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Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial


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Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial

  1. 1. Emerging Adulthood:Psychosocial<br />Demirchyan, Layla<br />Ibrahim, Aiman<br />Papazian, Christina<br />Wharton, Amy<br />
  2. 2. Personality Patterns<br />Personality endures lifelong<br />Nature and nurture both play major roles in the formation of a personality<br />Origins are genetic; early childhood experiences shape the expression of genetic impulses<br />New personality dimensions are particularly likely to appear in emerging adulthood<br />Personality is far from static after childhood<br />
  3. 3. Continuity and Change<br />The personality patterns of adults of every age are affected by the norms of their culture and by their social context<br />Emerging adults today make choices that are adventuresome breaks with their past<br />Have not yet settled into a chosen family or lifestyle<br />Therefore, not surprising that personalities may change<br />Psychological research on personality traits of twins from ages 17 to 24 finds both genetic continuity and developmental improvements<br />Longitudinal studies have shown that actual patterns of change are complex<br />Plasticity is evident<br />Personality is not fixed in emerging adults but is rather open to new experiences<br />Major decisions—going to college, leaving home, becoming independent, or stopping drug abuse—have the potential to change the life course<br />Does not mean total change is possible<br />
  4. 4. Mental Health and Illness<br />Emerging adults usually feel quite pleased with themselves<br />Dealing with transitions successfully correlates with well-being (Schulenberg et al., 2005)<br />The stresses of emerging adulthood might be thought to reduce self-esteem, but research has evidenced otherwise<br />Allows young adults to be less self-centered and more caring of other people (N. Eisenberg et al., 2005; Padilla-Walker et al. 2008)<br />Taking on one responsibility makes it easier to take on another (Sneed et al., 2007)<br />
  5. 5. Mental Health and Illness (cont’d)<br />
  6. 6. Tibetan Personality Test<br />Put the following five animals in order by preference: cow, horse, tiger, sheep, and pig<br />Write one word that describes each of the following items:dog, cat, rat, coffee, and sea<br />Think of someone who you know, who also knows you, that is important to you which can relate to the following colors.  Do not use the same person twice: yellow, orange,red, white, and green<br />
  7. 7. This will define your priorities in life:<br />    Cowsignifies career<br />     Tiger signifies pride<br />    Sheepsignifies love<br />    Horse signifies family<br />    Pigsignifies money<br />Your description of :<br />Dogimplies your personality<br />    Cat implies your partner's personality<br />    Ratimplies the personality of your enemies<br />    Coffeeis how you interpret sex<br />    Sea implies your own life<br />Yellow: someone you'll never forget Orange: someone you consider a true friendRed: someone you really loveWhite: your twin soulGreen: someone you will remember for the rest of your life<br />Your Answers…<br />
  8. 8. Psychopathology<br />Most emerging adults benefit from independence<br />Some become overwhelmed by the many obstacles they face<br />From ages 18 to 25, “young people are coming to grips with their lives” (Galambos et al., 2006, p. 360)<br />Average well-being increases, but so does the incidence of psychopathology, or mental disorders<br />Adults are more likely to have an episode of mental illness during emerging adulthood than during any later time<br />Researchers agree that the late teens and early 20s are a sensitive period<br />Diathesis-stress model is the view that psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia, are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) and stressful environmental factors and life events<br />Some of the actions of emerging adults disrupt healthy emotions<br />For instance, substance use disorder, or drug abuse<br />
  9. 9. Specific Mental Disorders<br />Each particular psychopathology has a developmental trajectory<br />Substance use disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia are more likely to appear in emerging adulthood<br />Mood disorders<br />About one-quarter of mood disorders begin in adolescence, and another quarter being in young adulthood<br />Before age 30, 15% of U.S. residents suffer from a mood disorder such as major depression<br />Origins of major depression are biochemical, involving imbalances in neurotransmitters and hormones, but stresses can be triggers<br />Anxiety disorders<br />Occur in about one-fourth of all emerging adults in the United States<br />Include PTSD, OCD, panic attacks, and eating disorders<br />Influenced by age, cultural context, and economic pressure<br />A new anxiety disorder in Japan called hikikomori, or “pull away,” may affect more than 100,000 young adults<br />A person with hikikomori is intensely anxious about the social and academic pressures of life<br />Pressures to succeed in all aspects can overwhelm young adults<br />Schizophrenia<br />About 1% of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia<br />Partly genetic<br />A child who has a biological parent with schizophrenia has about 1 chance in 8 of developing the disorder<br />Other factors beyond heredity increase the rate, including anoxia at birth, malnutrition while the brain is developing, and social pressure<br />Developmentalists find an interest in the relationship among age, gender, and schizophrenia<br />Almost never does a first episode occur before age 10 or after age 25<br />Diagnosis is most common from ages 18 to 24<br />Young males are particularly vulnerable<br />Something in the bodies, minds, or social surroundings of young men are factors in the onset of schizophrenia<br />
  10. 10. Identity and Intimacy<br />Identity Achieved…<br />The search for identity begins at puberty and continues on through emerging adulthood<br />Erickson believed that, at each stage, the outcome of earlier crises provides the foundation of each new era<br />Childhood experiences affects adult development<br />
  11. 11. Identity and Intimacy (cont’d)<br />
  12. 12. Ethnic Identity<br />In the U.S. and Canada, about half of the 18- to 25-year-olds are either children of immigrants or are native-born adults<br />Ethnicity is a significant aspect of identity<br />Emerging adults have friends with more diverse backgrounds than any other age group<br />It is particularly difficult for immigrants to forge an identity<br />Ethnic identity may affect choices in language, manners, romance, employment, neighborhood, religion, clothing, and values<br />Ethnic identity is always complex:<br />It is reciprocal, both a personal choice and a response to others<br />It depends on context, so it changes with time and circumstances<br />It is multifaceted: Emerging adults choose to accept some attributes and reject others<br />Changing contexts of life require ethnic identity to be reestablished at each phase<br />In addition, combining past and future is a complex but crucial task<br />
  13. 13. Vocational Identity<br />Establishing a vocational identity is widely considered part of adulthood<br />A correlation between college education and income has always been apparent<br />Correlation is not perfect (1% of those in the top one-fifth income bracket are not high school graduates), but it is high<br />Majority of emerging adults are employed while they are in college<br />Whether in college or not, most young adults move from job to job<br />Between ages 18 and 27, the average U.S. worker has eight jobs (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2006)<br />Hiring and firing seem disconnected from the worker’s training or need for a steady job, especially for younger workers<br />
  14. 14. Vocational Identity (cont’d)<br />
  15. 15. Intimacy<br />Erickson forcefully noted the reality that people need each other<br />Erickson’s sixth psychosocial stage, intimacy versus isolation, particularly emphasizes that humans are social creatures<br />All intimate relationships are common in many ways<br />Intimacy progresses from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment<br />Erickson noted that each relationship demands some personal sacrifice<br />People need “concrete affiliations and partnerships”<br />
  16. 16. Friendships<br />Friends are chosen for the very qualities that make them good companions:<br />Trustworthy, reliable, understanding, loyal, affectionate, humorous<br />They defend against stress and provide joy<br />Traditionally, young men and women choose to be friends with their own sex and engage in sex-specific activities with them<br />Males: shared activities<br />Sports, cars, contests<br />Females: intimate, emotional activities<br />Self-disclosing talks about health, romances, and relatives<br />Today’s common contexts of emerging adulthood all foster multiple acquaintances and friends of both sexes<br />
  17. 17. Romance<br />The Dimensions of Love…<br />Robert Sternberg described 3 distinct aspects of love: <br />Passion, intimacy, and commitment<br />Passionis the connection between a couple; it’s the dominant aspect of love for young adults <br />Characterized by excitement, ecstasy, and euphoria<br />The entire body and mind, hormones, and neurons are activated <br />Intimacy is established when couples know each other well enough to share secrets, as well as sex<br />Commitmentis the one that takes time<br />Occurs through decisions, caregiving, shared possessions and secrets<br />Passion may fade, intimacy may grow, and commitment may develop <br />This pattern may occur for all types of couples<br />Contemporary Lovers…<br />People who marry young are likely to get divorced because they rush and do not develop the three dimensions of love<br />Establishing a non-sexual relationship that later leads to one is proven to be more successful than otherwise <br />College students engage in what they call "hookups," purely sexual activity with no relationship <br />
  18. 18. Romance (cont’d)<br />
  19. 19. Romance (cont’d)<br />Cohabitation…<br />Cohabit means to live with an unrelated person—typically a romantic partner—to whom one is not married<br />May share expenses and routines as well as a bed but not a belief in long-term commitments<br />Domestic violence and excessive drinking are more likely to occur among young adults who cohabit than among those who marry<br />Married couples are more likely to divorce if they have lived together before marriage<br />Divorce is common (ending 45% of U.S. marriages) and difficult<br />
  20. 20. Family Connections<br />Families are “our most important individual support system.”<br />All members of each family have linked lives <br />The experiences and needs of family members at one stage of life are affected by those of members at other stages <br />Parents continue to be crucial influences after age 18<br />Fewer emerging adults today have established their own families, secured successful jobs, or achieved a definite understanding of their identity and goals<br />In many aspects, parents of emerging adults are relatively well off<br />Financially stable<br />Lack thereof in some cases is a problem for emerging adults affected by it<br />College is costly; living expenses are not cheap<br />Worldwide, college graduation rates decrease as family income falls<br />Health wise, most can expect to live for decades longer <br />Reasoning as to why they want their adult children to be successful<br />
  21. 21. Family Connections (cont’d)<br />Most emerging adults, like humans of all ages, have strengths as well as liabilities<br />Many survive risks, overcome substance abuse, combat loneliness, and deal with many of the challenges of life<br />Most find liberation in postponing major life decisions—marriage, parenting, career success—until their identity is firmly established<br />Then they are ready for the commitment and responsibility of adulthood…<br />