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Agriculture Extension and Communication ver1.2

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**needs updates and improvement

this slides are made with excerpts from other sources like, books,publication, journals, magazines and on-line sources.No plagiarism intended.

intended for the review in the upcoming may 2015 agriculture major admission test of Cavite State University.

for inquiries email me at:

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Agriculture Extension and Communication ver1.2

  3. 3. Education • Encompasses teaching and learning specific skills • The imparting of knowledge, good judgment and wisdom • The act process or art of imparting knowledge and skill. • Learning that takes place in schools or school- like environments (formal education) at large.
  4. 4. Formal, Informal and Non-formal Education Formal education. The hierarchically structured, chronologically graded education system, running from primary school through university. In addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.
  5. 5. • Informal education. The truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitude, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment. • Non-formal education. Any organized educational activity outside the established formal system-whether operating separately or as important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clientele and learning objectives.
  6. 6. Table 1. Formal education versus Non-formal education
  7. 7. Adult education • It is the practice of teaching and educating adults • Extension of educational opportunities to those adults beyond the age of general public education who feel a need for further training of any sort, is also known as continuing education. • it has also been referred to as andragogy.(adult learning)
  8. 8. Extension education The term extension was first used to describe adult education programs in England in the second half of the 19th century. These programs helped to expand- or extend- the work of Universities beyond the campus and into the neighboring community.
  9. 9. Definition of extension. Extension is an informal educational process directed toward rural population. This process offers advice and information to help them solve their problems. Extension also aims to increase the efficiency of the family farm, (as agriculture extension), increase production and generally increase the standard of living of the farm family
  10. 10. Four main elements of extension: – Knowledge and skills – Technical advice and information – Farmers’ organization – Motivation and self-confidence
  11. 11. Agricultural Extension –It involves offering advice, helping farmers to analyze problems and identify opportunities, sharing information, supporting group formation and facilitating collective action. –They aimed to deliver information and new technologies to farmers in order to raise production.
  12. 12. Importance, scope & objectives of Extension Education Importance: – Extension uses democratic methods in educating the farmers. – Extension Helps in adoption of innovations. – Extension helps in studying and solving the rural problems. – Extension increases farm yields and improve the standard of living of farmers – Extension makes good communities better and progressive. – Extension contributes to national development programs
  13. 13. Scope: – It includes all activities of rural development. So extension programs should be dynamic and flexible. The areas indicating scope of Extension are listed below: – Increasing efficiency in agricultural production. – Increasing efficiency in marketing, distribution and utilization of agricultural inputs and outputs – Conservation, development and use of natural resources. – Proper farm and home management – Better family living. – Youth development. – Leadership development. – Community and rural development. – Improving public affairs for all round development.
  14. 14. Objectives: –To raise the standard of living of the rural people by helping them in right use of their resources. –To help in planning and implementing the family and village plans for increasing production in various occupations. –To provide facilities for better family living.
  16. 16. The term "extension" It was not until 1867 that a first practical attempt was made in what was designated "university extension," but the activity developed quickly to become a well- established movement before the end of the century. Initially, most of the lectures given were on literary and social topics, but by the 1890s agricultural subjects were being covered by peripatetic lecturers in rural areas (Jones, 1994).
  17. 17. Towards the Modern Era – Between 1300 and 1700, European society became transformed from its medieval feudal forms into recognizably modem social systems. It was a period of complex, multistranded development. – By the mid-eighteenth century, throughout much of Europe, progressive landowners (frequently aristocrats) and their agents and a few similarly minded farmers were being known as "improvers."
  18. 18. In Europe, agricultural science was evolving rapidly by the 1840s, with notable strides being made in Germany by Justus von Liebig at Giessen, and with the establishment of agricultural experiments at Rothamsted in England in 1843 by John Bennet Lawes and Henry Gilbert.
  19. 19. The birth of modern agricultural extension services – The first agricultural extension service of a modem kind came into existence as the result of a crisis and the initiative of the occupant of a high office of authority. – The crisis was the outbreak of potato blight in Europe in 1845. In Ireland its effects were particularly severe because the predominantly peasant population relied on potatoes in their diet, and "the potato famine" persisted until 1851.
  20. 20. –By the close of the nineteenth century, agricultural extension systems modelled to a considerable extent on the GermanWanderlehrer had spread: to Denmark from 1870 onwards; –the Netherlands, where a few extension workers (wandelleraren) had been appointed by agricultural societies in the late 1840s and 1850s, but had then disappeared before being revived as a government system in the 1890s;
  21. 21. –Italy, where the first itinerant agricultural teacher (cattedra ambulante di agricoltura) was appointed in 1886 at Rovigo, near the estuary of the River Po, with many others following in the next decade and funded largely by public donations, –Meanwhile, in France the first national, wholly state-funded agricultural extension service was established in 1879.
  22. 22. –The growth of agricultural education and extension work in continental Europe was to have a strong impact on the emergence of comparable activity in the United Kingdom. An official commission on technical education in the early 1880s included a detailed review of the European developments (Jenkins, 1884).
  23. 23. Modern agricultural extension –In the early years of this century, extension services were in their formative stage; they were relatively small in scale and limited in the scope of their work and contact with farmers, and their organization was often somewhat haphazard even though based on legislation.
  24. 24. – During the past quarter century, the work of extension services has often become more diversified. In the less developed countries, the main focus remains on agricultural (mainly food) production, but there has been a growing recognition of the need to reach, influence, and benefit the multitudes of small, resource-poor farmers.
  25. 25. The future of agriculture extension – The need for agricultural and rural information and advisory services is likely to intensify in the foreseeable future. In much of the world, agriculture faces the challenge of keeping pace with rapidly increasing population with few reserves of potentially cultivable land. Farmers will have to become more efficient and specialized. – From government perspectives, whatever priority is given to production, extension will remain a key policy tool for promoting ecologically and socially sustainable farming practices.
  26. 26. ASIA: Four Generations of Extension 1. Colonial Agriculture – Experimental stations were established in many Asian countries by colonial powers. – The focus of attention was usually on export crops such as rubber, tea, cotton and sugar. – Technical advice was provided to plantation managers and large landowners – Assistance to small farmers who grew subsistence crops was rare, except in times of crisis.
  27. 27. 2.Diverse-Top Down Extension – After Independence, commodity-based extension services emerged from the remnants of the colonial system, with production targets established as part of five year development plans. – In addition, various schemes were initiated to meet the needs of small farmers, with support from foreign donors.
  28. 28. 3. Unified top-down extension – During the 1970’s and ‘80’s, the training and visit system (T&V) was introduced by the World Bank. – Existing organizations were merged into single national service. – Regular messages, were delivered to groups of farmers, promoting the adaption of the “green revolution” technologies.
  29. 29. 4. Diverse bottom-up extension – When World Bank funding ended, T&V system collapsed in many countries, leaving behind patchwork of programs and projects funded from various other sources – The decline of central planning, combined with a growing concerned for sustainability and equity, has resulted in participatory methods gradually replacing top-down approaches.
  30. 30. Evolution of Agriculture • Prehistory and Pre-Agriculture 10,000 B.C. • Human gatherer • Nomadic • Little or no villages • End of ice age • Burst of new vegetation • Follow herds
  31. 31. • • “Agriculture Revolution” 8000-7000 B.C. • Many civilization began • Three of the main were: – Nile river in Africa – Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia – Jerico Agricultural technologies: • Planted by hand • Stick for plows • Flint sickle to harvest • Wheat grinding stone
  32. 32. • Historical Agriculture 2500 B.C. to 500 A.D. – Little change in agriculture, still subsistence farming – Few technologies developed: • Metal tools • Irrigation in flood plains- China, Egypt, Near East • Fertilizer- manure and fodder – Use of plow animal power: – Grow more food – Cities grew – Civilization expanded – Population increased
  33. 33. • Feudal Agriculture 500 A.D. to 1600 A.D. – Still much of the world is subsistence farming – Egyptians utilized more land with irrigations – Europeans implemented crop rotation
  34. 34. • Scientific Agriculture 1600 A.D. to present – Many technical advances in agriculture – Cities grew much larger – Rural population decreased – Sanitation increased life expectancy – Technological advances: • Metal added to wooden plow (mid 1600’s) • Jehtro Tull’s seed drill(early 1700’s) • Use of limestone (late 1700’s) • Cast-iron molboard plow (1797) • John Deere’s steelpow (1830’s) • Cyrus McCormick reaper (1831) • Steam power replaced horsepower (late1800’s)
  35. 35. • Training and Visit System The Training and Visit system was developed by World Bank Expert Daniel Benor. It has a simple organization and infra structure with defined objectives. It is based on regular visit to the farmers and periodical trainings to the extension workers. It has wide popularity because it provides problems oriented guidance, flexible management and continuous feed back from the farmers.
  36. 36. The Green Revolution – Transformation of agriculture that began in 1945 – The term ”Green revolution” was first used in 1938 by former USAID director- William gaud – Period to describe between the 1960’sto 1990’s. there was a tremendous boom in agricultural productivity in the developing world. – In many regions, especially in Asia and Latin America, the yield of major cereals such as rice, wheat and maize --more than doubled. – Green revolution refers to the renovation of agricultural practices begum on 1940’s at Mexico, its beginning are often attributed to Norman Borlaug, an American Scientist interested in agriculture.
  37. 37. Norman Borlaug – An American scientist who is considered the father of the green revolution who started working on high-yield wheat varieties in Mexico on 1940’s. In 1960’s, rough combined agricultural practices and HYV on introduced by Borlaug, Mexico begun to be an exporter of wheat in the global market. – In 1963, through the aid of the Rockefeller and Ford foundation, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMNYT) was established in Mexico.
  39. 39. Three factors involved in the change process: – The message • -it includes the technology or recommended practices to be introduced. – The clientele or end-user • The one who is going to accept and use the message of technology. – The change agent • The one which exerts all the effort and means to induce desirable changes in people and in the community.
  40. 40. The Extension worker/ Change agent –Educational Qualifications and Professional Requirements of Change agents An extension or change agent should preferably be a bachelor’s degree holder in any technical or social science field. He/She must have necessary knowledge, skills and experiences to become a credible source if technical information and technology being introduced in the village or rural community.
  41. 41. Personal qualities of a extension or change agent: – Possesses empathy – Interest – Commitment – Patience – Genuity (trueness) – Prudence – Responsible – Dedication to service
  42. 42. Knowledge Four main areas: • Technical. The agent must be adequately trained in the technical aspect of his work. • Rural life. This includes anthropological and sociological studies of the rural area of the project. • Policy. Includes the policies and legislation of the government or other institution policies which affects the rural area. • Adult Education. The agent must be familiar with the approaches to adult education, group dynamics and developing participation among the locals.
  43. 43. Personal qualities • Commitment. The agent must have a sense of dedication and determination to achieve the goals of the extension project. • Reliability. The agent must carry genuinely the tasks with lesser no supervision from the superiors. • Humility . The agent must be sensitive to the wishes and feeling of the farmers. • Confidence. the agent must believe in his abilities and knowledge to achieve something.
  44. 44. Roles and Functions of the Change Agent Specific functions of the extension/change agent –Gathering of data or information above the community and its constituents –Identifying priority areas, problems, needs and interests of people in the community. –Establishing rapport with the client system –Selecting and formulating appropriate change objectives
  45. 45. – Translating technical information with farmers language – Choosing using suitable approaches and extension teaching methods – Disseminating new information and technology – Conducting extension education activities – Recognizing and guiding the phase of the change process – Undertaking auxiliary extension functions – Contributing to the professional development of the discipline
  46. 46. Role of the change agent According to Mojica and Mojica (1991) are some roles of the extension worker: – A teacher – A mobilize of resources – A developer of potential leader – A catalyst of developmental change – A go-between researchers and farmers – A system manager – A system linker
  47. 47. Principles of Extension Education Principles: A principle is a statement of policy to guide decision and action in a consistent manner (Mathews). A principle is a universal truth that has been observed and found to be truth and a settled rule of action.
  48. 48. The principles of extension education are given hereunder: 1. Principle of cultural difference: – People differ in thinking, living and culture. – Extension education methods should be in line with these differences. 2. Principle of cultural change: – Culture undergoes change due to extension. – Change occurs otherwise also. – Extension Workers should gain the confidence of people.. Extension workers should organize result demonstration.
  49. 49. 3. Principle of grass-root organization: – Extension workers should pay attention to all the groups’ needs and interests. – Imposed innovations have no relevance to groups. – People will accept the innovations only when they find those useful. 4. Principle of interests and needs: – People and extension workers should work together. – Co-operation and help of each other needed for social upliftment.
  50. 50. 5. Principle of interests and needs: – People should voluntarily participate. – Work should start from interests and needs of people. 6. Principle of participation: – Attachment will not develop by offering ready made things. – Participation develops leadership and increases confidence.. Involving leaders 7. Principle of adaptability in the use of teaching methods: – People differ in knowledge and understanding. – Method should vary accordingly.
  51. 51. 8. Principle of leadership: – Extension workers should utilize local leadership for increasing speed of work – Identification, training and encouragement of leaders is necessary. 9. Principle trained specialists: – Agricultural and other sciences are developing speedily. – Maintaining competency in any of these sciences is a continuous process.
  52. 52. 10. Principle of satisfaction: – The extension program should give satisfaction to the people. – People will not participate if they do not get satisfaction. 11. Principle of whole family approach: – Extension work should reach all the family members. – Neglecting any member may result in rejection of innovations e.g. Hybrid maize in U.P. 12. Principle of evaluation: – Determining the research results in unbiased way is necessary. – Intermittent review of progress is necessary.
  53. 53. 13. Principle of applied Science and Democracy: – People have freedom to accept or reject the technology. – Applied agricultural Science is a two way process. 14. Principle of Learning by doing: Some more Other Principles: 1. The citizen is the Sovereign (Supreme) in the democracy. 2. Home is the fundamental unit of civilization. 3. Family is the first training group of the human race and 4. Average farm is endowed with great resources and facilities
  54. 54. Chapter 4: EXTENSION METHODS
  55. 55. Definition of Teaching Methods: “Teaching methods may be defined as the devices or tools used to create learning situation in which effective communication can take place between the teacher and the learner”.
  56. 56. Functions of Extension Teaching Methods 1. To provide communication so that the learner may see, hear and do the things to be learnt. 2. To provide stimulation that causes the desired mental or physical action on the part of learners. 3. To take the learner through one or more steps of teaching, learning process e.g. Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial, Adoption.
  57. 57. While using the foregoing methods the extension worker uses these methods independently or takes the help of certain audio-visual aids. The word audio- visual comprises three words namely: – Audio – refers to sense of hearing, – Visual – refers to sense of seeing and Aid – instructional device.
  59. 59. Definition of Extension methods –The ways or techniques used by an extension system to influence its target groups –The extension-teaching methods are tools and techniques used to create situations in which communication can take place between rural people and extension workers.
  60. 60. Classification of Extension teaching methods A. According to use and nature of contact- whether they are used for contacting people individually, in groups or masses. – individual; – group; – mass contact method B. According to form- extension-teaching methods are also classified according to their forms such as; – written; – spoken – audio-visual
  61. 61. Extension Teaching – It is the process of arranging situations in which the important things learned are called to the attention of the learners, their interest developed, desire aroused, and action promoted. Extension Teaching Requires Specific and Clearly Defined Objectives: – While deciding the objectives of teaching, following aspects are to be considered: a. People to be taught. b. Behavioral changes to be developed in people. c. Content or subject matter to bring the desired change in behavior. d. The life situation in which the action is going to take place.
  62. 62. Extension Learning –It is the process by which an individual, through his own efforts and abilities, changes his behaviors.
  63. 63. Chapter 6: APROACHES TO EXTENSION
  64. 64. Objectives of Rural Development 1. Changes in what people know their knowledge of themselves of their society and of their physical environment. 2. Changes in what people can do their skills, mental and physical. 3. Changes in what people think and feel their attitude towards themselves towards their society and towards their physical environment. 4. Changes in what people actually do their actions related to factors determining their own welfare.
  65. 65. Training approach to Rural Development – The training approach is considered to be related to the extension approach. But it has a different basic educational tradition and philosophy, closely related to institutionalized schooling. It emphasis more systematic and deeper learning of specific basic skills and related knowledge.
  66. 66. Cooperative Self Help Approach to Rural Development –The cooperative self-help approach starts with the assumption that the complex process of rural transformation must begin with changes in the rural people themselves.
  67. 67. Integrated Rural Development Approach –The integrated development approach emphasis is the need of coordinating different agencies under a single management system of essential components (including education) required to get agricultural or rural development moving.
  68. 68. Chapter 7: COMMUNICATION
  69. 69. Extension communication is purposive. It concerns with the eliciting behavioral changes from the extension clientele: Changes in: –What they know (knowledge) –What they feel (attitude) –What they do (practice)
  70. 70. Definition of Communication Comes from the Latin word “communis”-- to make common or to establish commonness among two or more people. When we enter communication, we assume that we have something to begin with: – Common language – Common symbols whose meaning are shared
  71. 71. Communication is a process which is a Source sends a Message to a Receiver through means of Channels in order to produce a Response from the receiver in accordance to the intention of the source.
  72. 72. Elements of communication • Source – The person who encodes the message, using such codes such as verbal, nonverbal, visual, musical or any other modality • Message – It is used to convey the source’s meaning by means of any codes. • Channel – It is the method of carrying the source’s message using any combination of basic senses. • Receiver – It is the object to whom the message is directed. • Feedback – It is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended.
  73. 73. Communication as a process Any phenomenon which shows continues changes in time the events and relationships among elements are seen as: – Dynamic- changing all the time. source-receiver – On-going- continues and then.. .. there is feedback – Interactive- components interact with one another – Interrelated- interrelating with one another. – Interdependent- any change in one component and affect the other elements and the system as a whole – Irreversible- no taking back once it has been said.
  74. 74. Purpose of communication Specifically, we communicate to: – Inform- aims at making the people aware and let them know certain thing. – Bring about greater understanding – Motivate- is encourage or stimulate clientele into action – Persuade- aims at influencing the feeling, thoughts and behavior of listeners – Learn a new skills – Change or adapt a new practice – To entertain
  75. 75. Levels of communication – Intrapersonal- communication with oneself. – Interpersonal- is the interaction with two or more individuals – Organizational- when communication operates within an organizational structure or bureaucracy. – Mass- when message is channeled through public forum and use of mass media.
  76. 76. When is communication effective? Communication is said to be effective when the receiver is in the accordance with the intention of the source.
  78. 78. What is diffusion? – It is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over a period of time among the members of a social system. Four elements of diffusion: – Innovation; – Communication channels; – Time; and – Social system
  79. 79. • The Innovation – It is an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new. What might seems familiar to some is new to other innovations can be material or nonmaterial.
  80. 80. Three types of Innovation: • Continuous innovation – it is the simple changing on improving of an already existing product where the adopter still uses the product (e.g automobile). • Dynamically continuous – the innovation can be either a creation of a new product or a radical change to a existing one (e.g. compact dics). • Discontinuous innovation – produces a totally new product in the market. Because of the big change, its changes the consumers’ buying and using patterns (e.g. typewriter replaced by computers).
  81. 81. Characteristics of Innovation: • Relative advantage- the degree in which the innovation is perceived as better than the idea supersedes. • Compatibility- the degree in which the innovation is perceived as being consistent with existing values, past experiences and needs of potential adopters. • Complexity- the degree in which the innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use. • Trialability- the degree in which the innovation may be experimented on a limited basis. • Obervability- the degree in which the innovation are visible to others.
  82. 82. • Communication channels – These are the means by which messages get from one individual to another. • Time – The three factors are: • Innovation-decision process • Relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual orgroup • Innovation’s rate of adoption
  83. 83. Categories of Adopters • Innovators (first 2.5 percent of adopters) – Tend to be venturesome, cosmopolite with complex technical knowledge however they do not significantly affect the adoption process. • Early adopters (next 13.5 percent of adopters) – These people are respected and more local than innovators. They are also venturesome, sufficiently skeptical to recognize good innovations. • Early majority (next 34 percent) – Seldom hold positions of opinion leaders but have strong connection within the system’s interpersonal networks.
  84. 84. • Late majority (next 34 percent) – Tend to adopt from economic/social necessity due to diffusion effect. • Laggards (final 16 percent) – They are the most localite, suspicious of change agents and innovations and have few resources to risk.
  85. 85. • Social Systems Social systems referred to the group or groups of people that an innovation diffuses to. It can be split into: a. traditional and b. modern .
  86. 86. --End of review of EXTN and COM— Thank You !!! :D
  87. 87. REFERENCES Introduction to Extension Education. atid=41 Jones, G.W. (n.d.). The history, development and future of agriculture extension. Mojica (2012). Hand outs on Extension Education. Cavite State University Indang, Cavite Ph.
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**needs updates and improvement this slides are made with excerpts from other sources like, books,publication, journals, magazines and on-line sources.No plagiarism intended. intended for the review in the upcoming may 2015 agriculture major admission test of Cavite State University. for inquiries email me at:


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