Enlightment philosophes believed in natural rights for all people, these laws included: Equalitiy before the law Freedom of religious worship Freedom of speach Freedom of the press The right to assemble, hold property Pursue happiness
Philosophe believed that people needed to be governed by enlighted rulers. Only strong enlightened monarch could reform society. This type of monarchy was called ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM. Rulers tried to govern by enlightment principles while maintaining their royal powers. Did the european rulers actually follow the advice of the philosophes and become enligthened?
PRUSSIA Frederick William I Frederick II: The Great The supreme values of Invited Voltaire to live at the bureaucracy were his court. obedience, honor and He made enlightened service to the king. He reforms: he abolished also had the 4th largest the use of torture. He granted limited freedom army in Europe. of speech and press, as greater religious toleration. However he kept Prussias serfdom and rigid social structure.
Maria Theresa of HasburgShe was not open to the philosophes callsfor reform but she worked hard to alleviatethe conditions of the serfs. Her son Joseph II abolished serfdom, eliminated the death penalty and established the principle of equality of all before the law and promoted religious tolerance. But his reform program failed.
Catherine the Great seemed to favor enlightened reforms. She invited the french philosophe Denis Diderot to Russia and urged him to speak frankly. He outilined an ambitious program of political and financial reform that would recognize the principle of equality of all people but she said “It would have turned everything in my kingdom upside down”. So she did nothing because she knew her success depended on the support Philosophe that came up with the of the Russian nobility. encyclopedia
When Charles VI died he was succeeded by his Daughter Maria Theresa. King Frederick II of Prussia took advantage of this succession of a woman to the throne and invaded austrian SILESIA (where today is Poland). France then entered the war against Austria, it’s traditional enemy. In turn Maria Theresa made an alliance with Great Britain.
War broke out between France and Great Britain in 1756. In three major areas of conflict: EUROPE INDIA NORTH AMERICA
Alliances: British and Prussians vs Austrians, Russians and French. With his great army and military skill Frederick the Great of Prussia was able for some time to defeat the Austrian, French and Russian armies. However they were gradually worn down. Frederick faced disaster until Peter III a russian Czar withdrew Russian troops from the conflict and this lead to peace.
Britain vs France Known as the Great War for Empire, fought in India and North America. The french had returned Madras to Britain after the War of the Austrian Sucession, but the struggle in India continued.
Britain vs France The british ultimately won out, not because they had better forces but because the were more persistant. With the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the french withdrew and left India to the British.
It was were the greatest conflicts took place. British vs French. French in up north (today Canada and Louisiana) British had 13 prosperous colonies on the eastern coast of the US. Fought over two areas: Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Ohio River Valley.
French had the support of the indians as traders not settlers. French had more troops in North America but not enough naval support. British won and the french were forced to make peace by the Treaty of Paris.