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Goal Setting Theory


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Published in: Health & Medicine, Business

Goal Setting Theory

  1. 1. - Given by Edwin Locke Just as people are motivated to satisfy needs on the job, they are also motivated to strive for and attain goals. Goals are the source of motivation because they indicate what has to be done and how much effort should be exerted. Attainment of goals satisfy the individual’s achievement drive, boosts the self-esteem. Thus, we can say that specific goals increase the performance than general goals. Similarly difficult goals result in higher performance provided they are acceptable to the individual. Feedback also plays an important role may it be external or self- generated. It helps the people to perform better every time from the received feedback. The following factors influences the Goal-Performance relationship: 1) Adequate Self-Efficacy: It is the key factor in determining goal setting. It refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task successfully. Self-Efficacy has a direct relationship with person’s confidence and thus with goal setting. High, Self-Efficacy High, Goal Setting Low, Self-Efficacy Low, Goal Setting On receiving negative feedback the people with, High, Self-Efficacy Efforts increases Low, Self-Efficacy Efforts decreases Hence, the primary task of managers is to build employee self- efficacy. 2) Challenging Goals: Researches has proved that only a challenging job content motivates the employees. In such case everyone is anxious to prove that he or she is capable of attaining the task. However even though the task are challenging they should be attainable. A goal that is difficult but attainable increases the challenge of the job.
  2. 2. 3) Specific Goals: Researches has established that the goals must be specified in quantitative terms. They should be accompanied by concrete actions, plans, target etc. 4) Owned Goals: Owned or Acceptable goals are preferable to impose goals. Goals must not only be specific and challenging but it must be made acceptable to the employees. In order to make the goals acceptable to employees following conditions must be fulfilled. Employees participation in goal setting and decision making. Public commitment of goals will make the employee more serious towards goal. Superior should ensure full support to their lower level employees Goal congruence should always exist to satisfy the need of organization as well as employees. 5) Performance monitoring and Feedback: Feedback helps Employees work with greater involvement and lead to greater Job satisfaction. Feedback gives rise to achievement motivation. performance monitoring involves observing and inspecting employees work. This helps to indicate to the employees that their work is important and their contributions to the organization are valuable
  3. 3. (Given by Vroom & it was further developed by Porter & Lawler) One of the great notifications of the Vroom theory is that it recognizes the prominence of different individuals needs and motivations. Therefore it is beyond the simplistic features of the Maslow and Herzberg’s approaches. It seems to be more realistic, and fits the concept of the harmony of objectives, an emotional touch. Along and apart with the organization goals, individuals carry their personals goals which can be harmonized, the theory is completely consistent with the system of managing by objectives. Life is not as easy as it seems to be. So, the theory has on one side the theory is brilliantly drafted to satisfy people’s goals but following explanation depicts its strength becoming weakness. The theory assumes that perceptions of value vary among individuals at different times at different places, the phenomenon appears be fit real life more accurately. It also lacks solid evidence hence further research is needed. It is not applicable in actual work situation as well as since the model gives a formula to calculate the strength of a person’s motivation but is dependent on the ‘ ‘ of expectancy and valence which again is an incomplete process. The Expectancy Theory is the product of 3 factors that is: Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence M=ExIxV Modified Model By Porter And Lawler Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler derived a substantially more complete model of motivation built in large part on expectancy theory. The below given model was applied by them primarily to managers. The model indicates that the amount of effort i.e. the strength of motivation and energy exerted depends on the value of a reward plus the amount of energy a person feels is required along with the probability of receiving the reward. Also, the actual performance in
  4. 4. turn influences the perceived efforts and possibility of actually getting a reward. Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by effort expended but also it is greatly influenced by an individuals ability i.e. knowledge and skill to do the job and by his or her perception of what the required task is, the extent to which the persons understands the goals, required activities, and other elements of a task. Performance in turn is seen as leading to intrinsic rewards as a feeling of self- actualization and extrinsic rewards such as working conditions and status. These rewards, further lead to satisfaction. But, the manager should carefully decide their reward structure and that there careful planning; managing by objectives and clearly performing duties and responsibility there sever efforts. Value of rewards Perceived equitable Ability to do rewards specified task Intrinsic Satisfaction rewards Performance Effort accomplishment Extrinsic rewards Perception of task required Perceived effort reward probability
  5. 5. MOTIVATION (LAST FOUR THORIES AND JOB ENRICHMENT) BATCH 1 GROUP NO: SR.NO. NAME ROLL NO. 1 Paridhi Guptu 7134 2 Supriya Hegde 7136 3 Saima Inamdar 7137 4 Neha Joshi 7144 GROUP LEADER: NEHA JOSHI
  6. 6. - Given by B.F. Skinner The Behavior Modification Theory is also popularly known as Reinforcement theory. The Behavior modification theory states that if the consequences are controlled then behavior also can be controlled. Organizational behavior modification or OB Mod is the application of the principles of behavior modification in organization. OB Mod is based on the idea that since behavior depends on its consequences, it is possible to control a number of employee behavior by manipulating their consequences. OB Mod relies heavily on the Law of Effect. Law of Effect: The law of effect states that a person tends to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences and tends not to repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable consequences. In other words, the law of effect states that we tend to learn response that have rewarding consequences and not learn those that have punishing consequences. Successful practice of OB Mod involves 3 steps: 1) To decide whether to increase or decrease the repetition of a person’s particular behavior. 2) To decide the type of consequences that will follow a particular behavior. 3) To decide the reinforcement schedule.
  7. 7. There are 4 outcomes depending on the manager’s decision to apply to withdraw a positive or negative consequences. 1) Positive reinforcement: It is favorable consequences that encourage repetition of a behavior. For eg: the manager praises the employee for doing high quality work. Positive reinforcement is a process by which people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired outcomes. 2) Negative reinforcement: It is the process by which people learn to perform acts that leads to the removal of undesirable events. In negative reinforcement the behavior is accompanied by removal of an unfavorable consequences. For eg: the employee learns that reporting work on time prevents firing from the boss. 3) Punishment: It is the process of decreasing undesirable behavior by following it with unfavorable consequences that discourages a certain behavior. Managers need to use punishment with care for the following reasons: a) Punishment does not directly encourage desired behavior. b) Employees dislike their manager, which causes a strain in their work relationship. c) What specific behavior of employee is being punished should be specified otherwise it would be demotivating. 4) Extinction: It is the withholding of significant positive consequences that previously followed desirable behavior when a response that was once rewarded is no longer rewarded, it tends to weaken and eventually die out i.e. it is extinguished. Schedules of Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement are the rules to determine how reinforcement will be delivered. In other words, a schedule of reinforcement is a plan for determining which responses are to be reinforced or rewarded. REINFORCEMENT Continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement
  8. 8. Continuous reinforcement: It is a schedule of reinforcement in which all desired behaviors are reinforced. Such a schedule leads to quick learning but it is not possible to follow this schedule in organization Partial reinforcement: it is a schedule of reinforcement in which only some desired behavior are reinforced. Learning in such a schedule is slower but is retained longer. Following are its types: 1) Fixed Interval Schedule 2) Variable Interval Schedule 3) Fixed Ratio Schedule 4) Variable Ratio Schedule.