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  1. 1. Internet The Internet is the world’s largest public computer network; a network of networks that provides a vast array of services to individuals, businesses, and organizations around the world. In this section: • Internet Technologies • Web • Internet and Web Applications CT3g > Concepts > Internet
  2. 2. Internet Technologies Many different Internet technologies work together to provide information and services over the Internet, including a variety of protocols, hardware, and software. In this section: • Internet Backbone • Client/Server • Domain Name System • TCP/IP • Peer-to-Peer (DNS) • Internet Service • Router • Port Provider • Internet2 CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies
  3. 3. Internet Backbone The Internet backbone refers to the main Internet pathways and connections, made up of the many national and international communication networks that are owned by major telecom companies, such as Verizon, AT&T, and Sprint—the same companies and networks that provide telephone service. Links: Gartner, Inc.: Magic Quadrant for U.S. Network Service Providers Mapnet: View Internet backbone AT&T international backbone CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Internet Backbone
  4. 4. TCP/IP The protocols on which the Internet is based are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP); together referred to as TCP/IP. Internet applications divide up information, such as an email message, into small packets to make efficient use of the network. Upon arriving at their destination, the packets are reconstructed into the original message. Links: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) PBS: Packet Switching Demo CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > TCP / IP W3Schools: TCP/IP Tutorial IP version 6 (IPv6)
  5. 5. Internet Service Provider A company that provides individuals and organizations with access to the Internet is called an Internet service provider (ISP). Internet service providers have been under the scrutiny of privacy advocates and government regulators for analyzing the data packets that flow over their networks. In a practice called traffic shaping, or packet shaping, ISPs analyze data packets and inhibit packets from sources that are hogging bandwidth, so that all customers have more equal use of the bandwidth. Links: ISP-Planet: Top 23 U.S. ISPs by Subscriber CNET: Internet access tools CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Internet Service Provider
  6. 6. Router A router is a network device that manages network traffic by evaluating messages and routing them over the fastest path to their destination. Although routers play a crucial role on the Internet backbone, they also are used on smaller networks. Routers are used on business and home networks to allow computers on the network to communicate. Links: Princeton University: Traceroute Tool Visualware: VisualRoute tool CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Router
  7. 7. Domain Name System (DNS) The Domain Name System (DNS) maintains a database of all domain names and IP addresses used on the Internet and acts like a phonebook, supplying information to Internet nodes and routers working to get data packets to their destination. Links: The TCP/IP Guide Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN: Accredited Registrars InformationWeek: CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Domain Name System (DNS)
  8. 8. Port In a computer network context, a port is an address used by clients and servers that is associated with a specific service. Just as the post office sorts mail by zip code, Internet servers sort data packets by port number to deliver them to the intended service. Links: Listing of port numbers CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Port Webopedia: Well-Known TCP Port Numbers
  9. 9. Internet2 Internet2 is a research and development consortium led by more than 200 U.S. universities and supported by partnerships with industry and government to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies for tomorrow’s Internet Links: Internet2 National LambdaRail Internet2 Applications CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Internet2 Access Grid
  10. 10. Web Technologies The Web, short for World Wide Web, is an Internet service that provides convenient access to information and services through hyperlinks. In this section: • Web Browser • XML • Cookie • Web Server • CSS • Plug-in • URL • Web Development • Web Programming • HTML Software CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web
  11. 11. Web Browser A Web client, usually called a Web browser, such as Internet Explorer, Safari, and Firefox, is used to request Web pages from Web servers, interpret the HTML code in the Web page that is delivered, and display it onscreen. Links: TopTenREVIEWS: Internet Browser Software Review Firefox Web browser (Windows, Mac, Linux) Internet Explorer Web browser (Windows) Safari Web browser (Windows and Mac) CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web Browser Google Chrome Web browser (Windows)
  12. 12. Web Server The term Web server refers to software that fulfills Web page requests from Web clients, and the computers that run such software. Web hosting companies provide Web service and Web storage services to individuals and businesses for an annual fee. Links: The Register: Apache rules web server landscape Web Hosting Choice: Best 10 Web Hosting Sites CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web Server Apache Software Foundation WebServUSB
  13. 13. URL The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is responsible for managing URLs and IP addresses. ICANN authorizes businesses known as accredited registrars to register new domain names. A Uniform Resource Locator, more commonly called a URL, acts as a Web page address, incorporating the domain name of the Web server and the location of the Web page file on the server. Links: ICANN ICANN: Top-Level Domains CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > URL ICANN: Accredited Registrars name domains
  14. 14. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the primary markup language used to specify the formatting of a Web page. Links: W3Schools: HTML Tutorial CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > HTML W3C: XHTML2 Working Group Home Page
  15. 15. XML XML (Extensible Markup Language) provides a method for describing and classifying Internet-delivered data so that it is easier to organize and manage. Links: W3C: The Semantic Web W3Schools: XML Tutorial W3C: Extensible Markup Language (XML) CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > XML Microsoft: XML Developer Center
  16. 16. CSS Cascading Style Sheets or CSS allows easy application of visual styles for fonts, colors, layout, and other page attributes to create a visual theme for Web pages and sites. Links: W3C: Cascading Style Sheets CSS Zen Garden CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > CSS
  17. 17. Web-Development Software Web development software allows developers to create Web pages more easily using a word- processing-style environment and automating complex coding activities. WYSIWYG (pronounced ―wizzie- wig‖) implies that the Web page you design with the Web development software will look the same when published on the Web. Links: Adobe Dreamweaver CS4 software Aptana software Web Developer’s Journal CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web-Development Software
  18. 18. Cookie A cookie, sometimes called an HTTP cookie, is a small text file placed on a user’s computer by a Web server in order to identify the user whenever he or she returns to visit a Web site. Cookie files can contain data or perhaps a unique identifier that is used to look up your personal profile in a database on the server. Links: Cookie Central Microsoft: Information About Cookies Firefox: Cookies CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Cookie
  19. 19. Plug-In A plug-in works with a Web browser to offer extended services such as audio players, video, animation, 3D graphics viewers, and interactive media. Links: Internet Explorer Add-ons CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Plug-In Plug-ins Firefox Add-ons
  20. 20. Web Programming Web programming refers to the development of software written to run either in a Web browser or on a Web server, using Web-based input and output. Links: Java + You JavaScript, The Definitive JavaScript Resource W3Schools: JavaScript Tutorial Adaptive Path – Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web Programming )
  21. 21. Internet and Web Applications Internet and Web applications are varied and many, assisting individuals, businesses, and organizations with all facets of life including education, news and information sharing, communication, travel, commerce, and entertainment. In this section: • Search Engine • Online Education • Online TV and Video • Portal • Online Travel • Online Games • Internet Communications • Online Employment • Web 2.0 • Online Information Support • Web 3.0 • Online News • Online Music CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications
  22. 22. Search Engine A search engine is a valuable software tool that enables users to find information on the Web by specifying words that are key to their topics of interest—keywords. Links: Google 63% 20% 3% Live Yahoo! AOL Search Ask Dogpile Mahalo Wikia Search A9 CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Search Engine Search Engine Showdown Google: Improve Your Search Experience
  23. 23. Portal A Web portal is a Web page that combines useful information and links, and acts as an entry point to the Web—the first page you open when you begin browsing the Web. Links: iGoogle My Yahoo! MSN AOL The Top Personalized Start Pages Killer Startups: Start-page Review Main Directory CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Portal IBM: Portals and dashboards
  24. 24. Internet Communications Links: Internet communications include text- Wikipedia: Emoticon Wikipedia: List of common emoticons based communications such as email and NetLingo: The List of Chat Acronyms & Text Message Shorthand instant messaging, voice communications AIM Instant Messenger Internet Relay Chat such as Voice over IP (VoIP), video Yahoo! Web Chat Spin Chat communications, and a variety of group and Skype Second Life community forums. Vonage VoIP Internet Phone Service TokBox Live Video Calling Cisco TelePresence CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Internet Communications HP Halo telepresence & video conferencing
  25. 25. Online Information Online information refers to information of all kinds—business, personal, governmental, factual, opinionated, even inaccurate—that is delivered over the Internet and Web. Wikipedia provides a platform for Internet users to share information on every topic. Links: Wikipedia Purdue University: Searching the World Wide Web Naperville (IL) Central High School: Research Tips for the Internet CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Information
  26. 26. Online News Online news refers to newspapers, magazines, journals, news radio and television, and blogs that deliver news and information about Links: current events on PBS NPR AP BBC Technorati Google News ABC News Google Reader the Web. Yahoo! News The New York Times Newsvine Google News MSNBC Yahoo! News Yahoo!: News By Industry The Boston Globe Digg San Francisco Chronicle The Miami Herald Newsvine CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online News Citizen Journalism Report Chicago Tribune Reuters
  27. 27. Online Education In a program it calls OpenCourseWare, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is offering all of its courses free online. Students who take courses via OpenCourseWare will not earn credit toward a degree or have access to teachers, but they can benefit from the knowledge gained. Online education refers to Web sites designed to educate or support education and training. Links: MIT: OpenCourseWare Open Courseware Consortium Blackboard Learning Management System SkillSoft Yale University: Open Yale Courses CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Education eHow Certiport
  28. 28. Online Travel Online travel refers to Web sites and services that support various travel activities such as preparing for travel, finding your way around new environments, reserving flights and lodging, booking tours and activities, and renting vehicles. Links: Google Maps Google Earth Microsoft Virtual Earth Microsoft Live Search Maps MapQuest Travelocity Expedia Priceline iPhone GPS Loopt CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Travel Yahoo! Travel
  29. 29. Online Employment Support Online employment support refers to Web-delivered information and services that support researching employment options and finding employment. •Select a career. •Discover who the players are in your chosen career •Learn about the companies that interest you •Network with others in the field. •View job listings at general employment Web sites. Links: •View job listings at industry-specific employment Web sites JobWeb Yahoo! HotJobs •Create an impressive Web site to represent yourself. Monster CareerBuilder College Board Career Browser U.S. Department of Labor: Occupational Outlook Handbook CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Employment Support
  30. 30. Online Music Online music refers to music delivered through Internet-based or Web- based services and includes Internet radio, music subscription services, and music download services. Links: Pandora is a unique online music service that Live365 Pandora builds radio stations around the listener’s Apple iTunes musical tastes. Microsoft’s Zune Amazon MP3 Downloads Napster Rhapsody CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Music Podcast Alley
  31. 31. Online TV and Video Online TV and video refers to television programming, motion pictures, movies, and user-generated video available on the Web. Links: Hulu Joost ABC CBS NBC Netflix YouTube CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online TV and Video Google Video
  32. 32. Online Games Online games are the many different types of single-user, multiuser, and massively multiuser games played on the Internet and the Web. Multiplayer online games can be categorized into the following genres: •Action •Role-Playing Games •Board (RPG) •Card •Sims •Flight Simulation •Sports •MultiUser Dimension or •Strategy MultiUser Dungeon •Trivia/Puzzle (MUD) Links: Ferion MSN Games Massively Multi-Player Online Role Playing Games Top 100 Game Sites XBox LIVE CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Games World of Warcraft The Lord of the Rings Online
  33. 33. Web 2.0 Web 2.0 refers to Web resources that allow average users to collaborate and contribute to Web content, and to the transition of the Web from an information resource to a computing platform. Links: CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Web 2.0 List of Links
  34. 34. Web 2.0 Links • Social networks: • Rich Internet Apps: – Facebook – Google Docs – MySpace – Google Apps – LinkedIn – 37signals • Social bookmarking: – Zoho – Digg – Flypaper – Delicious – SlideRocket • Crowdsourcing: – icloud – Wikipedia – eyeOS – Epinions – Buzzword • Media sharing: – Todoist – Flickr – Adobe Photoshop Express, – SmugMug • Other: – YouTube – Plaxo Web 2.0 aggregator • Blogging: – Swurl Web 2.0 aggregator – WordPress – SecondLife virtual world social network – Blogger – Twitter – Jaiku – Pownce – Plurk – Spoink
  35. 35. Web 3.0 Web 3.0 refers to the next major change that will take place in Web technology, and as such is speculation at this point. Links: The New York Times: Entrepreneurs See a Web Guided by Common Sense CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Web 3.0