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  1. 1. Introduction to A-Level <br />A2 LAW<br />
  2. 2. Section A<br />Criminal Law (Fatal and non-fatal offences against the person)<br />
  3. 3. Murder<br />Actusreus(including causation), <br />The actusreus is the unlawful killing of a person.<br />mensrea(malice aforethought).<br />that murder is a specific intent crime.<br />I.e, the D. Intended to commit that crime in question. <br />
  4. 4. Voluntary manslaughter.<br />There are 2 special defences to Murder:-<br />Diminished Responsibility and<br />Provocation<br />If the D. Can prove one of the above defences than, a charge of murder will become a charge of voluntary manslaughter. <br />
  5. 5. Involuntary Manslaughter <br />Involuntary manslaughter is an unlawful killing where the accused did not have the specific intention for murder.<br />This includes;<br />1. Unlawful act manslaughter<br />2. Gross negligence manslaughter<br />3.Subjective recklessness manslaughter<br />
  6. 6. Non- Fatal offences against the person;<br /><ul><li>Assault, battery,
  7. 7. Actual bodily harm,
  8. 8. Wounding and
  9. 9. Grievous bodily harm,
  10. 10. Wounding and grievous bodily harm with intent.</li></li></ul><li>Defences <br />Insanity<br />automatism, <br />Intoxication, <br />Consent, <br />Self-defence/prevention of crime.<br />
  11. 11. Insanity<br />What do you think this defence involves?<br />What might the judge order if the D. Successfully pleads a defence of insanity?<br />
  12. 12. Automatism<br />This defence means that the D. Is not guilty of any crime since he acted like a robot because of some external cause. He was incapable of having the intention to commit any crime as he did not know what his body was doing.<br />EG semi-conscious. <br />
  13. 13. Consent, <br />What do you think this defence involves?<br />
  14. 14. Self-defence/prevention of crime<br />D. Can be relieved of liability if they can show the crime was committed in order to defend him/herself. Or was done in order to prevent a bigger crime. <br />
  15. 15. Intoxication<br />What do you think this defence involves? <br />Intoxication is available as a defence where, as a result of alcohol or drugs, <br />The defendant is incapable of forming the mensreafor the offence. In Kingston, where<br />a drugged man indecently assaulted a boy, the House of Lords declared that<br />drunken intent was still intent.<br />
  16. 16. Section; B <br />LAW OF TORT<br />
  17. 17. Negligence <br />What do you need to prove negligence?<br />Duty owed; there must be a duty of care owed to the C.<br />Breach of duty; there was a breach of that duty.<br />Damage: as a result of that breach you have suffered damage.<br />
  18. 18. Occupiers liability <br />There are two types of Occupiers liability;<br />1. Visitors<br />2.Tresspassers. <br />
  19. 19. Nuisance <br />There are three types of nuisance:<br />Statutory nuisance<br />Public nuisance<br />Private nuisance<br />
  20. 20. Vicarious liability; <br />Vicarious liability means liability for someone else.<br />It applies to all torts especially employment situations, (where an employer is liable for the torts of an employee. <br />
  21. 21. Defences;<br />Contributory negligence,<br />Consent. <br />Specific defences to nuisance and Rylands v Fletcher.<br />
  22. 22. Remedies for tortious acts; <br />Damages<br />Injunctions. <br />
  23. 23. Section C <br />Concepts of Law:<br />Look at the difference between; <br />Law and Morals<br />Law and Justice<br />Judicial creativity. <br />This is the synoptic element to the course and you will draw on the topics studied over the 2 years to help answer the questions. <br />