political Science

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political Science

  1. 1. POLITICS PROJECT-SOCIAL EQUALITY )
  2. 2. SOCIAL EQUALITY Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………….……………………..1 Social equality…………………………………………………………………………………………2 Social Inequality and Exclusion………………………………………………………………………. 3 Discrimination………………………………………………………………………………………...4 The Other Backward Classes…………………………………………………………………….5 Social inequality and tribal……………………………………………………………………….6 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………..7 References…………………………………………………………………………………………….8
  3. 3. Acknowledgement This draft is completed very successfully by the indispensable role of Jena sir he encouraged and guided to make this draft at the right time, so we sincerely gratitude to them. We also thankful to our friends and senior of KLS they supported and provided ready materials. We share the given topic among them.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Social equality is a social state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in a certain respect. At the very least, social equality includes equal rights under the law, such as security, voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and the extent of property rights. However, it also includes access to education, health care and other social securities. It also includes equal opportunities and obligations, and so involves the whole society.
  5. 5. Social equality requires the lack of legally enforced social class or caste boundaries and the lack of unjustified discrimination motivated by an absolute part of a person's identity. For example, gender, age, sexual orientation, origin, caste or class, income or property, language, religion, convictions, opinions, health or disability must not result in unequal treatment under the law and should not reduce opportunities unjustifiably. Social equality refers to social, rather than economic, or income equality. "Equal opportunities" is interpreted as being judged by ability, which is compatible with a freemarket economy. A problem is horizontal inequality, the inequality of two persons of same origin and ability. Perfect social equality is an ideal situation that, for various reasons, does not exist in any society in the world today. The reasons for this are widely debated. Reasons cited for social inequality include commonly economics, immigration/emigration, foreign politics and national politics. Also, in complexity economics, it has been found that horizontal inequality arises in complex systems. In apartheid-era South Africa, both blacks and whites had formal access to health care and similar public services. However, the segregated health care arranged for blacks did not meet the same standards as those for whites. That is, there was enforced social inequality. Currently, in North Korea, certain groups are officially considered "disloyal" to the regime; the "disloyalty" is inherited, prevents advancement in society, and results in harsher punishments for crimes. Social Inequality and Exclusion In every society some people have a greater share of valued resources-money, property, education, health and power than others. These social resources can be divided into three forms of capital-economic capital in the form of material assets and income; cultural capital such as educational qualifications and status; and social capital in the form of networks of contacts and social associations. Often these three forms of capital be related and one can be converted into the other. For example a person from
  6. 6. a well-off family can afford expensive higher education and so can acquire cultural or educational capital. Patterns of unequal access to social resources are commonly called social inequality. Social inequality reflects natural differences between individuals for example their varying abilities and efforts. Someone may be gifted with exceptional intelligence or talent or may have worked very hard to achieve their wealth and status. However by and large social inequality is not the outcome of innate or natural differences between people but is produced by the society in which they live. Discrimination If prejudice describes attitudes and opinions, discrimination refers to actual behavior towards another group or individual. Discrimination can be seen in practices that disqualify members of one group from opportunities open to others as when a person is refused a job because of their gender or religion. Discrimination can be very hard to prove because it may not be open or explicitly stated. Discriminatory behavior or practices may be presented as motivated by other more justifiable, reasons rather than prejudice. For example the person who is refused a job because of their caste may be told that they were less qualified than others and that the selection was done purely on merit. The Other Backward Classes Untouchability was the most visible and comprehensive form of social discrimination. However there were a large group of castes that were of low status and were also subjected to varying levels of discrimination short of untouchability.These were the service and artisanal castes who occupied the lower rungs of the caste hierarchy. The Constitution of India recognizes the possibility that there may be groups other than the
  7. 7. SC and STs who suffer from social disadvantages. These groups which need not be based on caste alone but generally are identified by caste were described as the socially and educationally backward classes. This is the constitutional basis of the popular term Other Backward Classes. The OBCs are defined negatively by what they are not .They are neither part of the forward castes at the upper end of the status spectrum nor of the dalits at the lower end. But since caste has entered all the major Indian religions and is not confined to Hinduism alone, there are also members of other religions who belong to the backward castes and share the same traditional occupational identification and similar or worse socio-economic status. Since the 1990s there has been resurgence of lower caste movements in north India among both the Dalits and OBCs.The politicization of the OBCs allows them to convert their large numbers recent surveys show that they are about 41% of the national population into political influence. This was not possible at the national level before as shown by the sidelining of the Kalelkar Commission report and the neglect of the Mandal Commission report. The large disparities between the upper OBCs and the lower OBCs make this a difficult political category to work with. However the OBCs are severely underrepresented in all spheres except landholding and political representation. Although the upper OBCs are dominant in the rural sector the situation of urban OBCs is much worse being much closer to that of the SC and STs than to the upper castes. Social inequality and tribal The STs are social groups recognized by the Indian Constitution as specially marked by poverty, powerlessness and social stigma. The Jana or tribes were believed to be people of the forest whose distinctive habitat in the hill and forest areas shaped their economic, social and political attributes. Tribal groups have had long and close
  8. 8. association with Hindu society and culture making the boundaries between tribe and caste quite porous. The term Adivasi can’t political awareness and the assertion of rights. Literally meaning original inhabitants the term was coined in the 1930s as part of the struggle against the intrusion by the colonial govt and outside settlers and moneylenders. Being adivasi is about shared experiences of the loss of forests, the alienation of land, repeated displacements since Independence in the name of development projects and much more. Inspite of the heavy odds against them and in the face of their marginalization many tribal groups have been wagging struggles against outsiders and the state. In post – Independence India, the most significant achievements of Adivasi movements include the attainment of statehood for Jharkhand and Chattisgarh which were originally part of Bihar and MP. CONCLUSION Social equality can be maintained by morally and liberally not by forcibly. Social equality is such a concept that can maintain balance on the society as well as a state. It also establishes the social justice.
  9. 9. REFERENCES WEBSITES 1. www.wikipedia.org Books
  10. 10. 1.principle of political science by A.C. kopur

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