for Sustainable Journalism, Kennesaw State University, www. sustainablejournalism.org ▶ Cyberjournalism.Net, www.cyberjournalist.net ▶ Independent Media Center, www.indymedia.org ▶ International Center for Journalists, www.ijnet.org ▶ International Federation of Journalists, www.ifj.org ▶ International Journalists’ Network, www.ijnet.org ▶ International Press Institute, http://www.freemedia.at/ ▶ Internews Network, www.internews.org ▶ IREX, www.irex.org ▶ Media Development Loan Fund, www.mdlf.org ▶ Media Institute for Southern Africa (MISA) and its country chapters, http:// new.misa.org/ ▶ Reporters sans frontières, www.rsf.org ▶ World Association of Community Broadcasters, www.amarc.org Comments This course complements media and society, and media management courses, and provides more specificity and depth on the environment affecting media and issues of establishing and sustaining media operations.
  39. 39. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 39 References Abbott, Susan, Price, Monroe E. and Morgan, Libby (eds). 2011. Measures of Press Freedom and Media Contributions to Development. New York: Peter Lang. African Media Initiative. 2011. Funding African Media in an Age of Uncertain Business Models. Nairobi: AMI. www.amlf2010.org/upload/ENGLISH-AMLF-2010%20.pdf African Media Initiative. n.d. Leadership and Guiding Principles for African Media Owners and Managers. www. africanmediainitiative.org/?q=con,135 Berger, Guy. Editorial Independence: It’s Not Just for Editors, pp. 126–32. www.kas.de/upload/ auslandshomepages/subsahara/Extraordinary_Editor/Chapter_5.pdf Buckley, Steve. 2011. Community Media: A Good Practice Handbook, Paris: UNESCO. www.unesco.org/ new/en/communication-and-information/resources/publications-and-communication-materials/ publications/full-list/community-media-a-good-practice-handbook/ Center for International Media Assistance. 2007. Toward Economic Sustainability of the Media in Developing Countries, working group report. http://cima.ned.org/sites/default/Űles/CIMA-Economic_ Sustainability-Working_Group_Report.pdf Cowan, Geoffrey and Westphal, David. 2010. Public Policy and Funding the News. University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. www.niemanlab.org/pdfs/USC%20 Report.pdf Coyne, Christopher J. and Leeson, Peter T. 2009. Media, Development, and Institutional Change. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Fairbain, Jane. 2009.Community Media Sustainability Guide: The Business of Changing Lives. Washington DC: Internews. www.internews.org/sites/default/Űles/resources/InternewsCommunityMediaGuide2009. pdf Folkenűik, David. 2009. Jeff Jarvis: Rewriting media’s business model (again). NPR. www.npr.org/templates/ story/story.php?storyId=113512103 Foster, Michelle J. 2011. Matching the Market and the Model: The Business of Independent News Media. Washington DC: Center for International Media Assistance. http://cima.ned.org/publications/ matching-market-and-model-business-independent-news-media Fraser, Colin and Restrepo Estrada, Sonia. 2001. Community Radio Handbook. Paris: UNESCO. www.unesco. org/new/en/communication-and-information/resources/publications-and-communication-materials/ publications/full-list/community-radio-handbook/ Freedom House. n.d. Freedom of the press. www.freedomhouse.org/reports Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. n.d. Barometre des medias Africains. http://library.fes.de/pdf-Űles/bueros/africa- media/08153.pdf Global Reporting Initiative. n.d. Media Supplement. www.globalreporting.org/reporting/sector-guidance/media/ Pages/default.aspx Howley, Kevin (ed.). 2009. Understanding Community Media. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. International Press Institute. n.d. Media and money. www.freemedia.at/Űleadmin/media/Documents/IPI_ general/IPI_Report_2011_Media_Money.pdf
  40. 40. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 40 International Principles of Professional Ethics in Journalism. http://ethicnet.uta.Ű/international/international_ principles_of_professional_ethics_in_journalism IREX. n.d. The media sustainability index. www.irex.org/resource/media-sustainability-index-msi-methodology J-Lab. n.d.a. New Media Makers Toolkit. www.j-lab.org/publications/new-media-makers-toolkit J-Lab. n.d.b. New Voices: What Works. www.j-lab.org/publications/new-voices-what-works Jarvis, Jeff. 2010. Teaching entrepreneurial journalism. http://buzzmachine.com/2010/01/11/teaching- entrepreneurial-journalism/ Jarvis, Jeff. 2011. Hard economic lessons for news: rules for business models. http://buzzmachine. com/2011/04/25/hard-economic-lessons-for-news/ Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. 2006. Money Matters: How Independent Media Manage to Survive. Bonn: Konrad- Adenauer Stiftung. www.cameco.org/Űles/money_matters_documentation_colour_1.pdf Locksley, Gareth. 2009. The Media and Development. Washington DC: World Bank. Nelson, Mark and Susman-Peña, Tara. 2009. Rethinking Media Development, Washington DC: Internews. www.internews.org/sites/default/Űles/resources/InternewsRethinking-Media-Dev.web_1.pdf Picard, Robert G. 2010a. Search for alternative media business models. www.themediabusiness.blogspot. com/2010/04/search-for-alternative-media-business.html Picard, Robert G. 2010b. Challenges of product choices and prices in multi-sided media markets. www. themediabusiness.blogspot.com/2010/05/challenges-of-pricing-in-multi-ided.html Picard, Robert G. 2011a. Indicators of Űnancial and economic health of media Űrms. The Economics and Financing of Media Companies, 2nd edn. New York: Fordham University Press. www.robertpicard. net/pdfŰles/indicators.pdf Picard, Robert G. 2011b. The Economics and Financing of Media Companies, 2nd edn. New York: Fordham University Press. Picard, Robert G. n.d. Mapping Digital Media: Digitization and Media Business Models. Open Society Foundations. www.opensocietyfoundations.org/reports/digitization-media-business-models Poynter Institute. n.d. Conversation: tips for journalists preparing to launch a startup site. www.poynter.org/ how-tos/leadership-management/entrepreneurial/170485/live-chat-today-tips-for-journalists- preparing-to-launch-a-startup-site/ Radio for Peacebuilding Africa. n.d. La Viabilité des Radios de Proximité – Module II: Une Guide de Formation. www.radiopeaceafrica.org/assets/texts/pdf/2012-manual-sustain-mod2-bw-fr.pdf Reader, William H. and Hatcher, John A. (eds). 2011. Foundations of Community Journalism. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. Reporters sans Frontières/Reporters without Borders. n.d. Freedom of the press worldwide in 2012. http:// en.rsf.org/IMG/jpg/carte2012.jpg Senevirtane, Kalinga (ed.) 2012. Community Radio in Asia and Beyond. Singapore: Asian Media and Communication Center. Small Business Notes. Financial management. www.smallbusinessnotes.com/business-Űnances/Űnancial- management/ Society of Professional Journalists. n.d. Ethics Code. www.spj.org/ethicscode.asp
  41. 41. MEDIASUSTAINABILITY 41 Thomas, John Prescott. 2009. Media Management Manual: A Handbook for Television and Radio Practitioners in Countries-in-Transition. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0018/001879/187966e.pdf United Nations. 1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml#a9 UNESCO. 2008. Media Development Indicators: A Framework for Assessing Media Development. Paris: UNESCO. www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/resources/publications-and- communication-materials/publications/full-list/media-development-indicators-a-framework-for- assessing-media-development// UN Human Rights Committee. n.d. General Comment No. 34 on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (updating the right to freedom of expression in relation to internet). (Available (in Űve languages) at www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/comments.htm) US Agency for International Development (USAID). 2012. Community Media Sustainability Guide. Vitols, Sigurt. 2011. What is a sustainable company. S. Vitols and N. Kluge, The Sustainable Company: A New Approach to Corporate Governance. Brussels: European Trade Union Institute. www.etui.org/content/ download/2780/32627/Űle/Chap+1+from+The+sustainable+company+Vitols-Kluge+2011.pdf World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers (WAN/IFRA). 2011. Financially Viable Media in Emerging and Developing Markets. Paris: WAN/IFRA. www.wan-ifra.org/articles/2011/06/07/ Űnancially-viable-media-in-emerging-and-developing-markets
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  43. 43. 43 DATA JOURNALISM Peter Verweij Data journalism can be considered as a highly specialized branch of investigative reporting, but the majority of techniques can also be put to good use in everyday journalism. This course introduces students to the basic theory, methods and tools of data journalism. In order to work in data journalism, knowledge of its history and the classical examples or paradigms is required. The reading list includes articles that provide an overview of this growing species of journalism, providing an excellent base-level understanding of the field of data journalism.
  44. 44. DATAJOURNALISM 44 Level of course: Second- or third-year students undertaking a four-year bachelor’s programme. Course description: Data journalism is already fifty years old, but its popularity has soared, particularly in recent years. This field of journalism involves stories being written based on a collection of data, an excellent example of which is the data section of the British newspaper, the Guardian. Scandinavian, French and Spanish newspapers are taking up this example and are starting interesting data journalism projects as well. Working in the field of data journalism presupposes knowledge and skills in two areas, the first of which is the field of methodology and statistics, since the data used are generally the result of research. Drawing conclusions from a pile of data is only possible if there is an initial understanding of what is actually being measured, the values and variables, levels of measurement, and margins of error. This enables a hypothesis to be formulated, which is then applied to the data-set using statistical tests. In the reading list is an overview of articles that introduce journalists to the basics of statistics and methodology. The second area that requires a level of comprehension on the part of data journalists is identifying an interesting data-set. What constitutes an interesting place to look for data? Among the most obvious choices are databases from governments or (international) organizations, or web pages of these organizations with data. Once the source has been found, the next step is how to obtain the data on your computer and carry out the number crunching. Several interesting tools are available, Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheets being the most common example, enabling the majority of basic tests to be carried out. Instead of Excel, there are free possibilities at hand; OpenOffice and LibreOffice include free spreadsheet programmes. A hands-on introduction to spreadsheets forms part of this course. Once the techniques of Excel have been taught, the focus turns to exporting data from a database, the web or pdf format into Excel, with several assignments paying attention to translating, downloading or scraping data from the web. Generally the raw data that are imported into Excel require cleaning up, in order to start the analysis. A special assignment on this topic is also included.
  45. 45. DATAJOURNALISM 45 Now it is time to see if your ideas (hypotheses) hold, and if a conclusion can be drawn from the data, which will then serve as the basis for a story. Simple statistical tools in spreadsheet programmes will be adequate to calculate averages, percentage differences or correlations, while for more advanced analysis, any statistical package available at universities for analysis will do. Tools such as SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) or Statistica, commonly used at universities, are more appropriate, as is R-project (a free and open-source software package for statistical analysis). Several analysis-based assignments will be allocated, based on a specific dataset. Since figures are generally difficult to understand, graphs are often used as a basic tool in data journalism to present a better understanding of the trends. Graphs can be produced easily using Excel or the many free tools available online for this purpose. Tableau is an example of a more advanced tool for making graphics based on data. Most data have a geographical component as well, and therefore adding data to a map (GIS, geographical information systems) using Google fusion tables is another important tool in data journalism. Various assignments related to graphics and maps feature in the course, based on a specific data-set. Data journalism is a form of journalism, and therefore aims at producing a story. The findings and conclusion from the data need to be contextualized, or interpreted to a specific situation. There are several ways to do that. The first is to find key people who can be quoted commenting on the findings from their own experience. For example findings about poverty or crime should be put in the perspective of persons affected and related to a specific setting. Various groups of people are interesting for quotes: policy-makers, specialists and people directly affected. Traditional interviewing can be used to get the information and quotes. However the use of social media like Facebook and Twitter creates new opportunities. Creating a small survey for a selected group of people, relevant to the case studied, is a second possibility for creating a context for abstract data. Open- ended questions, although the answers are more difficult to analyse than those from closed questions, could be a good choice. Depending on the circumstance the survey could be processed in a traditional analogue way, but there are also online ways of doing a survey, for example a button on a media website, guiding
  46. 46. DATAJOURNALISM 46 persons to the questionnaire. It should be noted that some special training is needed if journalists are to arrive at valid results. This course in data journalism ends with an individual or group project, which sees students choose their own data-set and demonstrate competency in the basics of data journalism. All work on the project, from choosing the topic, collecting the data, carrying out the analysis, and writing the final news story, should be done in cooperation with the lecturer, and with guidance on revision before their approval. An example of a project, together with the relevant structure, outline and planning, is included in the list of literature. Note: this course covers the basics of data journalism and teaches students how to handle secondary data. Working with primary data is also very popular, however, with the setting up of online surveys being one such example. Many current stories concern social network analysis based on Twitter relations. These two topics are more advanced, and need more knowledge and skills. A separate module on this issue could be developed and operated as a sequel to this basic course. Mode: this module on the theory and practice of data journalism has been established as an online training course. Moodle software would be an appropriate choice for creating a partially electronic learning environment, as it offers the possibility to create entries for classes, including literature, hands-on examples, instruction and assignments, as well as having the capacity to create a library with all the relevant course documents, services for chat/discussion and email. Digital teaching works well in combination with conventional classroom meetings. In order to work online, participants/students and lecturers should know each other. Second, in order to improve motivation, one classroom meeting during the course is needed to discuss problems and progress. A final classroom meeting should be dedicated to presenting the outcomes of the final projects conducted by each of the students. Pedagogical approach or method: The course uses a combination of various pedagogical approaches. Online teaching in an electronic learning environment is combined with meetings in a classical classroom setting, where possible, together with tutorial/supervision on project work. (There should be one initial meeting, and then a second one, preferably in the middle of the course.) If online teaching is not possible because of technical limitations it is possible to turn this course into
  47. 47. DATAJOURNALISM 47 regular training, for example an intensive course lasting one week, at any place convenient for the participants. The course is practical/hands-on and student-centred. This implies that students are responsible for their own work in the various classes and for managing their time associated with this. Lecturers generally serve as coaches, helping the students to make their first steps in this field, and to overcome any problems encountered during assignments. The lecturers who teach this course should be familiar with the principles of data journalism and have knowledge of working in an electronic learning environment. It is likely that extra training for lecturers in both areas will be required. A training of trainers should therefore be the first step, and must be developed based on the outline of this course. A pilot course can then start, run by the lecturers in cooperation with the trainer of trainers. Finally, a course manual must be developed and written, including a complete outline of the course for the students and lecturers, together with examples and assignments. This manual, combined with the course description, will provide the steps and direction required in order to follow the course. Grading: 50 hours worth of credits, or 50 credit hours. Seventy per cent of the credits for this course are derived from the assignments and test. For the theory aspect, a set of open-ended questions must be answered, and for the practical component, a number of assignments must be handed in. The remaining 30 per cent of the credits are derived from a project, in which students demonstrate mastery of the basics of data journalism, based on their own data-set. Number of hours: four per week over a ten-week period (two hours reading and two hours practical) plus ten hours for the final project. Equipment: Because the course is taught in a digital environment, a server running Moodle, with sufficient capacity and bandwidth, is best for this project. It must be decided whether this server runs on one of the networks of the education/ training provider, or is hosted by an internet service provider. In both cases, the
  48. 48. DATAJOURNALISM 48 services of an IT specialist are required to install and control the functioning of the server. The students and lecturers of this online course need access to computers which are capable of running at least Windows 7 and have broadband internet access. They must also have the capacity to install the following software: ▶ an email program ▶ Firefox web browser ▶ Excel or a similar spreadsheet program ▶ Outwit Hub, plug-in Firefox ▶ Google Refine ▶ Tableau or similar.
  49. 49. DATAJOURNALISM 49 Course outline Session 1: What is data journalism? Readings (Data Journalism Handbook) and responding to questions. Assignment: Find stories you think are good examples of data journalism. Session 2: Principles of research and statistics Readings (on statistics for journalists) and questions. Assignment: In reference to a particular data-set, answer the following: ▶ Which are the variables, what are they measuring, what is the level of measurement? ▶ Which hypothesis would you test on these data? Do the same for your own data-set. Session 3: Introduction to spreadsheets Readings (on spreadsheets and CAR techniques) and conducting the following assignments: ▶ basics: inputting numbers and text, simple calculations ▶ simple formulae, ordering and filtering, simple graphics ▶ advanced pivot tables. Session 4: Working with spreadsheets Assignments: ▶ Download data from: 1) online database 2) pdf to Excel. ▶ Importing CVs.
  50. 50. DATAJOURNALISM 50 ▶ Importing Google docs. ▶ Find an interesting data-set, put it into a spreadsheet and describe which techniques you used. Session 5: Scraping and refining Readings (on OutWit and Google Refine) Session 6: Analysing data: testing and conclusions Session 7: Making graphics with web tools Readings (on Maps and Google fusion tables, and Tableau) Session 8: Working with Tableau and Google fusion tables for more advanced graphics and maps Session 9: Writing the story Readings (on writing stories) Session 10: Project, individual or group.
  51. 51. DATAJOURNALISM 51 Required readings History of data journalism: Meyer, Philip. 2011. Precision journalism and narrative journalism: toward a uniŰed Űeld theory. www. nieman.harvard.edu/reports/article-online-exclusive/100044/Precision-Journalism-and-Narrative- Journalism-Toward-a-UniŰed-Field-Theory.aspx Değnitions: Wikipedia. What is CAR? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-assisted_reporting Wikipedia. What is data driven journalism? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_driven_journalism Examples of data-driven journalism by Mindy McAdams: http://mindymcadams.com/tojou/2012/data- journalism-examples/ Philip Meyer’s award-winning stories: www.ire.org/tag/philip-meyer-journalism-awards/ Data journalism handbook: Data journalism handbook.org. Data Journalism Handbook. http://datajournalismhandbook.org/1.0/en/ On coders and journos: Verweij, Peter. 2012. Data journalism: where coders and journos meet. http://memeburn.com/2012/03/data- journalism-where-coders-and-journos-meet/ Ten tools: Thibodeaux, Troy. 2011. Ten tools that can help data journalists do better work, be more efŰcient. www. poynter.org/how-tos/digital-strategies/147736/10-tools-for-the-data-journalists-tool-belt/ Five tips: Thibodeaux, Troy. 2011. Five tips for getting started in data journalism. www.poynter.org/how-tos/digital- strategies/147734/5-tips-for-getting-started-in-data-journalism/ CAR techniques and data journalism: Issu.com. Data journalism. http://issuu.com/tcij/docs/data_journalism_book Spreadsheets: James, B. W. Basic Excel tutorial. http://people.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/excel/ Methodology and statistics for journalists: Explorable.com. 2011. Research methodology. www.experiment-resources.com/research-methodology.html Explorable.com. 2011. Statistics tutorial. www.experiment-resources.com/statistics-tutorial.html
  52. 52. DATAJOURNALISM 52 Issuu.com. 2011. Statistics for journalists. http://issuu.com/tcij/docs/cij_statistics_for_journalists_26_05_11 Niles, Robert. Statistics every journalist should know. www.robertniles.com/stats/ OutWit: Manual hub: http://blog.outwit.com/ NICAR on use of Outwit Hub: https://docs.google.com/a/d3-media.nl/document/d/16qj2_1EohABneH_ h7Reh3ymL4_tf5VYYUxRl-ELycSs/edit?pli=1 Google Reğne: Manual: http://code.google.com/p/google-reŰne/wiki/Screencasts Propublica on Google ReŰne: http://www.propublica.org/nerds/item/using-google-reŰne-for-data-cleaning Maps and Google fusion tables: http://support.google.com/fusiontables/bin/answer. py?hl=en&answer=184641 Working with Tableau: Tableau. How it works. www.tableausoftware.com/public/how-it-works Writing stories: Manual on investigative reporting: Hunter, Mark Lee. 2011. Story-Based Inquiry: A Manual for Investigative Journalists. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001930/193078e.pdf
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  54. 54. 55 INTERCULTURAL JOURNALISM Bertrand Cabedoche This course aims to develop students’ awareness and knowledge of intercultural issues in all their dimensions, applied to the field of journalistic production (content development; identity introspection; mediatization of social domains; management policy and human resources management of the media organization; economic performance (business case) and industrialization of culture, communication and information; social issues in the construction and development of public spaces; social legitimization; knowledge development and so on).
  55. 55. INTERCULTURALJOURNALISM 56 Level of course: The course is designed for third-year university students, with or without a journalism background, enrolling in the first year of a Master’s degree (M1). Course description: This curriculum takes into account the changes that, since the second half of the twentieth century, have exponentially increased the flow of information, goods and people, while addressing global issues, regardless of the players involved (public/private/association, individuals/communities, informal/ institutional), reinforcing the politicization of cultural issues. At the same time, phenomena of regional and local, geopolitical and symbolic reterritorialization are gradually reappearing in the world, reactivating the culturalization of political and social issues (Žižek, 2004). To overcome the superficial media coverage of intercultural issues the module must therefore ‘turn the hourglass over in both directions’: from the structure to the event, from freedom to membership, from universe to place and to diverse (Braudel, 1958). Thus, the module opens up to the greatest extent possible theoretical, conceptual and methodological approaches which may contribute to assisting the participants practically and introspectively, once back in the field of information practices (or the discovery of them). Facilitation of the course is distinguished from any normative focus that might cause confusion between knowledge and instrumentalization, and the training deviates from any peremptory transmission of journalism instruction manuals, branded with ‘sound management’ of interculturality, which magically reduce knowledge to absolute techniques of management skills, interpersonal skills and transcription skills. While it does address these contemporary management tools, the training module is also aimed at journalists who may have to deal intellectually with interculturality as a subject and engage their social responsibility, in all its dimensions, in this area. The course aims in particular to prevent journalism itself from becoming bogged down, voluntarily or unwillingly, in the intricacies of the mosaic of culture (Moles, 1967, see also Moles, 1979). It is indeed in the interest of contemporary journalism to free itself from this loose patchwork of disparate elements of speech, propelled by the bombardment of information in our contemporary societies and leading to the confusion of different types of knowledge, to the development of which mass communication has already amply contributed since the middle of the twentieth century. Vigilance has already proved inadequate in terms of ethics and knowledge in journalism training (Badillo, 2005), allowing media discourse to go astray in the erring
  56. 56. INTERCULTURALJOURNALISM 57 ways of apologists full of hatred and other ‘authenticity’ propagandists, tragically responsible for contemporary genocides (Chrétien, 2002). Mode: In order to handle all of the main contemporary issues involved in interrelating journalism and interculturality, the module proposes a two-pronged approach, drawing on lessons learned from the development of multidisciplinary studies and providing room for debate on each proposal. Pedagogical approach or method: The module has been designed from the perspective of reflexive questions, inseparable from journalism practice, rather than an aim to provide a guide giving ready-made answers and solutions. (The wise person continues to wonder when the fool already has the answer.) Facilitation of the module is educationally designed primarily in the form of an introductory and interactive workshop. The aim is to obtain feedback from participants concerning the production of media information that has already been published and that concerns interculturality (press reports, extracts of television programmes and so on). Interactivity can also be encouraged through collective reactions provoked by the discovery of excerpts chosen by the facilitator, which are significant regarding the issues identified by the authors in the field of human and social sciences in the very domain of journalism and interculturality. The facilitator can then provide scenarios and role play concerning issues arising in the field (such as an interview situation in the field of interculturality, played by two participants, then debriefed with the rest of the group, participants and observers alike). This early work of categorization prepares the ground for conceptual, theoretical and even paradigmatic reflection, led by the facilitator (schools’ presentations and coordination of proposals, analysis of authors’ work, brought into contextual perspective, with personal anecdotes and examples from the field, for the purpose of illustration). Final assessment may take the form of a project defended orally by the candidate in front of the facilitator at the end of the session. Facilitators must have extensive experience in the theory of the issues raised by interculturality and the questioning of information globally and locally, paying special
  57. 57. INTERCULTURALJOURNALISM 58 attention to pedagogy and participant involvement. Journalism experience, however slight, is recommended for the facilitation of the course. Credits: Sixty hours worth of credits. [This could be expressed as follows: Sixty credit hours] (corresponding to xxx credits).1 Course credits are awarded on the basis of participants’ active presence in the course, systematically recorded by the facilitator (30 per cent of the credits) and an assessment of students’ acquisitions (70 per cent of the credits), which can be based on students’ projects relating to intercultural issues that might be suitable for publication in a weekly newspaper, for example (the theme having been validated by the course facilitator). Number of hours per week: Ideally four hours of facilitation per week over a period of twelve weeks (a total of forty-eight hours), each sequence consisting of a one-hour reading commented on collectively, one hour of practical work and two hours of methodological, conceptual and theoretical contributions (with breaks). Participants also need time outside the class for the preparation of the final project. Assessment of this project may also be accompanied by an oral presentation requiring the facilitator’s additional presence for half an hour per participant (a twenty-minute presentation and ten minutes of feedback by the facilitator). In short, the facilitator should provide forty-eight hours of classroom presence plus half an hour per participant for the final assessment in the event of an additional oral assessment. Equipment: The course does not require a significant amount of technical equipment but could need to use equipment that is already available onsite, such as video projectors, recorders and cameras for role playing or to illustrate case studies. For the rest, the equipment required is limited to a set of modular tables that may be configured into a u-shape for presentations and moved around for the preparation and execution of role playing. 1 Note from the creator of the module: it is necessary to allocate a signilcant number of credits to this module as part of a training course in journalism. Students – and some associated professionals – sometimes tend to reduce to the learning of techniques in their tactical calculation of which credits to obtain and which to sacrilce, which is generally done at the expense of training that is considered to be more theoretical.