• Dramatic programming is television content that is
scripted and (normally) fictional.
This excludes, for example, sports television ,reality
shows and soaps.
All media 'texts' have signs and signifiers
which send specific messages to the
audience. In some cases we hardly think
about how we read these signs. The use of
colour for example to suggest.. mood..
Signifiers: show, suggest, mean something to
Symbolic signifiers: signifier does not resemble the signified. Purely
or highly conventional
Example: language, codes of various sorts, traffic lights
Iconic signifiers: signifier resembles the signified. It
imitates some sensory impression of the "real" object.
Indexical signifiers: the signifier is not arbitrary, but is directly
connected in some way to the signified (but not by resemblance)
•Natural signs: smoke signifies fire, thunder signifies a storm
•"signals" (knocks on doors, telephone ringing)
•"pointers" (pointing finger)
• To represent means to symbolise,reflect or to
RE-PRESENT indivduals,groups,events and
For example in waterloo road the teenagers are
represented as typical naughty, troubled
students. Also in soaps the elderly are
represented as having authority or being old
Is the change or alteration before the end product
to manipulate situations. A lot of things are editing
out for TV series. For example in a TV drama what
would take over an entire evening to record and
endless outtakes of the same scene done repeatly
to make just right will all end up in just a 30
minute episode. Especially with a studio audience
,they will be trained into laughing the exactly the
right way. The whole experience of haring a few
jokes will have been mediated.
Binary Opposition: where text
or images are organised around
sets of opposite values such as
good and evil, light and dark.
• A stereotype is a commonly held public belief about specific social
groups or types of individuals. They form the basis for prejudice and
discrimination in society. For example when a homosexual character
is presented in a TV show,especially males e.g Kurt from Glee is
presented very typically fashionable,soft and girly where as in reality
not all homosexuals are like that.
• The term "hegemony" refers to the leadership, dominance or great
influence that one person or group of people has over others. For
example in TV shows it is the norm for the male to be the leader of
the household and having the most power and authority compared to
• It is the ideas behind a media text, the secret agenda of its purpose.It
is the way of looking at thing and a belief system presented and
constructed by a media text.For example the idea of marriage is to be
in a traditional family with children.
Fixing of meaning e.g. the copy text anchors (ie fixes to
one spot) the meaning of an image (for instance, a single
rose, that could be used for an ad for anything from a
dating agency to a funeral home) in a print
• The study of signs and symbols to interpret meanings.
Used a lot in culture to interpret meanings all over the
• An idea or meaning suggested by or associated with a word or thing.
For example a female character may wear red clothing or red lipstick
for connotations of love, sex or danger.
• Be a symbol of or have as meaning. For example in
TV drama a character presented in dark clothing
and makeup and depressed/emotional would be
signify as a goth/emo and be easily recognisable.