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Essay On Rwanda Genocide
The Rwandan Genocide: Crime against humanity
Throughout history, human beings have revolutionized the world using technology and other
innovative means. However, it goes without saying on the opposite side of the coin that although
people are capable of creating phenomenal things, people are just as capable of destruction. For as
long as there has been differences amongst people in society, there has always been discrimination
against people in regards to a certain race, class, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and etc. In the
most extreme cases, differences of groups of people in society have resulted in mass persecution
through the systematic destruction know as genocide. In society, atrocious genocides aren't
uncommon events. Since the beginning of time, people have participated in horrific acts of injustice
against one another from the first modern genocide of "the 13th century, when heretics in Medieval
Europe were massacred during Albigensian Crusade" (History 1) to the most recent, the Rwandan
Genocide. The...show more content...
This made the Hutus alter their strategy completely and they decided to exterminate the Tutsis
completely to get ride of opposition, so that they will remain in power.
During the Rwandan genocide, systematic rape was also practiced "as a weapon of war" (End
Genocide). There was around 250,000 to 500,000 women raped and it was done to destroy the Tutsi
by emotional pain. The Hutus wanted the woman to "die of sadness" and to cripple them with health
problems. In most cases, the women were murdered after being raped. Eventually, in the span of 100
days, the RPF started to "make gains on both the battlefield and in the negotiations led by Tanzania".
In the beginning of July, the RPF gained authority over the majority of the country and many Hutus
left the
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Genocide in Rwanda Essay
Genocide
War is not a necessary evil humans must endure. Although, war is not necessary, humans go to war
to try to gain power, fortune, and to spread their particular group's religions and beliefs. By
definition civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in
human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record–keeping,
including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. The chaos of war
is reflected in the semantic history of the word war. War can be traced back to the Indo–European
root *wers–, "to confuse, mix up." In the Germanic family of the Indo–European languages, this root
gave rise to several words having to do with...show more content...
They also had begun organized slaughter, starting in the capital Kigali. They had killed nearly one
million Rwandans in 100 days time.
The first people to be killed were those most likely to resist the plan of genocide. Those people
included the Prime Minister, the Prisdent of the constitutional court, priests, leaders of the Liberal
Pary, etc. Also, those who did not immediately join the comapaign, like the governor of the south,
were removed from their political positions and some politicians were killed.
As the killing intensified, the international community deserted Rwanda. The US closed their eyes
to the problems going on in Rwanda and Burundi because it did not affect them. Western nations
landed troops in Rwanda or Burundi in the first week to evacuate their citizens, did so, and left.
The UN mission (UNAMIR), created in October 1993 to keep the peace and assist the governmental
transition in Rwanda, sought to intervene between the killers and civilians. It also tried to mediate
between the RPF and the Rwandan army after the RPF struck from Rwanda to protect Tutsi and
rescue their battalion encamped in Kigali as part of the Accord. On April 21, 1994, the United
Nations Security Council, at the behest of the United States–which had no troops in
Rwanda–Belgium, and others, voted to withdraw all but a remnant of UNAMIR. The Security
Council took
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Genocide in Rwanda Essay
Genocide is "the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, ethnic, political, or cultural group".
In Rwanda for example, the Hutu–led government embraced a new program that called for the
country's Hutu people to murder anyone that was a Tutsi (Gourevitch, 6). This new policy of one
ethnic group (Hutu) that was called upon to murder another ethnic group (Tutsi) occurred during
April through June of 1994 and resulted in the genocide of approximately 800,000 innocent people
that even included women and children of all ages. In this paper I will first analyze the origins
/historical context regarding the discontent amongst the Hutu and Tutsi people as well as the
historical context as to why major players in the international...show more content...
The Belgians also decreed that Tutsis should be the only ones in power and thus removed Hutus
from positions of power and excluded them from higher education (Arraras). "By assuring the Tutsis'
monopoly of power the Belgians set the stage for future conflict in Rwanda" (Arraras). The Tutsis
were enjoying their status as being superior to the Hutus but all that changed in 1959 with the
Hutu revolution and so in 1960 and 1961 the Hutus won the elections. Since then, ethnic tensions
had always been brewing between the Hutus and the Tutsis. However the tensions escalated when
Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down above Kigali airport on April
6, 1994. I consider this to be a form of political violence because someone or a group that opposed
this President which represented only the political interests as well as the viability of the Hutus had
to be killed in order for another group possibly the Tutsis to fill the vacuum of power left by the
Hutu president. The Hutus blamed the assassination of their president on the Tutsis and in turn
sparked an all out massacre waged on to the Tutsi people. Although it is sometimes viewed that
major players in the international community did not get involved in the conflict between the Hutus
and the Tutsis I argue that in some form or fashion they did. For example, prior to the genocide of
1994 the United States had formed an alliance with the Tutsis, they even gave Paul Kagame,
co–founder of the
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Rwanda Genocide Sociology
The term genocide encompasses some of the darkest times in the history of the world. There is no
definitive answer as to what drives one sect of society to try and eliminate another based purely on
their cultural, racial, national or political affiliation either by birth or by choice. During World War
II, between six and eleven million Jewish people were systematically exterminated by the Nazis.
Although it was the most prolific of genocides, it was not the first or the last of this atrocity to
occur. In 1994, genocide occurred in the African nation of Rwanda. At the time it happened, the
world paid little heed while almost a million people were killed. After the incident, the reaction of
the United Nations came under scrutiny as researchers...show more content...
This had to do with the peacekeepers that were sent to Rwanda, and how long they should stay
there. The UN wanted to pull out troops, but they did not want to be hated. During the time the
plan was being approved President Clinton did not want to commit any forces to Rwanda.
Because of this, the US was scrutinized by the media and asked why they said no, but they did
try to help clean up the situation. Althorugh troops were sent, they did not arrive until the middle
of July. Though they were late, this did help to receive any other refugees to get away and to
clam the genocide. But only fifty US vehicles were really sent to help them get out, the extra
troops were sent by the UN Secretary General for peacekeeping duties along with 200 artillery
pieces for a thousand men. Thanks to all the plans that had been approved and suggested by
others to appease the situation thought many have died a few were saved thanks to UN efforts
and as all know thans to a certain owner of a hotel who convinced a UN officer to take refugees
out of Rwanda despite the risk of taking them out. There were many road blocks that were
swarming with Hutus trying to stop them , but it was too late and because of this many more
lives were saved so the UN sending peacekeepers actually saved lives CONCLUSION In
conclusion, the Rwandan genocide clearly stemmed from decades of feuds and led to the death of
over 800,000 people. Some people think the genocide could have been prevented if the United States
and the United Nations would have done more sooner. Looking at the history of Alexander
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Rwandan Genocide Analysis
Introduction
The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 saw the highest level of violent atrocities and killings committed
against the Tutsi ethnic group as perpetrated by the Hutu ethnic group. The Rwandan Genocide
remains to be one of the most notable genocides of the 20th Century due to the significant number
of civilians, killed of approximately '500,000 to 800,000' Bhavani and Backer (2000) tutsi's
slaughtered in the short time of 90 Days. The genocide occurred as a result of ethnic, political and
socio–economic tensions triggered by Belgian colonial rule aiming to divide these ethnic groups into
three distinct categories 'Hutu, Tutsi or Twa'. The shooting of Hutu president Habyarimana's plane
triggered the violence, as 'this event was all the justification...show more content...
The Rwandan genocide not only wiped out ordinary civilians but on the sector level devastated the
criminal justice system of Rwanda due to the murders of judiciaries, lawyers, judges, prosecutors
who unfortunately fell victims to these mass atrocities (Longman 2009, Human Rights Watch 2011).
Accountability for these atrocities was difficult to achieve due to the high numbers of civilians who
partipated in the genocide, and the high prison population of individuals detained for these crimes
which the national courts, and international courts were unable to process and trial efficiently. The
Gacaca system an indigenous system of conflict resolution adapted to the needs of providing
communal justice, by involving Rwandan's within the Justice process. Aside from trailing and
prosecuting 'gacaca's mandate was extended to include a focus on truth–telling, reconciliation and
the reintegration of prisoners'. Palmer (2005:4) The extension of Gacacas mandate to include
reconciliation and truth telling was a necessary measure as it played a strong role in not only
providing justice for the victims of the genocide, but provides perpetrator the opportunity to express
remorse for their actions, which was an absent factor of both the national and international
mechanisms. For reconciliation to be truly fostered, perpetrators must acknowledge that their actions
were wrongful, negatively impacting on individuals, and must be given a platform, to express these
feelings and remorse which the gacaca system aimed to provide, in a complex three–part interaction
between the victim, perpetrator and members of the community who witnessed the violence. In
order to examine the extent to which Gacaca, has fulfilled its primary goals, an outline of Gacaca's
Jurisdictions is strongly
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Refugees In Rwanda Research Paper
"How can I ever forget the scene where my husband was massacred right in my presence. It was a
nightmare. It was a nightmare. I live through it every day and it is engraved forever in my memory."
During one April, not so long ago, the world sat back and watched as a turbulent political
situation in central Africa turned into something the world will never be able to forget. 800,000
people murdered in just 100 days, 800,000 people needlessly slaughtered at the hands of
extremists, 800,000 men, women, and children gone because of a more serious problem rooted in
social prejudice and inequality, 800,000 killed in a genocide that the world could do nothing about
until it was too late. Almost 50 years after the world pledged to never let...show more content...
Next, the issue of return and repartition will be explored, including the issues of the forced
repartition of refugees as well as the socio–political factors that returning refugees and the Rwandan
government must not only face, but deal with. Finally, this paper will talk about the future for
Rwanda and the future of refugees within the Great Lakes region of Africa. In order to help
visualize the processes of refugee movements, as well as the geography of the Great Lakes region, a
map of the region has been included in Appendix 1.
The Creation of a Refugee Crisis: War and Genocide
The violent events of 1994 were not something that occurred by surprise or without warning. Ethnic
tensions and political unrest have fueled a hostile environment within Rwanda as well as within
other countries in the surrounding Great Lakes region for many years, the roots of which date back
to well before the conflict in 1994 began. In order to truly understand the genocide that occurred,
events dating back to 1959 and even before must be briefly examined. A majority of the ethnic
tensions throughout the tumultuous history of Rwanda lies within the two major groups known as the
Hutu and the Tutsi. As Tony Waters points out "There
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The Rwandan Genocide: A Crime Against Humanity
The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by
members of the Hutu majority.
The Randwa genocide was very much of a crime against humanity in the sense that many innocent
lives were taken. It took place in a time that cause a majority of ethnic group to be killed, in Rwanda.
One must look deep into one of the darker times of humanity to really understand. From the history
behind it, to Canada's response, and to the effect of the people involved the Rwanda genocide is to be
looked at from a critical eye.
History is something that everyone has, it is the building blocks to events that are terrifying or
powerful, in the case of the Rwandan genocide it was terrifying. The first signs of tension came from
the Belgians,...show more content...
Canada merely ignored the cries of the Rwandan genocide as the canadian peacekeepers only saw
all the awful and unspeakable things had happened on Rwandan soil. "The imperative of saving
hundreds of thousands of lives clearly was not enough of a reason for Canada to engage halfway
around the world 15 years ago in Rwanda." In other words canada saw no effort to save people
from the genocide as it the amount of money, political ties, and economic and cultural difference
held Canada back. It made them see the genocide as just a mere argument and didn't really think
of the people who were victims and directly involved. The result of this action can be seen as a
way in which after the true calamity and end result of the genocide it because clear the Canada's
role, or rather not of was a great mistake that now still haunts canada in today's society. "One of the
most surprising discoveries we made ... is how vulnerable we are here in Canada to the indirect
consequences of events like the Rwanda genocide". This is something that made genocide a different
term in the eyes and minds of the western
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The Rwanda Genocide Essay
The world's history has been tainted by many instances of violence targeted at specific groups of
people due to either their ethnicity or beliefs. This paper will discuss the characteristics of the
Rwanda Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust. The Rwanda Genocide targeted the Tutsis because of
their ethnicity, while the Holocaust targeted the Jews because of their ethnicity and religion.
To really understand the Rwandan Genocide and the Final Solution, one must understand the
background of the two exterminated peoples. The Tutsis are an ethnic group that resides in the
African Great Lakes region. During the Europeans settlements in Rwanda, the colonists need an
identifier to separate the population of Rwanda. Belgium settlers defined "Tutsi"...show more
content...
(Hitler's Book "Mein Kampf") The Nazis claimed that the Jewish people and religion was the
source of their downfall, and the genocide of the Jewish people was their only option.
Propaganda for the Rwanda Genocide began when the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) invaded
Rwanda in 1990. Thus, the Hutu Power Movement began. A group of government officers and
officials began a magazine called "Kangura", which spread anti–Tutsi propaganda. The Hutu Ten
Commandments, which were published in the Kangura, was an example of racist guidelines for the
Hutus if they ever came into contact with a Tutsi. By 1990, the Rwandan army began arming its
civilians with swords and clubs under the pretense of self defense. These weapons became the main
tools used in the genocide. After the ceasefire between the Rwanda government and the RPF in
1992, Hutu extremists in the Rwandan government and the army began to plot against the President
in fear of allowing the Tutsis to participate in governmental issues. The extremists began a new
radios station named "Radio TГ©lГ©vision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLMC), which broadcasted
racist propaganda against Tutsis. Hutu extremist leaders also staged or reported false events to
convince the Hutu population that the Tutsis were accomplices of the RPF. (Propaganda and
Practice) The Holocaust, on the other hand, utilized many more ways of propaganda.
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An Essay On The Rwandan Genocide
of the genocide. During this genocide, 11% of the Rwandan population was lost. This is the highest
casualty rate of a population in history from non–natural causes (Prunier 265). "Many of those
seeking refuge had been involved with either the armed forces of Rwanda or Hutu militia groups,
and some were fugitives of justice that had committed genocide" (Adelman). "Approximately 1
million Hutu refugees fled Rwanda to Zaire, which is now Dem. Republic of Congo, and another
half million fled to Tanzania" (Adelman). About 300,000 of the refugees leaving the country was
Hutu killer (Prunier 265). Even though this genocide had a main target group, it was also the killers
that were affected. After the Rwandan Genocide several militia leaders were tried in a court. "One
significant result was the establishment of a special international criminal tribunal to indict and try
perpetrators of the Rwandan...show more content...
It is disappointing that the history of Rwanda,..., may still repeat itself. I may not have the power
or influence to stop this tragedy, but I am not going to sit idly by and watch another tragedy
continue to unfold before my eyes" US House2 5). Genocide has been around for centuries and
unfortunately countries such as Rwanda had to witness the atrocities of genocide. Unlike the
holocaust, the Hutus main goal was to slaughter as many Tutsi as they could in as little as 100
days. It is equally important to remember those that suffered from this historical event will never
forget it. The Rwandan genocide was a 100 day massacre that was started by the Hutu President's
place accident, which was blamed on the Tutsi from previous political disputes. All in all, the
question still remains whether the Hutus shot their own president's plane down to start a war of
massacre or if the Tutsi were really trying to regain
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Causes And Effects Of The Rwandan Genocide
History Assignment Tim Human 24 October
Rwanda Genocide
Introduction:
For my research task on the Rwandan Genocide I will be discussing the causes and effects of the
Rwandan Genocide and I will be stating the events prior to the genocide. My research will be
focused on three main questions, what caused the Genocide?What were the events prior to the
Genocide? And what effects did the Genocide have on the countries involved?I will be talking about
belgium and their colonialism as well as the Tutsis and the Hutu's.
Historical Context:
The two groups (the hutus and the tutsis) lived in peace with one another. Tutsis being landowners
and Hutus being workers of the land because of their traditional grouping. Their relationship was
disrupted by the Belgians when they colonised Rwanda.
Analysis:...show more content...
Rwanda was inhabited by two main groups, the Hutus and the Tutsis. The Hutus were traditionally
crop growers whereas the Tutsis were herdsmen. This division of labour meant that the Hutus far
outnumbered the Tutsis. This meant that the two groups were separated not literally but
figuratively in their roles of labour. When Rwanda was colonised by Belgium, a wedge was
forced in between these two groups fully separating them. This was because the practice of the
colonial administrators was to select those who were more privileged or educated as factors for the
decision of who would run the country and who would be run. The belgians chose the Tutsis; tall,
landowners and to the Europeans eye they were more political by appearance and nature. THis
introduction of classification brought an unbalance to Rwanda. Some Tutsis began to behave like
aristocrats and the Hutu to feel like they were peasants or
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Rwanda Genocide Research Paper
United States Less than a year separated the end of the Battle of Mogadishu and the start of the
Rwandan Genocide. The United States didn't want to have a similar situation where American lives
were lost, that weren't a part of a war. The United States turned away from the situation going on in
Rwanda so they wouldn't have to take part in the Peace Keeping Operation. By not acknowledging
the Genocide that was happening the United States wasn't obligated to assist the country. The United
States was taking part in a type of Non–Interventionism foreign policy when working on the
Rwandan Genocide
During a press conference President Clinton talked about the American Role in Rwanda. "Whether
we get involved in any of the world's ethnic conflicts...show more content...
The United Nations is made up of many countries from all over the globe. There are five countries
who are permanent roles in it: United States, Great Britain, France, Russia, and China. With these
five major countries, there shouldn't be a reason an organization could have a lack of resource.
But during the genocide the UN was not able to bring about enough personal and equipment to
sufficiently run a peace keeping operation in Rwanda. With a lack of resources, they also had a
lack of will to try and gain resources. People in the Security Council believed it wasn't going to be
anything worth getting into at the start of the killing. The UN had resources in Rwanda with the
UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda). When the UNAMIR sent, a report
saying they needed more because something big was going to happen in Rwanda, the UN didn't
believe them so they did nothing. The UN Security Council took a slightly non–intervention type of
thought. They didn't completely stay out of it, they had peace keepers on the ground in Rwanda. But
they didn't send enough and once they were there left them to their own
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Essay On Genocide In Rwanda
Heartbreak and Loss Inside a Nation
Harmony turned power hungry. The Tutsis, tall warrior people, invaded the homeland of the Hutu
farmers. The Tutsis had fewer numbers. Yet, they still conquered the Hutus. There was a
compromise: if the Tutsis raised the crops the Hutus would in turn protect them. They lived as one,
spoke the same language, and intermarried. However, when Belgium withdrew their troops a power
vacuum spread rapidly throughout the rugged Rwandan plains. The Tutsis and Hutus civil war
turned into a mass genocide that lasted for months. Some 600 years after, the Hutus pushed aside the
Tutsi and finally regained their rightfully deserved control. Now, Rwanda is at peace, but concerned
with AIDS and other diseases. It is made lots...show more content...
Instead of confronting the Hutus with words or nonviolent protests, the Tutsis began a warfare. I
learned that no more than half of the Tutsi and Hutu groups can read and write in their native
language. Belgium and Germany must have seen this as an advantage. The Tutsis who held military
power inherited it from the colonia lpower and don't want to share fully with the Hutus. A news
reporter stated, "The German and Belgian invaders shrewdly manipulated the Tutsi and Hutu with
the age–old, highly effective "divide and rule" strategy." If the Tutsis and Hutus had been educated
they would have realized that. If they had a higher education they could have run for office, instead
of electing a king. They were smart enough to form an army, train children with deadly weapons,
and kill millions of people. The only difference between the two groups is economical, rather than
ethical. Once they began the assassinations they could not stop the slaughter. At first the Hutus were
victims of the atrocity, but once they regained power terror struck down on the Tutsis. All the unfair
distribution of resources such as, wealth, and education powered their fight. Segregation was also a
fuel that was ignited every time they were called "dark
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Rwanda Genocide Essay
Imagine living a life of fear, turmoil, with death all around. Hearing gun shots being fired, death
chants, machete use, dead bodies everywhere. Afraid to close your eyes at night to rest, yet more
afraid to wake up in the morning. To sustain your life and the life of your loved ones you must
hide out, kill others, watch your neighbors be killed at the hands of the enemy. Knowing if you
are caught you could be forced to murder your own family, be raped, be held captive, be starved to
death, and most likely be killed. In 1994, this was the life many faced in Rwanda. "Rwanda has
become a synonym for one of the worst genocides of the 20th century (Lemarchand, (n.d.), p. 483).
Rwanda is a small country located near the center of Africa. Kigali is the capital which is located in
the center of the country. In 1991, the population of Rwanda was 7.7 million, according to the
national census. Rwanda was made up of three ethnic groups 90 percent of the population was Hutu,
9 percent was Tutsi, and 1 percent was Twa (Worldwithoutgenocide.org, 2013). A civil war broke out
between the two major ethnic groups the Hutus and the Tutsis, which led to a large–scale...show
more content...
Rwanda's colonial period, the Belgians chose the minority Tutsis over the Hutus which created a
legacy of tension that erupted into violence. In 1959, ethnic violence was directed against the Tutsi
chiefs erupted, killing hundreds of people, both Tutsis and Hutus. This violence ended rather quickly
with assistance from the Belgian troops. This was the beginning of the first phase of the Hutu–led
revolutionary process that forced over 200,000 Tutsis to depart from Rwanda. By 1961, the
victorious Hutus had banished Rwanda's Tutsi monarchy, declaring the country a republic. Rwanda
gained independence from Belgium in July of 1962 (History.com,
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Rwanda Genocide Research Papers
Remy Frederick
Ms. McKenzie
Language Arts– Per 1
January 2nd, 2017
The Rwandan Genocide When most people hear the word genocide, they automatically think about
the Holocaust and Hitler. But what people don't know is that there have been many other genocides
in the past and that there are genocides happening still today. One of these was the Rwandan genocide
. Rwanda consisted of three different religions, the Hutu, the Tutsi, and the Twa. The Hutu are the
majority and are about 85% of the population. The Tutsis are the second largest in Rwanda which is
about 14% of them Tutsi. Finally, this leaves the Twa at about 1% of the population.
This genocide didn't just happen overnight, it went through all of the stages of the pyramid of hate
before
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Rwandan Genocide Essay
The formation of the United Nations in 1945 was marked by an international outcry to 'never again'
idly bear witness to the genocidal atrocities capable of man, as so harshly revealed in the nature of
the Holocaust. In doing so, all member states actively sought to facilitate discussion in the United
Nations as a world forum, in order to achieve both international and intra–national security. While the
United Nations has achieved various successes in the international community, the international
entity and its' member states are subject to various legal and moral flaws, weakening response to
conflicts in the contemporary era of international relations. These failures are exemplified tragically
in the response to the Rwandan genocide in...show more content...
The genocide was partly founded in ethno–politics, as a group of exiled Hutus, the Rwandan
Patriotic Front, invaded Rwanda from Uganda in order to reclaim their power within Rwanda from
the Tutsi peoples.
The turbulent relationship between the two groups was founded in pre–colonial, colonial,
post–colonial and modern relationships and frameworks. The pre–colonial ethnic distinctions of
Hutu, Tutsi and Twa, defined by social and economic organization were furthered by colonization,
during which rigid segregation continued to plague political and social Rwandan frameworks. These
distinctions were hypothesized and glorified by the academic community during colonization as the
Hamitic hypothesis began to gain prominence. The theory was based upon the idea of a scientific
racial supremacy separating the three tribes, praising the Tutsi pastoralists as being naturally
destined to be the ruling group (Codere 1962, 48). Further, the premise was of distinguishable,
observable traits between the two groups, in a practice often conceptualized as scientific racism. As
decolonization became a more common shift in the international realm, the second colonizers of
Rwanda, the state of Belgium, began to maintain authority over the territory. The Rwandan
Revolution of 1959, saw a dramatic switch in the Rwandan power structure, as the Hutu majority
suddenly rose to prominence and the Tutsi were excluded from government with active
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Rwanda Genocide Effects
The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 (see Appendix A) was a horrible tragedy in the eyes of
the modern world, and more often than not, it is seen as a diplomatic failure by the most powerful
nations in the world. The developed world overwhelmingly ignored the destabilization of
sub–Saharan Africa that accompanied European decolonization in the late 20th century. Although
the Rwandan Genocide is traditionally thought to have ended after 100 horrendous days in 1994,
many impacts still linger. One of the most lasting effects of the tragic conflict is the HIV crisis
and its displacement of peoples throughout sub–Saharan Africa. This displacement, specifically of
the Tutsi and Hutu tribes of Rwanda, has shaped the geopolitical atmosphere of the region,...show
more content...
With the removal of ethnic markers on identification cards for
Rwandans, the government and economy of the country was able to resettle after the Rwandan
Civil War, but the displaced people in Zaire, Uganda, Tanzania, and Burundi all faced new
challenges. The Hutu refugees in Zaire were forced into the Congo Wars, in which Zaire was
Garivay 3
invaded by the Rwandans, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo was formed. The
questionable sustainability of new African governments has yet to be resolved (the current system
in the DRC has only been in place since 2003), but the Rwandan Genocide and its subsequent
HIV crisis most definitely affected these populations. Other countries, such as Burundi, also faced
change in the immediate aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. Bennedsen emphasizes that "In
Burundi, conflict began when the country had fairly high rates of HIV infection" (6). The use of
rape and sexual, gender–based violence as a weapon of war not only ruined the lives of
individuals, but influenced the affairs of neighboring domains.
Although the Rwandan Genocide and the HIV crisis following it had
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The Rwandan Genocide Essay
For years, Rwanda has been a hotbed of racial tension. The majority of the Rwandan population is
made up of Hutu's, with Tutsi's making up the rest of it. Ever since European colonial powers
entered the country and favoured the Tutsi ethnic group over the Hutu by putting Tutsi people in all
important positions in society, there has been a decisive political divide between the two groups.
This favouring of the Tutsi over the Hutu, and the Hutu subjugation as an ethnic lower class resulted
in the civil war and revolution of 1959, where the Hutu overthrew the Tutsi dominated government,
and resulted in Rwanda gaining their independence in 1962.
However, tension remained between the two ethnic groups, with a civil war raging between the
...show more content...
The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda was a mission designed to help carry–out the
conditions set forth in the Arusha Accords, which were signed in 1993, with the purpose of ending
the Rwandan Civil War. The UN was aware of the situation in Rwanda, and the tension between the
two ethnic groups, well before the genocide was committed. After April 6th, with the death of the
president and the ensuing call–to–arms, one of the first victims of the genocide was the Prime
Minister, and her bodyguard of 10 Belgian UN commandos. The mission the UN soldiers were
deployed on did not have sufficiently provide instructions regarding whether they could use force
retaliate to fighting, so they surrendered their weapons to presidential troops when asked, only to
then be captured, tortured and murdered at the enemies compound. As a result, the Belgian
government and other contingents of the UNAMIR called for the immediate withdrawal of all
troops. Out of the original 2,500 troops, Lieutenant–General Romeo Dallaire stayed behind with only
270 UNAMIR soldiers to assist the Tutsi people. A request for immediate reinforcements of 5,000
troops was sent out by Lieutenant–General Dallaire, which was denied by the UN. Eventually, on
17th May 1994, the UNSC agreed to deliver 5,500 troops and other much–needed equipment to the
UNAMIR troops. The UN troops focused on evacuating foreign nationals, and
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Rwanda Genocide Research Paper
Committee: UNHCR
Topic: Prevention and Prosecution of Genocide
Country: Denmark Background: Genocide is a horrific event that must stopped and prevented
around the world. With that, political leaders that played roles in the genocide must be prosecuted
and given necessary punishment. The convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of
punishment defined genocide as an act committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a
national, ethnical, racial or religious group. One of the biggest and most known genocide would the
Jewish Holocaust during World War II, where more than 11 million innocent people lost their lives
under the Nazis regime. Other genocides have occurred after the Holocaust, such as the Rwandan
Genocide and the genocide in Darfur (Still occurring). Genocides can include mass murder, acts of
terrorism, Physical or mental abuse, exclusion from certain rights, or...show more content...
On October 10, 2014, the special advisors published a statement concerning the genocidal violence
and acts of terrorism in Kobane, Syria. "mission and work of the UN system as a whole. UN
agencies, departments and programmes contribute to the prevention of genocide by, inter alia,
supporting equitable economic development and the fair distribution of political power; promoting
tolerance and respect for ethnic, religious and cultural diversity, and the protection of human rights;
providing humanitarian assistance; and interceding to ensure peace, security and stability." (the UN
website). When a genocide, war crimes, acts of terrorism, and crimes against humanity have taken,
the UN lets the International Criminal Court (separate from UN) to investigate and press charges.
The UN uses many different committees and groups to prevent the terror of genocide in all
countries, around the
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Rwandan Genocide of 1994 Essays
The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 lasted only for a brief period and lasted for approximately a
hundred days. During that time, an estimated amount of 800 000 people were slaughtered.
Beginning on April of 1994, massacres were held on a daily basis with the intent to eliminate an
ethnic group known as the Tutsi by another ethnic group known as the Hutus. This genocide was
overlooked by the United Nations, and the superpowers of the time offered very little or no
assistance at all to Rwanda. The civil unrest between the Hutus and the Tutsi has been in place
since the Belgians segregated the two groups after being handed Rwanda after World War I. The
Tutsis were favoured and placed above the Hutus and identity cards were distributed to...show more
content...
After World War I, the Belgians were given Rwanda and Burundi after the defeat of Germany.
Despite their cultural similarities, which included language and geography, the Hutus and the Tutsi
were given identity cards by the Belgians that marked their ethnic affiliation. The Belgians favoured
the Tutsis and so they were privy to a much higher social status and were able to gain a decent
education, which allowed them to get better jobs whereas the Hutus were often restricted to being
farmers or servants. There was a deep cultural unbalance and the idea of favouritism and segregation
led to unrest and discrimination against the Tutsis by the Hutus.
Ethnic groups was divided by white people before leaving our countries after getting our
independence saying that one of the part had more advantages over the other.... Like saying Tutsis
were rich and Hutus just work for them in their farms as workers or grooms. That's why they were
seeking to revenge against Tutsis and so genocide to happen.
After World War II, the Belgians had prepared to pull out of Rwanda, allowing it to gain
independence. In 1959, the nationalist Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU)
came to power and by this time, the Hutus held the majority
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Case Study: Rwanda Genocide Essay
Case Study: Rwanda
The conflict in Rwanda is probably the most well known and documented case of genocide since the
holocaust. Through years of discrimination based on ethnic and class based differences, the
population of Rwanda has been constantly entrenched in periods of fighting, refuge and genocide. In
the following essay we will explore the background of the conflict. Specifically the historical
implications, the parties involved the reasons for the fighting and the result of conflict. Next we will
try to investigate some of the theories related to the conflict and discuss views of prominent authors
who have attempted to define the reasoning behind this most incomprehensible conflict.
Historical Background
The origin of the...show more content...
The identity cards remained in use into the post–independence era, and unfortunately also provided
central assistance to the crazed militias who would later carry out the atrocities on the Rwandan
population.
After World War II, the trend of decolonization was sweeping Africa and the pacific and it was then
that the Tutsis would lead a campaign for independence from the Belgians (Cook, 2006). With the
opportunity for independence, Rwandans like in any other country fighting for independence at the
time, divided into parties vying for the lead role in government. While the Tutsis historically had
privilege to this position, before decolonization occurred the Belgians began switching out Tutsi
representatives for Hutus out of fear that a majority Hutu party would come out victorious (Rwanda,
2008). The Belgian suspicion of a Hutu overthrow came to fruition when the Hutus took control of
Rwanda in 1959 (Rwanda, 2008). After the overthrow, vengeful Hutu militias murdered about
15,000 Tutsis, and more than 100,000 Tutsis fled to bordering countries, primarily Uganda and
Burundi (Cook, 2006). The Tutsis remaining in Rwanda were stripped of their possessions and
positions of power under the regime of JuvГ©nal Habyarimana, who came to power in 1973
(January, 2007).
Background Post–Independence/Parties
During Habyarimana's rule as president an estimated one
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Rwandan Genocide Essay

  • 1. Essay On Rwanda Genocide The Rwandan Genocide: Crime against humanity Throughout history, human beings have revolutionized the world using technology and other innovative means. However, it goes without saying on the opposite side of the coin that although people are capable of creating phenomenal things, people are just as capable of destruction. For as long as there has been differences amongst people in society, there has always been discrimination against people in regards to a certain race, class, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and etc. In the most extreme cases, differences of groups of people in society have resulted in mass persecution through the systematic destruction know as genocide. In society, atrocious genocides aren't uncommon events. Since the beginning of time, people have participated in horrific acts of injustice against one another from the first modern genocide of "the 13th century, when heretics in Medieval Europe were massacred during Albigensian Crusade" (History 1) to the most recent, the Rwandan Genocide. The...show more content... This made the Hutus alter their strategy completely and they decided to exterminate the Tutsis completely to get ride of opposition, so that they will remain in power. During the Rwandan genocide, systematic rape was also practiced "as a weapon of war" (End Genocide). There was around 250,000 to 500,000 women raped and it was done to destroy the Tutsi by emotional pain. The Hutus wanted the woman to "die of sadness" and to cripple them with health problems. In most cases, the women were murdered after being raped. Eventually, in the span of 100 days, the RPF started to "make gains on both the battlefield and in the negotiations led by Tanzania". In the beginning of July, the RPF gained authority over the majority of the country and many Hutus left the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. Genocide in Rwanda Essay Genocide War is not a necessary evil humans must endure. Although, war is not necessary, humans go to war to try to gain power, fortune, and to spread their particular group's religions and beliefs. By definition civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record–keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. The chaos of war is reflected in the semantic history of the word war. War can be traced back to the Indo–European root *wers–, "to confuse, mix up." In the Germanic family of the Indo–European languages, this root gave rise to several words having to do with...show more content... They also had begun organized slaughter, starting in the capital Kigali. They had killed nearly one million Rwandans in 100 days time. The first people to be killed were those most likely to resist the plan of genocide. Those people included the Prime Minister, the Prisdent of the constitutional court, priests, leaders of the Liberal Pary, etc. Also, those who did not immediately join the comapaign, like the governor of the south, were removed from their political positions and some politicians were killed. As the killing intensified, the international community deserted Rwanda. The US closed their eyes to the problems going on in Rwanda and Burundi because it did not affect them. Western nations landed troops in Rwanda or Burundi in the first week to evacuate their citizens, did so, and left. The UN mission (UNAMIR), created in October 1993 to keep the peace and assist the governmental transition in Rwanda, sought to intervene between the killers and civilians. It also tried to mediate between the RPF and the Rwandan army after the RPF struck from Rwanda to protect Tutsi and rescue their battalion encamped in Kigali as part of the Accord. On April 21, 1994, the United Nations Security Council, at the behest of the United States–which had no troops in Rwanda–Belgium, and others, voted to withdraw all but a remnant of UNAMIR. The Security Council took Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Genocide in Rwanda Essay Genocide is "the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, ethnic, political, or cultural group". In Rwanda for example, the Hutu–led government embraced a new program that called for the country's Hutu people to murder anyone that was a Tutsi (Gourevitch, 6). This new policy of one ethnic group (Hutu) that was called upon to murder another ethnic group (Tutsi) occurred during April through June of 1994 and resulted in the genocide of approximately 800,000 innocent people that even included women and children of all ages. In this paper I will first analyze the origins /historical context regarding the discontent amongst the Hutu and Tutsi people as well as the historical context as to why major players in the international...show more content... The Belgians also decreed that Tutsis should be the only ones in power and thus removed Hutus from positions of power and excluded them from higher education (Arraras). "By assuring the Tutsis' monopoly of power the Belgians set the stage for future conflict in Rwanda" (Arraras). The Tutsis were enjoying their status as being superior to the Hutus but all that changed in 1959 with the Hutu revolution and so in 1960 and 1961 the Hutus won the elections. Since then, ethnic tensions had always been brewing between the Hutus and the Tutsis. However the tensions escalated when Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down above Kigali airport on April 6, 1994. I consider this to be a form of political violence because someone or a group that opposed this President which represented only the political interests as well as the viability of the Hutus had to be killed in order for another group possibly the Tutsis to fill the vacuum of power left by the Hutu president. The Hutus blamed the assassination of their president on the Tutsis and in turn sparked an all out massacre waged on to the Tutsi people. Although it is sometimes viewed that major players in the international community did not get involved in the conflict between the Hutus and the Tutsis I argue that in some form or fashion they did. For example, prior to the genocide of 1994 the United States had formed an alliance with the Tutsis, they even gave Paul Kagame, co–founder of the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. Rwanda Genocide Sociology The term genocide encompasses some of the darkest times in the history of the world. There is no definitive answer as to what drives one sect of society to try and eliminate another based purely on their cultural, racial, national or political affiliation either by birth or by choice. During World War II, between six and eleven million Jewish people were systematically exterminated by the Nazis. Although it was the most prolific of genocides, it was not the first or the last of this atrocity to occur. In 1994, genocide occurred in the African nation of Rwanda. At the time it happened, the world paid little heed while almost a million people were killed. After the incident, the reaction of the United Nations came under scrutiny as researchers...show more content... This had to do with the peacekeepers that were sent to Rwanda, and how long they should stay there. The UN wanted to pull out troops, but they did not want to be hated. During the time the plan was being approved President Clinton did not want to commit any forces to Rwanda. Because of this, the US was scrutinized by the media and asked why they said no, but they did try to help clean up the situation. Althorugh troops were sent, they did not arrive until the middle of July. Though they were late, this did help to receive any other refugees to get away and to clam the genocide. But only fifty US vehicles were really sent to help them get out, the extra troops were sent by the UN Secretary General for peacekeeping duties along with 200 artillery pieces for a thousand men. Thanks to all the plans that had been approved and suggested by others to appease the situation thought many have died a few were saved thanks to UN efforts and as all know thans to a certain owner of a hotel who convinced a UN officer to take refugees out of Rwanda despite the risk of taking them out. There were many road blocks that were swarming with Hutus trying to stop them , but it was too late and because of this many more lives were saved so the UN sending peacekeepers actually saved lives CONCLUSION In conclusion, the Rwandan genocide clearly stemmed from decades of feuds and led to the death of over 800,000 people. Some people think the genocide could have been prevented if the United States and the United Nations would have done more sooner. Looking at the history of Alexander Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Rwandan Genocide Analysis Introduction The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 saw the highest level of violent atrocities and killings committed against the Tutsi ethnic group as perpetrated by the Hutu ethnic group. The Rwandan Genocide remains to be one of the most notable genocides of the 20th Century due to the significant number of civilians, killed of approximately '500,000 to 800,000' Bhavani and Backer (2000) tutsi's slaughtered in the short time of 90 Days. The genocide occurred as a result of ethnic, political and socio–economic tensions triggered by Belgian colonial rule aiming to divide these ethnic groups into three distinct categories 'Hutu, Tutsi or Twa'. The shooting of Hutu president Habyarimana's plane triggered the violence, as 'this event was all the justification...show more content... The Rwandan genocide not only wiped out ordinary civilians but on the sector level devastated the criminal justice system of Rwanda due to the murders of judiciaries, lawyers, judges, prosecutors who unfortunately fell victims to these mass atrocities (Longman 2009, Human Rights Watch 2011). Accountability for these atrocities was difficult to achieve due to the high numbers of civilians who partipated in the genocide, and the high prison population of individuals detained for these crimes which the national courts, and international courts were unable to process and trial efficiently. The Gacaca system an indigenous system of conflict resolution adapted to the needs of providing communal justice, by involving Rwandan's within the Justice process. Aside from trailing and prosecuting 'gacaca's mandate was extended to include a focus on truth–telling, reconciliation and the reintegration of prisoners'. Palmer (2005:4) The extension of Gacacas mandate to include reconciliation and truth telling was a necessary measure as it played a strong role in not only providing justice for the victims of the genocide, but provides perpetrator the opportunity to express remorse for their actions, which was an absent factor of both the national and international mechanisms. For reconciliation to be truly fostered, perpetrators must acknowledge that their actions were wrongful, negatively impacting on individuals, and must be given a platform, to express these feelings and remorse which the gacaca system aimed to provide, in a complex three–part interaction between the victim, perpetrator and members of the community who witnessed the violence. In order to examine the extent to which Gacaca, has fulfilled its primary goals, an outline of Gacaca's Jurisdictions is strongly Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Refugees In Rwanda Research Paper "How can I ever forget the scene where my husband was massacred right in my presence. It was a nightmare. It was a nightmare. I live through it every day and it is engraved forever in my memory." During one April, not so long ago, the world sat back and watched as a turbulent political situation in central Africa turned into something the world will never be able to forget. 800,000 people murdered in just 100 days, 800,000 people needlessly slaughtered at the hands of extremists, 800,000 men, women, and children gone because of a more serious problem rooted in social prejudice and inequality, 800,000 killed in a genocide that the world could do nothing about until it was too late. Almost 50 years after the world pledged to never let...show more content... Next, the issue of return and repartition will be explored, including the issues of the forced repartition of refugees as well as the socio–political factors that returning refugees and the Rwandan government must not only face, but deal with. Finally, this paper will talk about the future for Rwanda and the future of refugees within the Great Lakes region of Africa. In order to help visualize the processes of refugee movements, as well as the geography of the Great Lakes region, a map of the region has been included in Appendix 1. The Creation of a Refugee Crisis: War and Genocide The violent events of 1994 were not something that occurred by surprise or without warning. Ethnic tensions and political unrest have fueled a hostile environment within Rwanda as well as within other countries in the surrounding Great Lakes region for many years, the roots of which date back to well before the conflict in 1994 began. In order to truly understand the genocide that occurred, events dating back to 1959 and even before must be briefly examined. A majority of the ethnic tensions throughout the tumultuous history of Rwanda lies within the two major groups known as the Hutu and the Tutsi. As Tony Waters points out "There Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. The Rwandan Genocide: A Crime Against Humanity The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority. The Randwa genocide was very much of a crime against humanity in the sense that many innocent lives were taken. It took place in a time that cause a majority of ethnic group to be killed, in Rwanda. One must look deep into one of the darker times of humanity to really understand. From the history behind it, to Canada's response, and to the effect of the people involved the Rwanda genocide is to be looked at from a critical eye. History is something that everyone has, it is the building blocks to events that are terrifying or powerful, in the case of the Rwandan genocide it was terrifying. The first signs of tension came from the Belgians,...show more content... Canada merely ignored the cries of the Rwandan genocide as the canadian peacekeepers only saw all the awful and unspeakable things had happened on Rwandan soil. "The imperative of saving hundreds of thousands of lives clearly was not enough of a reason for Canada to engage halfway around the world 15 years ago in Rwanda." In other words canada saw no effort to save people from the genocide as it the amount of money, political ties, and economic and cultural difference held Canada back. It made them see the genocide as just a mere argument and didn't really think of the people who were victims and directly involved. The result of this action can be seen as a way in which after the true calamity and end result of the genocide it because clear the Canada's role, or rather not of was a great mistake that now still haunts canada in today's society. "One of the most surprising discoveries we made ... is how vulnerable we are here in Canada to the indirect consequences of events like the Rwanda genocide". This is something that made genocide a different term in the eyes and minds of the western Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. The Rwanda Genocide Essay The world's history has been tainted by many instances of violence targeted at specific groups of people due to either their ethnicity or beliefs. This paper will discuss the characteristics of the Rwanda Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust. The Rwanda Genocide targeted the Tutsis because of their ethnicity, while the Holocaust targeted the Jews because of their ethnicity and religion. To really understand the Rwandan Genocide and the Final Solution, one must understand the background of the two exterminated peoples. The Tutsis are an ethnic group that resides in the African Great Lakes region. During the Europeans settlements in Rwanda, the colonists need an identifier to separate the population of Rwanda. Belgium settlers defined "Tutsi"...show more content... (Hitler's Book "Mein Kampf") The Nazis claimed that the Jewish people and religion was the source of their downfall, and the genocide of the Jewish people was their only option. Propaganda for the Rwanda Genocide began when the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) invaded Rwanda in 1990. Thus, the Hutu Power Movement began. A group of government officers and officials began a magazine called "Kangura", which spread anti–Tutsi propaganda. The Hutu Ten Commandments, which were published in the Kangura, was an example of racist guidelines for the Hutus if they ever came into contact with a Tutsi. By 1990, the Rwandan army began arming its civilians with swords and clubs under the pretense of self defense. These weapons became the main tools used in the genocide. After the ceasefire between the Rwanda government and the RPF in 1992, Hutu extremists in the Rwandan government and the army began to plot against the President in fear of allowing the Tutsis to participate in governmental issues. The extremists began a new radios station named "Radio TГ©lГ©vision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLMC), which broadcasted racist propaganda against Tutsis. Hutu extremist leaders also staged or reported false events to convince the Hutu population that the Tutsis were accomplices of the RPF. (Propaganda and Practice) The Holocaust, on the other hand, utilized many more ways of propaganda. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. An Essay On The Rwandan Genocide of the genocide. During this genocide, 11% of the Rwandan population was lost. This is the highest casualty rate of a population in history from non–natural causes (Prunier 265). "Many of those seeking refuge had been involved with either the armed forces of Rwanda or Hutu militia groups, and some were fugitives of justice that had committed genocide" (Adelman). "Approximately 1 million Hutu refugees fled Rwanda to Zaire, which is now Dem. Republic of Congo, and another half million fled to Tanzania" (Adelman). About 300,000 of the refugees leaving the country was Hutu killer (Prunier 265). Even though this genocide had a main target group, it was also the killers that were affected. After the Rwandan Genocide several militia leaders were tried in a court. "One significant result was the establishment of a special international criminal tribunal to indict and try perpetrators of the Rwandan...show more content... It is disappointing that the history of Rwanda,..., may still repeat itself. I may not have the power or influence to stop this tragedy, but I am not going to sit idly by and watch another tragedy continue to unfold before my eyes" US House2 5). Genocide has been around for centuries and unfortunately countries such as Rwanda had to witness the atrocities of genocide. Unlike the holocaust, the Hutus main goal was to slaughter as many Tutsi as they could in as little as 100 days. It is equally important to remember those that suffered from this historical event will never forget it. The Rwandan genocide was a 100 day massacre that was started by the Hutu President's place accident, which was blamed on the Tutsi from previous political disputes. All in all, the question still remains whether the Hutus shot their own president's plane down to start a war of massacre or if the Tutsi were really trying to regain Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Causes And Effects Of The Rwandan Genocide History Assignment Tim Human 24 October Rwanda Genocide Introduction: For my research task on the Rwandan Genocide I will be discussing the causes and effects of the Rwandan Genocide and I will be stating the events prior to the genocide. My research will be focused on three main questions, what caused the Genocide?What were the events prior to the Genocide? And what effects did the Genocide have on the countries involved?I will be talking about belgium and their colonialism as well as the Tutsis and the Hutu's. Historical Context: The two groups (the hutus and the tutsis) lived in peace with one another. Tutsis being landowners and Hutus being workers of the land because of their traditional grouping. Their relationship was disrupted by the Belgians when they colonised Rwanda. Analysis:...show more content... Rwanda was inhabited by two main groups, the Hutus and the Tutsis. The Hutus were traditionally crop growers whereas the Tutsis were herdsmen. This division of labour meant that the Hutus far outnumbered the Tutsis. This meant that the two groups were separated not literally but figuratively in their roles of labour. When Rwanda was colonised by Belgium, a wedge was forced in between these two groups fully separating them. This was because the practice of the colonial administrators was to select those who were more privileged or educated as factors for the decision of who would run the country and who would be run. The belgians chose the Tutsis; tall, landowners and to the Europeans eye they were more political by appearance and nature. THis introduction of classification brought an unbalance to Rwanda. Some Tutsis began to behave like aristocrats and the Hutu to feel like they were peasants or Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Rwanda Genocide Research Paper United States Less than a year separated the end of the Battle of Mogadishu and the start of the Rwandan Genocide. The United States didn't want to have a similar situation where American lives were lost, that weren't a part of a war. The United States turned away from the situation going on in Rwanda so they wouldn't have to take part in the Peace Keeping Operation. By not acknowledging the Genocide that was happening the United States wasn't obligated to assist the country. The United States was taking part in a type of Non–Interventionism foreign policy when working on the Rwandan Genocide During a press conference President Clinton talked about the American Role in Rwanda. "Whether we get involved in any of the world's ethnic conflicts...show more content... The United Nations is made up of many countries from all over the globe. There are five countries who are permanent roles in it: United States, Great Britain, France, Russia, and China. With these five major countries, there shouldn't be a reason an organization could have a lack of resource. But during the genocide the UN was not able to bring about enough personal and equipment to sufficiently run a peace keeping operation in Rwanda. With a lack of resources, they also had a lack of will to try and gain resources. People in the Security Council believed it wasn't going to be anything worth getting into at the start of the killing. The UN had resources in Rwanda with the UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda). When the UNAMIR sent, a report saying they needed more because something big was going to happen in Rwanda, the UN didn't believe them so they did nothing. The UN Security Council took a slightly non–intervention type of thought. They didn't completely stay out of it, they had peace keepers on the ground in Rwanda. But they didn't send enough and once they were there left them to their own Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Essay On Genocide In Rwanda Heartbreak and Loss Inside a Nation Harmony turned power hungry. The Tutsis, tall warrior people, invaded the homeland of the Hutu farmers. The Tutsis had fewer numbers. Yet, they still conquered the Hutus. There was a compromise: if the Tutsis raised the crops the Hutus would in turn protect them. They lived as one, spoke the same language, and intermarried. However, when Belgium withdrew their troops a power vacuum spread rapidly throughout the rugged Rwandan plains. The Tutsis and Hutus civil war turned into a mass genocide that lasted for months. Some 600 years after, the Hutus pushed aside the Tutsi and finally regained their rightfully deserved control. Now, Rwanda is at peace, but concerned with AIDS and other diseases. It is made lots...show more content... Instead of confronting the Hutus with words or nonviolent protests, the Tutsis began a warfare. I learned that no more than half of the Tutsi and Hutu groups can read and write in their native language. Belgium and Germany must have seen this as an advantage. The Tutsis who held military power inherited it from the colonia lpower and don't want to share fully with the Hutus. A news reporter stated, "The German and Belgian invaders shrewdly manipulated the Tutsi and Hutu with the age–old, highly effective "divide and rule" strategy." If the Tutsis and Hutus had been educated they would have realized that. If they had a higher education they could have run for office, instead of electing a king. They were smart enough to form an army, train children with deadly weapons, and kill millions of people. The only difference between the two groups is economical, rather than ethical. Once they began the assassinations they could not stop the slaughter. At first the Hutus were victims of the atrocity, but once they regained power terror struck down on the Tutsis. All the unfair distribution of resources such as, wealth, and education powered their fight. Segregation was also a fuel that was ignited every time they were called "dark Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Rwanda Genocide Essay Imagine living a life of fear, turmoil, with death all around. Hearing gun shots being fired, death chants, machete use, dead bodies everywhere. Afraid to close your eyes at night to rest, yet more afraid to wake up in the morning. To sustain your life and the life of your loved ones you must hide out, kill others, watch your neighbors be killed at the hands of the enemy. Knowing if you are caught you could be forced to murder your own family, be raped, be held captive, be starved to death, and most likely be killed. In 1994, this was the life many faced in Rwanda. "Rwanda has become a synonym for one of the worst genocides of the 20th century (Lemarchand, (n.d.), p. 483). Rwanda is a small country located near the center of Africa. Kigali is the capital which is located in the center of the country. In 1991, the population of Rwanda was 7.7 million, according to the national census. Rwanda was made up of three ethnic groups 90 percent of the population was Hutu, 9 percent was Tutsi, and 1 percent was Twa (Worldwithoutgenocide.org, 2013). A civil war broke out between the two major ethnic groups the Hutus and the Tutsis, which led to a large–scale...show more content... Rwanda's colonial period, the Belgians chose the minority Tutsis over the Hutus which created a legacy of tension that erupted into violence. In 1959, ethnic violence was directed against the Tutsi chiefs erupted, killing hundreds of people, both Tutsis and Hutus. This violence ended rather quickly with assistance from the Belgian troops. This was the beginning of the first phase of the Hutu–led revolutionary process that forced over 200,000 Tutsis to depart from Rwanda. By 1961, the victorious Hutus had banished Rwanda's Tutsi monarchy, declaring the country a republic. Rwanda gained independence from Belgium in July of 1962 (History.com, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. Rwanda Genocide Research Papers Remy Frederick Ms. McKenzie Language Arts– Per 1 January 2nd, 2017 The Rwandan Genocide When most people hear the word genocide, they automatically think about the Holocaust and Hitler. But what people don't know is that there have been many other genocides in the past and that there are genocides happening still today. One of these was the Rwandan genocide . Rwanda consisted of three different religions, the Hutu, the Tutsi, and the Twa. The Hutu are the majority and are about 85% of the population. The Tutsis are the second largest in Rwanda which is about 14% of them Tutsi. Finally, this leaves the Twa at about 1% of the population. This genocide didn't just happen overnight, it went through all of the stages of the pyramid of hate before Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. Rwandan Genocide Essay The formation of the United Nations in 1945 was marked by an international outcry to 'never again' idly bear witness to the genocidal atrocities capable of man, as so harshly revealed in the nature of the Holocaust. In doing so, all member states actively sought to facilitate discussion in the United Nations as a world forum, in order to achieve both international and intra–national security. While the United Nations has achieved various successes in the international community, the international entity and its' member states are subject to various legal and moral flaws, weakening response to conflicts in the contemporary era of international relations. These failures are exemplified tragically in the response to the Rwandan genocide in...show more content... The genocide was partly founded in ethno–politics, as a group of exiled Hutus, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, invaded Rwanda from Uganda in order to reclaim their power within Rwanda from the Tutsi peoples. The turbulent relationship between the two groups was founded in pre–colonial, colonial, post–colonial and modern relationships and frameworks. The pre–colonial ethnic distinctions of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa, defined by social and economic organization were furthered by colonization, during which rigid segregation continued to plague political and social Rwandan frameworks. These distinctions were hypothesized and glorified by the academic community during colonization as the Hamitic hypothesis began to gain prominence. The theory was based upon the idea of a scientific racial supremacy separating the three tribes, praising the Tutsi pastoralists as being naturally destined to be the ruling group (Codere 1962, 48). Further, the premise was of distinguishable, observable traits between the two groups, in a practice often conceptualized as scientific racism. As decolonization became a more common shift in the international realm, the second colonizers of Rwanda, the state of Belgium, began to maintain authority over the territory. The Rwandan Revolution of 1959, saw a dramatic switch in the Rwandan power structure, as the Hutu majority suddenly rose to prominence and the Tutsi were excluded from government with active Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Rwanda Genocide Effects The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 (see Appendix A) was a horrible tragedy in the eyes of the modern world, and more often than not, it is seen as a diplomatic failure by the most powerful nations in the world. The developed world overwhelmingly ignored the destabilization of sub–Saharan Africa that accompanied European decolonization in the late 20th century. Although the Rwandan Genocide is traditionally thought to have ended after 100 horrendous days in 1994, many impacts still linger. One of the most lasting effects of the tragic conflict is the HIV crisis and its displacement of peoples throughout sub–Saharan Africa. This displacement, specifically of the Tutsi and Hutu tribes of Rwanda, has shaped the geopolitical atmosphere of the region,...show more content... With the removal of ethnic markers on identification cards for Rwandans, the government and economy of the country was able to resettle after the Rwandan Civil War, but the displaced people in Zaire, Uganda, Tanzania, and Burundi all faced new challenges. The Hutu refugees in Zaire were forced into the Congo Wars, in which Zaire was Garivay 3 invaded by the Rwandans, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo was formed. The questionable sustainability of new African governments has yet to be resolved (the current system in the DRC has only been in place since 2003), but the Rwandan Genocide and its subsequent HIV crisis most definitely affected these populations. Other countries, such as Burundi, also faced change in the immediate aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. Bennedsen emphasizes that "In Burundi, conflict began when the country had fairly high rates of HIV infection" (6). The use of rape and sexual, gender–based violence as a weapon of war not only ruined the lives of
  • 17. individuals, but influenced the affairs of neighboring domains. Although the Rwandan Genocide and the HIV crisis following it had Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. The Rwandan Genocide Essay For years, Rwanda has been a hotbed of racial tension. The majority of the Rwandan population is made up of Hutu's, with Tutsi's making up the rest of it. Ever since European colonial powers entered the country and favoured the Tutsi ethnic group over the Hutu by putting Tutsi people in all important positions in society, there has been a decisive political divide between the two groups. This favouring of the Tutsi over the Hutu, and the Hutu subjugation as an ethnic lower class resulted in the civil war and revolution of 1959, where the Hutu overthrew the Tutsi dominated government, and resulted in Rwanda gaining their independence in 1962. However, tension remained between the two ethnic groups, with a civil war raging between the ...show more content... The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda was a mission designed to help carry–out the conditions set forth in the Arusha Accords, which were signed in 1993, with the purpose of ending the Rwandan Civil War. The UN was aware of the situation in Rwanda, and the tension between the two ethnic groups, well before the genocide was committed. After April 6th, with the death of the president and the ensuing call–to–arms, one of the first victims of the genocide was the Prime Minister, and her bodyguard of 10 Belgian UN commandos. The mission the UN soldiers were deployed on did not have sufficiently provide instructions regarding whether they could use force retaliate to fighting, so they surrendered their weapons to presidential troops when asked, only to then be captured, tortured and murdered at the enemies compound. As a result, the Belgian government and other contingents of the UNAMIR called for the immediate withdrawal of all troops. Out of the original 2,500 troops, Lieutenant–General Romeo Dallaire stayed behind with only 270 UNAMIR soldiers to assist the Tutsi people. A request for immediate reinforcements of 5,000 troops was sent out by Lieutenant–General Dallaire, which was denied by the UN. Eventually, on 17th May 1994, the UNSC agreed to deliver 5,500 troops and other much–needed equipment to the UNAMIR troops. The UN troops focused on evacuating foreign nationals, and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. Rwanda Genocide Research Paper Committee: UNHCR Topic: Prevention and Prosecution of Genocide Country: Denmark Background: Genocide is a horrific event that must stopped and prevented around the world. With that, political leaders that played roles in the genocide must be prosecuted and given necessary punishment. The convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of punishment defined genocide as an act committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. One of the biggest and most known genocide would the Jewish Holocaust during World War II, where more than 11 million innocent people lost their lives under the Nazis regime. Other genocides have occurred after the Holocaust, such as the Rwandan Genocide and the genocide in Darfur (Still occurring). Genocides can include mass murder, acts of terrorism, Physical or mental abuse, exclusion from certain rights, or...show more content... On October 10, 2014, the special advisors published a statement concerning the genocidal violence and acts of terrorism in Kobane, Syria. "mission and work of the UN system as a whole. UN agencies, departments and programmes contribute to the prevention of genocide by, inter alia, supporting equitable economic development and the fair distribution of political power; promoting tolerance and respect for ethnic, religious and cultural diversity, and the protection of human rights; providing humanitarian assistance; and interceding to ensure peace, security and stability." (the UN website). When a genocide, war crimes, acts of terrorism, and crimes against humanity have taken, the UN lets the International Criminal Court (separate from UN) to investigate and press charges. The UN uses many different committees and groups to prevent the terror of genocide in all countries, around the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. Rwandan Genocide of 1994 Essays The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 lasted only for a brief period and lasted for approximately a hundred days. During that time, an estimated amount of 800 000 people were slaughtered. Beginning on April of 1994, massacres were held on a daily basis with the intent to eliminate an ethnic group known as the Tutsi by another ethnic group known as the Hutus. This genocide was overlooked by the United Nations, and the superpowers of the time offered very little or no assistance at all to Rwanda. The civil unrest between the Hutus and the Tutsi has been in place since the Belgians segregated the two groups after being handed Rwanda after World War I. The Tutsis were favoured and placed above the Hutus and identity cards were distributed to...show more content... After World War I, the Belgians were given Rwanda and Burundi after the defeat of Germany. Despite their cultural similarities, which included language and geography, the Hutus and the Tutsi were given identity cards by the Belgians that marked their ethnic affiliation. The Belgians favoured the Tutsis and so they were privy to a much higher social status and were able to gain a decent education, which allowed them to get better jobs whereas the Hutus were often restricted to being farmers or servants. There was a deep cultural unbalance and the idea of favouritism and segregation led to unrest and discrimination against the Tutsis by the Hutus. Ethnic groups was divided by white people before leaving our countries after getting our independence saying that one of the part had more advantages over the other.... Like saying Tutsis were rich and Hutus just work for them in their farms as workers or grooms. That's why they were seeking to revenge against Tutsis and so genocide to happen. After World War II, the Belgians had prepared to pull out of Rwanda, allowing it to gain independence. In 1959, the nationalist Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU) came to power and by this time, the Hutus held the majority Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 21. Case Study: Rwanda Genocide Essay Case Study: Rwanda The conflict in Rwanda is probably the most well known and documented case of genocide since the holocaust. Through years of discrimination based on ethnic and class based differences, the population of Rwanda has been constantly entrenched in periods of fighting, refuge and genocide. In the following essay we will explore the background of the conflict. Specifically the historical implications, the parties involved the reasons for the fighting and the result of conflict. Next we will try to investigate some of the theories related to the conflict and discuss views of prominent authors who have attempted to define the reasoning behind this most incomprehensible conflict. Historical Background The origin of the...show more content... The identity cards remained in use into the post–independence era, and unfortunately also provided central assistance to the crazed militias who would later carry out the atrocities on the Rwandan population. After World War II, the trend of decolonization was sweeping Africa and the pacific and it was then that the Tutsis would lead a campaign for independence from the Belgians (Cook, 2006). With the opportunity for independence, Rwandans like in any other country fighting for independence at the time, divided into parties vying for the lead role in government. While the Tutsis historically had privilege to this position, before decolonization occurred the Belgians began switching out Tutsi representatives for Hutus out of fear that a majority Hutu party would come out victorious (Rwanda, 2008). The Belgian suspicion of a Hutu overthrow came to fruition when the Hutus took control of Rwanda in 1959 (Rwanda, 2008). After the overthrow, vengeful Hutu militias murdered about 15,000 Tutsis, and more than 100,000 Tutsis fled to bordering countries, primarily Uganda and Burundi (Cook, 2006). The Tutsis remaining in Rwanda were stripped of their possessions and positions of power under the regime of JuvГ©nal Habyarimana, who came to power in 1973 (January, 2007). Background Post–Independence/Parties During Habyarimana's rule as president an estimated one Get more content on HelpWriting.net