Structure in schools hoy n miskel


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Structure in schools hoy n miskel

  1. 1. Structure in Schools Hoy and Miskel, 200810/24/2012
  2. 2. Model of Bureaucracy (Formal organization)Max Weber (1947) Division of Labor Division of labor produces specialization which increases efficiency. Impersonal Orientation Decisions are based on fact and not feelings. Hierarchy of Authority A system of superordination (superiors) and subordination (subordinates) to guarantee compliance and discipline Rules and Regulations Ensures uniformity of behavior of the employees. Career Orientation Promotion of loyal employees based on seniority and achievement. (dispassionate decisions) Efficiency Bureaucracy maximizes expertise, rational decisions, and administrative efficiency. 10/24/2012
  3. 3. Weber’s Model of Bureaucracy in Popular TV He has the office on top floor- highest source of authority Charismatic authority rules andregulations – stable and without personality- even whenseduced by a beautiful woman, he remainsincorruptible MAD MEN (TV series) 10/24/2012 Cooper Draper Pryce is the incarnation of Weber’s bureaucratic model Sterling
  4. 4. Critique of Weber’s Model1. Dysfunctional aspects are not considered2. Informal organization is neglected3. Dual structure of bureaucratic model4. Feminist critique10/24/2012
  5. 5. Dysfunctional Features of BureaucracyFunction Characteristic DysfunctionExpertise Division of Labor BoredomRationality Impersonal Orientation Lack of moraleCompliance and Hierarchy of Authority CommunicationCoordination blocksContinuity and Rules and Regulations Rigidity and goalStability displacementIncentive Career Orientation Conflict between achievement and seniority 10/24/2012
  6. 6. Functions and Dysfunctions of RulesFunctions DysfunctionsExplication Reinforce Apathy(minimumacceptable )Screening (buffering) Goal displacementLegitimate Punishment Create legalismLeeway Indulgency (leniency) 10/24/2012
  7. 7. Informal Organization- “Shadow Organization” It is the spontaneous development of a social structure and culture within a formal organizationHow does it develop within a formal organization?Personal relationsDivision into cliques (based on feelings, common lounge, age, similar interests, etc)Social norms (appropriate behavior)Informal roles( unofficial spokesperson, informal leaders)Informal communication(the grapevine) 10/24/2012
  8. 8. Dual Structure of the Bureaucratic ModelIs bureaucratic administration based primarily on expertise,or is it based on rules and discipline?The answer to this question creates the conflict of dualbureaucracy in Weber’s model.10/24/2012
  9. 9. Feminist CritiqueBureaucracies promote male values at the expense of female ones. Hierarchy Equalitarian Impersonality personalized VS. Independence dependence Competition Cooperation Rationality Emotionality 10/24/2012
  10. 10. Structure in Schools -HALLTwo Types of Rational Organizations rather than One integrated model -Hall(1962) Bureaucratic Pattern  Hierarchy of Authority  Rules for employees  Procedural Specifications  Impersonality Professional Pattern  Technical Competence  Specialization10/24/2012
  11. 11. Formal Structure in Schools Professional Pattern High Low High Weberian Authoritarian Bureaucratic Pattern Low Professional Chaotic10/24/2012
  12. 12. Predicted Changes In School Structure Chaotic Authoritarian Weberian ProfessionalOrganization Organization Organization Organization Stable Environment Turbulent Environment 10/24/2012
  13. 13. Structure in Schools –Hoy and Sweetland (2000-2001)School structures can be described along a continuum from enabling to hindering.Enabling School Structure Hindering School Structure Enabling Hierarchy Hindering Hierarchy Enabling formalization (rules & Coercive formalization (rulesprocedures) &procedures) Use Impose top-down two-way communication communication View problems as View problems as opportunities constraints Seek mutual solutions Force consensus Support differences Suspicious of differences Practice openness Be cautious and closed Embrace the unexpected Fear the unexpected Correct mistakes Punish mistakes 10/24/2012
  14. 14. Key Parts of Structure- Mintzberg Strategic superintendent over a school district ApexCoordinators- Accountant-maintenanceinstructional supervisors Techno- Middle Support Structure Line Staff School principal Operating Core teachers 10/24/2012
  15. 15. Coordinating Mechanisms-MintzbergThey are the fundamental means organizations use tomonitor and control work. These mechanisms are the gluethe hold the organization together.  Mutual Adjustment--informal communication  Direct Supervision--personal command  Standardization of Work– work program directions  Standardization of Output--specify work results  Standardization of Skills--specify training10/24/2012
  16. 16. Five Combinations and Five Basic Structures(Mintzberg) Strategic Apex Directive Supervision Simple Structure Technostructur Stand. of Work Machine Bur. e Stand. of Skills Professional Bur. Operating Core Stand. of Outputs Divisional Form Middle Line Mutual Adjustment Adhocracy Support Staff 10/24/2012
  17. 17. Loose Coupling Perspective Loose couplings are structural connections among school units in the bureaucratic structure. Ex. the administration of a school has little influence on what is happening in the classroom. Schools are complex organizations with both tight and loose structural connections. Bureaucracies tend to be tightly structured. Professional organizations tend to be more loosely structured. Tight coupling promotes limits discretion of teachers. Loose coupling enhances discretion of teachers.10/24/2012
  18. 18. Professional and Bureaucratic Orientations Professional Orientation Bureaucratic Orientation Sources of Compatibility between Orientations • Expertise • Expertise • Objective perspective • Objective perspective • Impersonal approach • Impersonal approach • Service to clients • Service to the organization Sources of Conflict between Orientations • Colleague reference group • Hierarchical orientation • Autonomy in decision making • Disciplined compliance • Self-imposed control • Subordinated to the organization 10/24/2012
  19. 19. Questions/Comments10/24/2012