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Myanmar Press Council (Interim) Media Code of Conduct in English and Burmese

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This document is the Media Code of Conduct adopted by the Myanmar Press Council (Interim). It is in both English and Burmese, or Myanmar, languages. It is for JNL-2105 Journalism Ethics students in Professor Linda Austin's class at the National Management College in Yangon, Myanmar, in June 2015.

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Myanmar Press Council (Interim) Media Code of Conduct in English and Burmese

  1. 1. 1 jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD(,m,D) Myanmar Press Council (Interim) owif;rD'D,musihf0wf Media Code of Conduct
  2. 2. 3 Myanmar Press Council (Interim) and Media Code of Conduct Myanmar Press Council (Interim) was founded in September 17, 2012 at Chartrium Hotel,Yangon with 29 founding members. The founding ceremony was officially recognized by the presence of Union Minister of the Ministry of Information, HE. UAung Kyi. During the day, the founding members voted to choose U Khin Maung Aye as a Chairman, U Soe Thein (Maung Wun Tha) as Vice-Chairman, U Kyaw Minn Swe as Secretary and Daw Nang Kalyar Win as Joint-Secretary. The future action points were also discussed and decided by the 29 members of Interim Press Council. (Note - U Ko Ko Gyi from the 88 Generations Peace and Open Society refused to accept the Council’s position and voluntarily resigned in the beginning of the founding day. Later on, the Vice-Chairman U Soe Thein passed away and his position was later replaced by U Khin Maung Lay (Phoe Thaukkyar) until nowa- days.Again, another Council member U Kyaw Zaw Naing deceased and the Council has 26 acting members at the moment). Since January 1, 2014, Myanmar Press Council (Interim) started to implement ‘the Programme on the Developing Code of Conducts for Myanmar Journalists’ in close collaboration with the International Media Support (IMS).According to the action plan of the programme, Myanmar Press Council (Interim) initiated a series of consultative workshops with the journalists nationwide, in order to properly consult withthembeforefinalizingintotheNationalConsensusDocumentoftheMediaCode of Conduct or Draft Journalists’Ethics.Altogether eight Consultative Workshops wereorganizedineightmajorcities,Magway,Taunggyi,Mandalay,Monywa,Sittwe, Bago, Pathein and Mawlamyine, in order that all States and Regions were reasonably reflected. Based on the feedbacks and recommendations from these Consultative Workshops, this Media Code of Conduct was developed and edited as a final version. Myanmar Press Council (Interim) 2
  3. 3. 3 jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)ESifh owif;rDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)ESifh owif;rDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)ESifh owif;rDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)ESifh owif;rDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)ESifh owif;rD'D,musihf0wf'D,musihf0wf'D,musihf0wf'D,musihf0wf'D,musihf0wf jrefrmEdkifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D) udk 2012 ckESpf? pufwifbmv (17)&ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKU? csufx&D,rf[kdw,fü tzGJU0if(29) OD;jzifh zGJUpnf;cJhygonf/ ,if;tcrf;tem;odkY jyefMum;a&;0efMuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD; OD;atmifMunf wufa&mufcJhonf/ ,if;aeYwGifyif Ouú|tjzpf OD;cifarmifat;? 'kwd,Ouú|tjzpf OD;pdk;odrf; (armif0Ho)? twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf OD;ausmfrif;aqG? wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf a':eef;uvsm0if;wdkYudk tzGJU0ifrsm;qE´jzifh a&G;cs,fcJhonf/ useftzGJU0ifrsm;udkvnf; trsm;qE´ qHk;jzwfcsufjzifh a½G;cs,fwm0efay;cJh Muygonf/ ,if;aeYwGif aumifpD0if (29) OD;wdkYu a&SUvkyfief;pOfrsm; aqG;aEG; qHk;jzwfMuyg onf/ (rSwfcsuf - OD;udkudkBuD; (88rsKd;quf)rSm aumifpDwGif wm0efr,lEdkifaomaMumifh pwifzGJUpnf;onfhaeYwGifyif EkwfxGufoGm;cJhjyD; ‘'kwd,Ouú|jzpfaom OD;pdk;odrf; (armif0Ho) uG,fvGefoGm;ojzifh ,ckvuf&SdwGif 'kwd,Ouú|tjzpf OD;cifarmifav;(zkd;aomMum)u qufvufí wm0ef,lxrf;aqmifvsuf&Sdygonf/ OD;ausmfaZmEdkifvnf; uG,fvGefcJhí ,cktcg aumifpD0if (26)OD;om &Sdygonf/) jrefrmEdkifiH pme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)ESifh EdkifiHwum rD'D,myHhydk;a&;tzGJU yl;aygif;NyD; jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm; owif;rD'D,musifh0wf zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufa&; pDrHudef;udk 2014 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv (1)&ufaeYwGif pwif taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&GufcJhygonf/ pDrHudef; vkyfaqmifcsuf^vkyfief;pOfrsm;t& jrefrmEdkifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)u xkwfjyefxm;aom owif;rD'D,musifh0wf (rlMurf;)udk trsKd;om;tqifh bHkoabmwlnDcsuf &&Sd&ef jrefrmEdkifiHtESHU&Sd pme,fZif;orm;rsm;? owif;pmq&mrsm; tMuHÓPf awmif;cHonfh tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm; usif;ycJhygonf/ xdktvkyf½Hk aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd wkdif;a'oMuD;rsm;ESifh jynfe,frsm; jcHKiHkrdap&ef txifu&NrdKUBuD;rsm;jzpfaom rauG;NrdKU? awmifBuD;NrdKU? rEÅav;NrdKU? rHk½GmjrdKU? ppfawGjrdKU? yJcl;jrdKU? ykodrfjrdKUESifh armfvjrdKifjrdKUwdkYwGif tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG;yGJ (8)ckudk xda&muf atmifjrifpGm usif;yEdkifcJYygonf/ ,if;tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;rS &&Sdvmaom wkHYjyefcsuf? tMuHjyKcsufrsm;tm;tajcjyKí þowif; rD'D,musihf0wfudk tjyD;owf wnf;jzwfa&;qGJcJYygonf/ jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D)jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD (,m,D) 2
  4. 4. 5 Contents - Introduction 5 - RightsofIndividualsandRoleofCouncil 7 - DutyofMediaOutlets 8 - The Programme Code 9 1. Accuracy,balanceandfairness 9 2. Politicsandelections 10 3. Leaked and restricted content and the protection of sources 11 4. Identificationandattributionofcontent 11 5. Privacyandthepublicinterest 12 6. Grief,bereavementanddistress 12 7. Harassment,pursuitandcovertrecording 12 8. Subterfuge 13 9. Interviews 14 10. Discrimination 15 11. Religion 15 12. Stronglanguage 16 13. Theinvolvementofchildren 16 14. Victimsofsexualcrimes 16 15. Portrayalofsexualconduct 17 16 Portrayalofviolenceinbroadcasting 17 3
  5. 5. 5 rmwdumrmwdumrmwdumrmwdumrmwdum - ed'gef; 5 - wpfoD;yk*¾vrsm; tajccH&ykdifcGihfrsm;ESifh aumifpDtcef;u@ 7 - rD'D,mXmersm; wm0ef0wå&m;rsm; 8 - rD'D,mtpDtpOfrsm;qkdif&m usihf0wfrsm; 9 1/ wdusrI? bufrvkdufrIESifh rQwrI 9 2/ EkdifiHa&;ESifh a&G;aumufyGJrsm; 10 3/ aygufMum;vmaom taMumif;t&mrsm;? uefYowfowif; 11 tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh owif;&if;jrpfukd umuG,fjcif; 4/ owif;rD'D,mwGifazmfjyaom taMumif;t&mrsm;ukd 11 cJGjcm;owfrSwfjcif;ESihftrsKd;tpm;tvkduftnTef;jyKjcif; 5/ ukd,fa&;vGwfvyfcGihfESihf trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm; 12 6/ 0rf;enf;aMuuJGjcif;? aoqkH;jcif;ESihf ab;'ku©a&mufjcif; 12 7/ rSwfwrf;,l&mwGif um,da`E´xdyg;jcif;? twif;tusyf 12 &,ljcif;ESihf acsmif;ajrmif;&,ljcif; 8/ ta,mifaqmif? vSnhfpm;jcif; 13 9/ tifwmAsL;jcif; 14 10/ cJGjcm;qufqHjcif; 15 11/ ukd;uG,f,kHMunfrI 15 12/ jyif;xefMurf;wrf;aom bmompum;tokH;tEIef; 16 13/ uav;oli,frsm; 16 14/ vdifqkdif&m &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefjcif; cH&olrsm; 16 15/ vdifqkdif&m tjyKtrlrsm;ukd o½kyfazmfwifjyjcif; 17 16/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTihfrIrsm;wGif tMurf;zufrIrsm;ESihf 17 aoG;xGufoH,kdrIrsm;ukd wifjyjcif; 3
  6. 6. 7 17. Schedulingconsiderations,‘labelling’andon-airwarnings 17 inbroadcasting 18. Crimeandanti-socialbehaviour 18 19. Kidnappingandhi-jacking 18 20. Demonstrationsandcivilunrest 18 21. Relationswiththepoliceandotherauthorities 19 22. Paymentincriminalcases 19 23. Advertising,product-placementand‘undueprominence’ 19 24. Competitions 20 25. Personalinterestandinfluence 20 26. Financialjournalism 21 27. Other considerations of content and treatment for broadcasters 21 28. NOTES 22 1.Children 22 2. The Public Interest 22 4
  7. 7. 7 17/ ½kyfoHvTihftpDtpOfrsm; a&;qJGjcif;?tpDtpOfrsm; 17 acgif;pOfwyfjcif;ESifh rxkwfvTihfrD BuKdwiftoday;aMunmjcif; 18/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;? vlrIpHEIef;rsm;ESihf zDvmjzpfaom tjyKtrlrsm; 18 19/ jyefay;qJGjcif;ESihf tykdifpD;jcif; 18 20/ qE´jyrIrsm;ESihf jynfwGif;EkdifiHa&; rNidrfoufrIrsm; 18 21/ &JwyfzJGU? tjcm;tmPmykdif tzJGUtpnf;rsm;ESihf qufqHa&; 19 22/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif owif;0,f,ljcif; 19 23/ aMumfjimjcif;? ukefypönf;rsm; xnhfoGif;jyojcif;ESihf 19 aMumfjimr[kwfaom tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tvGeftuRHnTef;qkdjcif; 24/ NyKdifqkdifjcif; 20 25/ yk*¾vtusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;ESihfMoZmvTrf;rkd;rIrsm; 20 26/ b@ma&;taMumif;t&mrsm; wifqufrI 21 27/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTihfolrsm;ESihfywfoufNyD; taMumif;t&mykdif;ESihf 21 pDpOfwifqufrItykdif;wGif apmihfxdef;oihfonfrsm; 28/ rSwfcsuf 22 (1) uav;oli,f 22 (2) trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm; 22 4
  8. 8. 9 Myanmar Press Council Media Code of Conduct INTRODUCTION ThisCodeofConducthasbeenadoptedbytheInterimMediaCouncilofMyanmar as a statement of the standards to which all media outlets should abide. It takes as itsstartingpointtherighttofreedomofexpressionasenshrinedinArticle19ofthe 1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Thisrightisnot,however,onlyaboutfreedomtospeak:itisalsoabouttherightsof readers,listenersandviewersandinvolvescertainresponsibilities.Irresponsibleor unethicalconductputsmediafreedomsatrisk.Asaresult,themediahaveadutyto maintainhighprofessionalstandards.Theresponsibilitiesofthemediainademocracy includedutiesofaccuracyandbalance,fairnessandrespectforothers,andensuring the right of people to receive information. This Code sets the standard for those responsibilities,protectingtherightsoftheindividualandthepublic’srighttoknow, as well as media freedom. 1 5
  9. 9. 9 jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpDjrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif;aumifpD owif;rD'D,musihf0wfowif;rD'D,musihf0wfowif;rD'D,musihf0wfowif;rD'D,musihf0wfowif;rD'D,musihf0wf ed'gef;ed'gef;ed'gef;ed'gef;ed'gef; þowif;rD'D,musifh0wfvrf;ñTefonf EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd rD'D,mXmetm;vHk; vdkufemusifhoHk; aqmif&Gufoifhonfh pHcsdefpHñTef;rsm;udk azmfjyxm;aom vrf;ñTeftjzpf jrefrmEkdifiHpme,fZif; aumifpDu udkifpGJusifhoHk;aom vrf;ñTefjzpfonf/ þvrf;ñTefwGif 1948 ukvor*¾ EdkifiHwum vlYtcGifhta&; aMunmpmwrf;? tydk'f 19 wGif azmfjyxm;aom vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymMum;jcif; tajccHtcGifhta&;udk rlvtajccHtjzpf owfrSwfonf/ vlYtcGifhta&; aMunmpmwrf; tydk'f 19 wGif atmufygtwdkif; owfrSwfjy|mef;xm;onf/ ]]vlwdkif;wGif vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajym]]vlwdkif;wGif vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajym]]vlwdkif;wGif vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajym]]vlwdkif;wGif vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajym]]vlwdkif;wGif vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajym Mum;cGifh&Sdonf/ xdktcGifhta&;rsm;wGif aESmuf,Suf[efYwm;jcif; wpfpHkwpf&mr&SdbJMum;cGifh&Sdonf/ xdktcGifhta&;rsm;wGif aESmuf,Suf[efYwm;jcif; wpfpHkwpf&mr&SdbJMum;cGifh&Sdonf/ xdktcGifhta&;rsm;wGif aESmuf,Suf[efYwm;jcif; wpfpHkwpf&mr&SdbJMum;cGifh&Sdonf/ xdktcGifhta&;rsm;wGif aESmuf,Suf[efYwm;jcif; wpfpHkwpf&mr&SdbJMum;cGifh&Sdonf/ xdktcGifhta&;rsm;wGif aESmuf,Suf[efYwm;jcif; wpfpHkwpf&mr&SdbJ vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh e,fedrdwfpnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifh roufqdkifapbJvGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh e,fedrdwfpnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifh roufqdkifapbJvGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh e,fedrdwfpnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifh roufqdkifapbJvGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh e,fedrdwfpnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifh roufqdkifapbJvGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:MuHqcGifhESifh e,fedrdwfpnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifh roufqdkifapbJ rnfonfhrD'D,mrSrqdk owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh pdwful;pdwfoef;rsm;udkrnfonfhrD'D,mrSrqdk owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh pdwful;pdwfoef;rsm;udkrnfonfhrD'D,mrSrqdk owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh pdwful;pdwfoef;rsm;udkrnfonfhrD'D,mrSrqdk owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh pdwful;pdwfoef;rsm;udkrnfonfhrD'D,mrSrqdk owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh pdwful;pdwfoef;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm&SmazGcGifh? vufcH&,lcGifh? wpfqifhvTJajymif;ay;cGifhwdkY yg0ifonf/}}vGwfvyfpGm&SmazGcGifh? vufcH&,lcGifh? wpfqifhvTJajymif;ay;cGifhwdkY yg0ifonf/}}vGwfvyfpGm&SmazGcGifh? vufcH&,lcGifh? wpfqifhvTJajymif;ay;cGifhwdkY yg0ifonf/}}vGwfvyfpGm&SmazGcGifh? vufcH&,lcGifh? wpfqifhvTJajymif;ay;cGifhwdkY yg0ifonf/}}vGwfvyfpGm&SmazGcGifh? vufcH&,lcGifh? wpfqifhvTJajymif;ay;cGifhwdkY yg0ifonf/}} odkY&mwGif xdktcGifhta&;rSm vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymMum;cGifh wpfckwnf;r[kwfbJ vufcHem;axmifol tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh tcsKdUaom wm0ef,lrIrsm;udkvnf; xnfhoGif; owfrSwfxm;onf/ wm0efrJhaom? usifh0wfESifhrnDaom vkyfudkifaqmif&GufrIrsm;onf rD'D,mvGwfvyfcGifhudk qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; xdcdkufapEdkifonf/ xdkYaMumifh rD'D,mrsm;onf tjrifhqHk;aom ya&mfzuf&Sife,f usifh0wfpHEIef;rsm;udk xdef;odrf;vkdufem&ef vdktyfonf/ 'Drdkua&pD rD'D,mrsm;taeESifh wdusrI? [efcsufnDrI? rSswrI? wpfyg;oludk av;pm;rIponfh wm0efrsm; &SdaeNyD; jynfolvlxk owif;odydkifcGifh tcGifhta&;udkvnf; tmrcHcsuf ay;&onf/ ,ck usifh0wfvrf;ñTefwGif txufygwm0ef,lrIrsm;twGuf pHcsdefpHñTef;rsm; owfrSwfay;onfhtjyif wpfoD;yk*¾v tcGifhta&;rsm;udk umuG,fjcif;? jynfolvlxk owif;odydkifcGifhudk jznfhqnf;ay;jcif;ESifh rD'D,mvGwfvyfcGifhudk umuG,fapmifha&Smufjcif; ponfwdkYtwGuf pHEIef;rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf/ 1 5
  10. 10. 11 Democracy is, critically, not about agreement: it is about how we handle disagreement.Norisdemocracysimplytheruleofthemajority,althoughthewillof the majority as expressed in elections is one of its essential elements. Democracy rests on an environment in which, in the course of public debate, all voices are properly and fairly represented and the interests and views of minorities are safeguarded.ThisCodesupportsthisprincipleofdemocraticpluralismandtherole ofthemediaingivingeffecttoit. Whileresponsiblegovernments,politiciansandmediaworkersshouldsharea common aim – the best interests of society – their roles are different. In a healthy democratic society, the relationship between politicians and free media is likely, quite properly, to be wary, questioning and sceptical, rather than close, cosy and complimentary.ThisCodeenablesthemediatooperatefreelyandatarm’s-length fromgovernmentandconfirmsthelegitimatedutyofthemediainademocracyof disclosure in the public interest and the holding to account of public and private institutionsandindividuals. ThisCodesetsoutthestandardsadoptedbytheInterimMediaCouncilregarding editorialmattersandmattersrelatingtothecontentofwhatispublishedorbroadcast inthemedia(mediacontent).Itisthecornerstoneofthesystemofself-regulationto which the Council is committed and thus contains a set of standards against which toassesscomplaintsfromthepublicandothersaboutmediabehaviour.Itappliesto media outlets – journals, newspapers, radio and television, as well as to online content providers who voluntarily submit themselves to it – rather than individual journalists,butitisofcourseindividualjournaliststhatmustensurerespectforit.It appliestoallcategoriesofmediacontent,includingadvertisements. 6
  11. 11. 11 'Drdkua&pDqdkonfrSm oabmwlnDjcif;rsm;taMumif; oufoufr[kwfyg/ tjiif;yGm;rI rsm;udk uGßEkfyfwdkY rnfuJhodkY udkifwG,fajz&Sif;Muonfqdkaom tcsufuom 'Drdkua&pD jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif 'Drdkua&pDqdkonfrSm trsm;qE´t& tkyfcsKyfjcif;qdkonfh t,ltq oufoufvnf; r[kwfjyefacs/ a&G;aumufyGJenf;tm;jzifh xkwfazmfaom trsm;qE´t& tkyfcsKyfjcif;qdkonfrSm 'Drdkua&pD ta&;ygaom tpdwftydkif;wpfckom jzpfonf/trsm;jynfol aqG;aEG;jiif;cHkjcif;qdkaom aemufcHum;wGif rwlnDaom tjriftrsKd;rsKd;udk oifhwifhavsmufywfpGm rQrQww azmfjyjcif;? vlenf;pkrsm; &yfwnfcsufESifh tusKd;pD;yGm; rsm;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smufjcif; ponfwdkYrSm 'Drdkua&pDyif jzpfonf/ ,ck rD'D,musifh0wf vrf;ñTefonf 'Drdkua&pDA[k0g' xif[yfNyD; xdkA[k0g' &Sifoefa&;wGif rD'D,mrsm; xrf;&Guf&aom tcef;u@udkvnf; rD;armif;xdk;ay;&ef &nf&G,fygonf/ wm0ef,lrI&Sdaom tpdk;&rsm;? EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;? owif;rD'D,morm;rsm;onf vlYtzGJU tpnf; taumif;qHk; tusKd;pD;yGm;udk azmfaqmifay;rnf[laom bHk&yfwnfcsufjzifh vkyfudkif aqmif&GufaeMuaomfvnf; ,if;wdkYtoD;oD; tcef;u@rsm;rSmrl uGJjym; jcm;em;onf/ &ifhusufNyD; aumif;pGmvnfywfaom 'Drdku&ufwpf vlYtzGJUtpnf;wpfckwGif EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vGwfvyfaom rD'D,mtMum;rS qufqHa&;onf wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; a&Tvrf;aiGvrf;azmufNyD; tjyeftvSef yg&rDjznfhzufoabm aqmif&GufaeMuonfr[kwf/ ,if;tpm; owdBuD;pGm ar;cGef;xkwfaeaom? oHo,jzifh apmifhMunfhaeaom tajctae rsKd;bufodkY obm0uspGm ydk,drf;aewwfonf/ þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefonf rD'D,mrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm vkyfudkifaqmif&GufNyD; tpdk;&rsm;udkvnf; tvG,fwul vufvSrf;rDaeap&ef aqmif&Gufay;rnf jzpfonf/ trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;ESifhqufpyfaom udpötm;vHk; odydkifcGifh &&Sda&;? trsm;jynfolqdkif&m tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? yk*¾vdu tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh vlyk*¾dKvfrsm; jynfolrsm;tay: oufa&mufapaom vkyfudkifaqmif&GufrIrsm;tm;vHk; owif;xkwfjyefay;a&;wdkYudkvnf; þvrf;ñTefu taxmuftul ay;rnfjzpfonf/ owif;rD'D,musifh0wfvrf;ñTefonf owif;wnf;jzwfrIESifh rD'D,mrsm;wGif yHkESdyf xkwfvTifhonfh taMumif;t&mydkif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; aumifpDu vufcHusifhoHk;rnfh pHcsdefpHñTef;rsm;udk jy|mef;owfrSwfay;onf/ aumifpDonf rD'D,mavmu rdrdbmom xdef;csKyf^xdef;n§drIpepfudk taumiftxnfazmf&ef wm0ef&Sd&m rD'D,mrsm; vkyfudkif aqmif&GufrIESifh ywfoufNyD; uefYuGufwdkifMum;rIrsm;udk ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;&eftwGuf þvrf;ñTefu pHcsdefpHnTef;rsm;udk jy|mef;ay;oGm;rnfjzpfonf/ þusihf0wfvrf;ñTefonf owif;pm? *sme,f? a&'D,dkESifh ½kyfjrifoHMum;rStp? aMumfjimtqHk; rD'D,myHkpHrsm;tm;vHk;ESifh oufqdkiftusKH;0ifrI&Sdonf[k rSwf,l&rnf/ 6
  12. 12. 13 This Code is published as a document in the public domain, accessible to all. ThisCodeshouldbehonourednotonlyinaformalisticmannerbutinawaythat giveseffecttoitsfullmeaning.Itshouldneitherbeinterpretedinanundulynarrow mannerwhichrendersitineffectivenorsobroadlythatitunnecessarilyundermines freedom of expression or publication in the public interest. It is in the nature of the media that such a Code cannot provide a complete or final guide in all cases. TheCouncilwillinterpretthisCodeinthelightofallthecircumstancesofany case and so as best to give effect to its underlying principles. While the Council is willingtogivegeneralguidancetomediaoutletsontheCode,itwillnotcommentin advanceonindividualcontent(i.e.programmesorarticles). RIGHTS OFINDIVIDUALSAND ROLE OFCOUNCIL Anyindividualwhobelievesthatamediaoutlethasfailedtorespectthestandards set out in this Code of Conduct may lodge a complaint with the Media Council. Theymayalsopursueacomplaintdirectlywiththemediaoutlet. TheMediaCouncilshallreviewcarefully,andinatimelyfashion,allcomplaints that raise a serious issue as to a possible breach of this Code. It shall provide the concerned media outlet with a copy of any such complaint, and provide both the complainant and the concerned media outlet with an opportunity to make representations.TheMediaCouncilshalldisseminatepubliclyandtransparentlya statementofitsfindingsafterinvestigatinganycomplaint,whichshallindicatewhether or not it has found a breach of the Code. 7
  13. 13. 13 þowif;rD'D,musifh0wf vrf;ñTefonf trsm;jynfolESihf oufqdkifonfhtwGuf rnfolrqdk Munfh½IavhvmEdkifap&rnf/ vrf;ñTefudk wnfqJOya'rsm;t& w&m;0if pnf;rsOf;pHEIef;rsm;tjzpf owfrSwfvufcH &rnfhtjyif vrf;nTef teuft"dyÜm,fudkvnf; us,fus,fjyefYjyefY zGifhqdktoHk;jyK&rnf/ þusihf0wfvrf;nTefrsm;udk usOf;ajrmif;pGm zGihfqdkjcif;ESihf tvGefus,fjyefYpGm zGifhqdkjcif; wdkYaMumifh wpfoD;yk*¾v vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;tm; tav;*½krjyKjcif;ESifh trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymMum;cGifh? xkwfa0jzefYcsdcGifhrsm;tm; rvdktyfbJ zdESdyfydwfyifjcif;rsm; rjzpfap&ef owdjyK&rnf/ owif;rD'D,mrsm; oabmobm0aMumifh ,ckusifh0wfvrf;nTefyg tcsufrsm;onf tjiif;yGm;rIudpötm;vHk;ESifhywfoufí NyD;jynfhpHkaom vrf;ñTefrIjzpfrnf[k wpfxpfcs rrSwf,lEdkifay/ aumifpDonf tjiif;yGm;rIwdkif;wGif þusifh0wfvrf;ñTef tajccHrlrsm;udk taumif;qHk; xif[yfap&eftwGuf xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;p&m&Sdaom tajctaetm;vHk;udk jcHKiHkoHk;oyf pOf;pm;NyD;rS t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk&rnf/ aumifpDonf þusihf0wfvrf;nTefESifh ywfoufNyD; owif;rD'D,mXmersm;udk &Sif;vif;tMuHjyKrIrsm; ay;rnfjzpfaomfvnf; owif;rD'D,mrsm; rnfonfh a&;om;? xkwfvTifhrIudkrQ wifBudKrSwfcsuf wpfpHkwpf&may;rnf r[kwfyg/ wpfoD;yk*¾vrsm; tajccH&ydkifcGifhrsm;ESifh aumifpD tcef;u@wpfoD;yk*¾vrsm; tajccH&ydkifcGifhrsm;ESifh aumifpD tcef;u@wpfoD;yk*¾vrsm; tajccH&ydkifcGifhrsm;ESifh aumifpD tcef;u@wpfoD;yk*¾vrsm; tajccH&ydkifcGifhrsm;ESifh aumifpD tcef;u@wpfoD;yk*¾vrsm; tajccH&ydkifcGifhrsm;ESifh aumifpD tcef;u@ rD'D,mXmewpfcku þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefwGif azmfjyxm;aom usifh0wfpHEIef;rsm;udk vdkufemusifhoHk;jcif; r&Sd[k ,lqygu wpfoD;yk*¾vrsm;onf rD'D,maumifpDxHodkY ueYfuGufwdkifMum;Edkifonf/ odkYr[kwftqdkyg rD'D,mXmeodkYvnf; wdkuf½dkuf apm'uwuf uefYuGufcsufudk ydkYEdkifonf/ þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefudk csKd;azmufonf[k ,lq&aom ta&;BuD; udpö&yfrsm;twGuf wdkifwef;csufrsm;tm;vHk;udk aumifpDu *½kwpdkuf tcsdefudkuf avhvmoHk;oyfNyD; wdkifMum; cH&ol rD'D,mXmeodkYvnf; wdkifMum;pm rdwåLay;ydkYrnfjzpfonf/ wdkifMum;olESifh twdkifcHrD'D,m ESpfckpvHk;udkvnf; wdkifMum;rIESifh ywfoufNyD; udk,fpm;jyK&Sif;vif;&ef aumifpDu tcGihfta&;rsm; ay;&rnf/ aumifpDonf wdkifMum;rIrsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;NyD;aemuf usifh0wf csKd;azmufjcif; &Sd ^r&Sd[laom ppfaq;awGU&Sdcsufudk trsm;jynfol od&Sd&ef yGifhvif; jrifompGmjzifh xkwfjyefaMunm&rnf/ 7
  14. 14. 15 Where the Media Council finds that there has been a breach of this Code, it shall firstattempttonegotiateamutuallyacceptableresolutionbetweenthecomplainant and the concerned media outlet. In terms of remedies, the Council may warn the concernedmediaoutletandmayrequireittoundertakeoneormoreofthefollowing actions: · publish or broadcast a notice acknowledging that it has breached the Code and how; · apologisetothecomplainant; · issueacorrectionoffactuallymistakenstatementsithadpreviously published or broadcast; · providearightofreplytothecomplainant; · publishorbroadcastthedecisionoftheMediaCouncilfindinga breach of the code in the concerned media outlet, with due prominence,makingitclearthatitisadecisionoftheCouncil. TheCouncilwillkeeptheCodeunderreviewandwill,fromtime-to-time,updateit to reflect changing values and standards, after broad consultation with concerned parties. DUTYOFMEDIAOUTLETS Itistheresponsibilityofmediaoutletsandtheireditorsandpublisherstoensurethat this Code is implemented properly.They should take care to ensure it is observed not only by all staff, whether or not they are journalists, but also by external actors whocontributetotheircontent.Specifically,allmediaoutletsshouldensurethat: Ø The content they publish or broadcast complies with the Code. Ø Theyhaveadequatesystemsandproceduresinplacetofulfilthisrequirement. 8
  15. 15. 15 þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefcsufudk csKd;azmufonf[k azmfxkwfawGU&Sd&ygu aumifpDonf yxrOD;qHk;taejzifh wdkifMum;olESifh wdkifMum;cH&ol rD'D,mXmewdkYtMum; ESpfOD;ESpfzuf vufcHEdkifrnfh oabmwlnDrI &&Sd&eftwGuf nd§EdIif;aqmif&Gufay;&rnf/ xdkcsKd;azmufrIudk ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf aumifpDu oufqdkif&m rD'D,mXmeudk owday;csuf xkwfjyefrnfhtjyif atmufygwdkYteufrS wpfck odkYr[kwf trsm;udk aqmif&GufEdkifonf/ (u) rD'D,mXmeonf þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefudk csKd;azmufaMumif;ESifh rnfokdYcsKd;azmufaMumif; &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;aom aMunmcsufxkwfjyefjcif; odkYr[kwf xkwfvTifhjcif;? (c) rD'D,mXmetaejzifh epfemwdkifMum;oltm; 0efcsawmif;yefapjcif;? (*) rD'D,mXmetm; ¤if;rSm;,Gif;jzefYcsdcJhaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk jyefvnf jyifqifay;onfh trSm;jyifqifcsuf xkwfjyefapjcif;? (C) rD'D,mXmeudk wkHYjyefajz&Sif;&ef wkdifMum;olrsm;tm; tcGifhta&;ay;jcif;? (i) rD'D,musifh0wfvrf;ñTefudk csKd;azmufaMumif; aumifpD ajz&Sif;qHk;jzwfcsufudk oufqdkif&m rD'D,mXmewGif txift&Sm; xnfhoGif;yHkESdyfapjcif;ESifh xkwfvTifhapjcif;? aumifpDonf þrD'D,musifh0wfrsm;udk tcgtm;avsmfpGm jyefvnfavhvmoHk;oyfaeNyD; ajymif;vJaeaom wefzdk;EIef;pHrsm;? pHcsdefpHñTef;rsm;ESifhtnD jyifqifajymif;vJ&ef vdktyfygu oufqdkifolrsm;ESifh us,fus,fjyefYjyefY wdkifyifaqG;aEG;NyD;aemuf jyifqifajymif;vJrnf jzpfonf/ rD'D,mXmersm; wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rD'D,mXmersm; wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rD'D,mXmersm; wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rD'D,mXmersm; wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rD'D,mXmersm; wm0ef0wå&m;rsm; rD'D,mXmersm;rS t,f'Dwmrsm;ESifh xkwfa0olrsm;onf þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefyg pHEIef;rsm; tm;vHk;udk aumif;rGefpGm taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Guf&ef wm0ef&Sdonf/ *sme,fvpfrsm;ESifh rD'D,mXme&Sd tjcm;0efxrf;rsm;tjyif rD'D,mxkwfa0jzefYcsda&;wGif wpfpHkwpf&m yg0ifywfoufaom jyifyyk*d¾Kvftm;vHk;udkvnf; þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefudk aumif;pGmem;vnf oabmaygufaeap&ef aqmif&Gufay;xm;&rnf/ rD'D,mXmersm;onf txl;ojzifh atmufyg wm0ef0wå&m;rsm; &Sdaeonf/ (u) yHkESdyfazmfjyaom odkYr[kwf xkwfvTifhaom tcsuftvufrsm;tm;vHk;onf usifh0wfvrf;ñTefESifh udkufnDrI &Sd&rnf/ (c) xdkvdktyfcsufudk aumif;rGefpGm jznfhqnf;ay;Edkifrnfh pepfrsm;ESifh vkyfxHk; vkyfenf;rsm; &Sdae&rnf/ 8
  16. 16. 17 Ø Personnelinvolvedinproducing,acquiringandschedulingmediacontent, including independent producers, are aware of and understand the Code. Ø Thereisaprocedurewherebystaffandotherslistedabovecanseekguidance on the Code from a senior editor at the media or a manager designated for thispurpose. Ø Theyhaveinplaceinternalproceduresfordealing,promptly,fullyandfairly, withanycomplaintsfromreaders,listenersorviewers.Allcomplaintsmade directly to a media outlet, and the outlet’s responses, must be retained by the outlet for a year and made available to the Media Council on request. Ø TheyfullyrespectanyremedialordermadebytheMediaCouncilbasedon a decision that they have breached the Code and co-operate swiftly and fullywiththeMediaCouncilintheresolutionofanycomplaints. THE PROGRAMME CODE 1 Accuracy, balance and fairness 1.1 Mediaoutletshaveadutytobebalanced,impartialandfairinthetreatment ofnewsandcurrentaffairs.Thisimpliesthatmediaoutletsreportandinterpret news and current affairs honestly, and take care not publish or broadcast content which is inaccurate or distorted, or which may mislead or confuse readers, viewers or listeners. 1.2 Ifasignificantinaccurate,misleadingordistortedstatementispublishedor broadcast, it should be corrected promptly, with due prominence and as closeaspossibleintermsofplaceandtimetotheoriginalstatementand,if appropriate,arightofreplyshouldbegiventoanyindividualororganisation directlyaffectedbytheinaccuracy. 9
  17. 17. 17 (*) rD'D,mXmetwGif;rSjzpfap? jyifyrSjzpfap rD'D,mxkwfvkyfrI wpfckckudk xkwfa0jcif;? &,ljcif;ESifh pDpOfjcif;wGif yg0ifoltm;vHk; þusifh0wfudk aumif;pGm em;vnf oabmaygufNyD; jzpfae&rnf/ (C) txufwGif azmfjyxm;aom yk*¾dKvftm;vHk;onf usifh0wfvrf;ñTefESifh ywfoufaom tMuHOmPfESifh ñTefMum;csufrsm;udk tBuD;wef;t,f'Dwm odkYr[kwf owfrSwf wm0efay;tyfxm;aom refae*smwpfOD;OD;xHrS &,lEdkif&ef vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk xm;&Sd&rnf/ (i) pmzwfol? em;qifolESifh ½Ipm;olrsm;xHrS a0zefwdkifMum;rIrsm; tm;vHk;udk tcsdefrqdkif;bJ tjynfht0ESifh rQrQwwudkifwG,fajz&Sif;Edkifrnfh pepfwpfck rD'D,mXmewkdif;wGif &Sd&efvdktyfonf/ rD'D,mXmeodkY ay;ydkYvmaom wkdifMum;csufrsm;ESifh rD'D,mbufrS jyefvnfwkHYjyefajz&Sif;rIrsm; tm;vHk;udk wpfESpfwdwd rSwfwrf;wif xdef;odrf;xm;&rnfjzpfNyD; aumifpDrS awmif;cHvmygu xdkrSwfwrf;rsm;udk xkwfay;&rnf/ (p) wdkifMum;csufESifhywfoufonfh rD'D,maumifpD tNyD;owfajz&Sif;onfh qHk;jzwfcsufudk rD'D,mXmersm;u tjynfht0 av;pm;vdkufem&rnf/ wdkifMum;csufudk ajz&Sif;onfh qHk;jzwfcsufESifh ywfoufNyD; rD'D,mXmersm;onf aumifpDESifh tjynfht0? aESmifhaES;jcif; vHk;0r&SdbJ yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&rnf/ rD'D,mtpDtpOfrsm;qdkif&m usifh0wfrsm;rD'D,mtpDtpOfrsm;qdkif&m usifh0wfrsm;rD'D,mtpDtpOfrsm;qdkif&m usifh0wfrsm;rD'D,mtpDtpOfrsm;qdkif&m usifh0wfrsm;rD'D,mtpDtpOfrsm;qdkif&m usifh0wfrsm; 1/ wdusrI? bufrvdkufrIESifh rQwrI1/ wdusrI? bufrvdkufrIESifh rQwrI1/ wdusrI? bufrvdkufrIESifh rQwrI1/ wdusrI? bufrvdkufrIESifh rQwrI1/ wdusrI? bufrvdkufrIESifh rQwrI 1.1? owif;rsm;? rsufarSmufjzpf&yfrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; bufrvdkufbJ [efcsufnDnD rQwpGm udkifwG,faqmif&Guf&rnf/ owif;ESifhrsufarSmufjzpfpOfrsm;tm; a&;om;wifjy jcif;ESifh t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkjcif;udk ½dk;om;pGmaqmif&Guf&rnf/ rwdusaom? teufaumufvGJ apaom? yHkzsufxm;aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk a&;om;xkwfvTifhjcif; rjyKvkyf&yg/ 1.2? tu,fí rwdusaom? teufaumufvGJapaom? yHkzsufxm;aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk azmfjyrdyguvnf; tcsdefrqdkif;bJ jyifqifcsufxkwfjyef&rnf/ xdkodkY jyifqifcsuf xkwfjyef&mwGifvnf; rlvazmfjycsufESifh teD;pyfqHk;ae&mwGif ay:vGifxif&Sm;pGm tjrefqHk; jyifqifazmfjyay;&rnf/ xdkrwdusrIaMumifh xdcdkufEdkifaom vl^tzGJU tpnf;rsm; tm;vHk;udkvnf; jyefvnfajz&Sif;wkHYjyef aqmif&GufcGifhay;&rnf/ 9
  18. 18. 19 1.3 Broadcastersshouldnot‘editorialise’(thatis,expresspartisanviewswhich may be taken as those of the broadcaster) while print media outlets should limiteditorialisingtoexpliciteditorialcontent(i.e.thisshouldbeavoidedin newsandcurrentaffairsreporting). 1.4 For content which appears in a regular pattern (i.e. a repeat broadcast or a column in a newspaper), it is balance may be achieved across the series, rather than in every individual programme or article. For other content, balanceachievedoverareasonableperiodoftimeisacceptable.‘Authored’ content which presents an individual’s personal view should be clearly identifiedassuch. 1.5 Mediaoutletsshouldreportfairlytheresultofanylegalactionbroughtagainst themoranylegalorregulatoryjudgementmadeagainstthem. 2 Politics and elections 2.1 Mediaoutletsshouldaimtoreflectthediversityofpoliticalopinioninsociety andtoenablefreeandopendebateonmattersofpublicconcern.Coverage of the positions and views of political parties should broadly reflect their representationinsociety,particularlyduringelectioncampaigns. 2.2 Content published or broadcast by or on behalf of political parties should alwaysbeidentifiedassuch. 2.3 Mediaoutletsshouldnotallowactivepoliticians–includingindividualswho have been elected or are running for an elected position or who are employees or office bearers of political parties – to appear as newscasters, interviewers or reporters in news programmes and, in other contexts, the partyallegianceofactivepoliticiansshouldbeclearlyidentified.Thisobligation isofparticularimportanceduringelections. 10
  19. 19. 19 1.3? ½kyf^oH xkwfvTifholrsm;onf rdrdtmabmfrsm;udk xnfhoGif;xkwfvTifhrI rjyKoifh/ (ygwDpGJt,ltqrsm;udk xkwfvTifhol oabmxm;tjzpf ,lqapEdkifonfh tmabmfrsm; rxnfh&/) yHkESdyfxkwfa0olrsm;onf t,f'Dwmh tmabmfrsm;udk tuefYtowfjzifhom aqmif&GufNyD; a&;oloabmxm;tjrifjzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;pGmazmfjy&rnf/ owif;ESifh rsufarSmufa&;&m tpDtpOfrsm;wGif a&;ol oabmxm;tjrifrsm; yg0ifjcif;udk a&Smif&Sm;&rnf/ 1.4? a&;om;azmfjyxkwfvTifhavh&Sdaom aqmif;yg;wpfckcsif;pD^ tpDtpOfwpfckcsif;pDwGif rQwrI&Sd&efxuf yHkrSefpOfqufrjywf azmfjyaomtpDtpOfrsm;^owif;rsm; (Oyrm- ½kyf^ oHvTifh tpDtpOfwpf&yf odkYr[kwf owif;pmwpfapmif yHkrSefu@ azmfjycsufwpf&yf)udk jcHKiHkMunfhonfhhtcg rQw&efvdkonf/ tjcm;azmfjy^xkwfvTifhaomu@rsm;wGifvnf; oifhavsmfaom tcsdefumvtwdkif;twm wpfcktwGif; jcHKMunfhygu rQwaeaom taMumif;t&mrsm;ukd xnfhoGif;ay;vQif vHkavmufonf/ pma&;q&m wpfoD;yk*¾v tjrifudk xif[yfaom u@rsm;wGifvnf; pma&;oltmabmfomjzpfaMumif; &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyay;&rnf/ 1.5? rD'D,mXmersm;onf rdrdwkdYudk,fwkdif w&m;pGJjcif;cH&vQifyif xdkowif;udk rQwpGm a&;om;xkwfvTifh&rnf/ 2/ EdkifiHa&;ESifha&G;aumufyGJrsm;2/ EdkifiHa&;ESifha&G;aumufyGJrsm;2/ EdkifiHa&;ESifha&G;aumufyGJrsm;2/ EdkifiHa&;ESifha&G;aumufyGJrsm;2/ EdkifiHa&;ESifha&G;aumufyGJrsm; 2.1? rD'D,mXmersm;onf vlYtzGJUtpnf;twGif; rwluGJjym;pGm &Sdaeaom EdkifiHa&; t,ltqrsm;udk xif[yfazmfjyay;&rnfjzpfNyD; trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;ESifh oufqdkifaom udpö&yfrsm;udk vGwfvyfyGifhvif;pGm aqG;aEG;jiif;cHkEdkifap&ef aqmif&Gufay;&rnf/ txl;ojzifh a&G;aumufyGJrJqG,fumvrsm;wGif EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; &yfwnfcsufrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&; t,l tqrsm;udk azmfjy&mwGif vlYtzGJUtpnf;twGif; xdkygwDrsm; udk,fpm;jyKaqmif&GufaerIrsm; xif[yfay:vGifap&ef us,fus,fjyefYjyefYazmfjyoifhonf/ 2.2? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udk,fwdkif odkYr[kwf ,if;wdkYudk,fpm; a&;om;xkwfvTifhaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udkvnf; ygwDrsm; a&;om;xkwfvTifhcsufjzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;pGm azmfjy&rnf/ 2.3? EdkifiHa&;wGif vuf&Sdyg0ifaqmif&Gufaeolrsm; (a&G;aumufcH udk,fpm;vS,frsm;? udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rS 0efxrf;rsm;ESifh ygwDwm0ef&Sdolrsm;)onf owif;tpDtpOf xkwfvTifholrsm;? tifwmAsL;orm;rsm;ESifh owif;axmufrsm;tjzpf owif; tpDtpOfrsm;wGif aqmif&Gufjcif;rjyK&/ tjcm;aomu@rsm;wGif aqmif&Gufyguvnf; ,if;wdkY ygwDaemufcHrsm;udk &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyay;&rnf/ 10
  20. 20. 21 3 Leaked and restricted content and the protection of sources 3.1 Wheremediaoutletsreceiveleakedofficialandothercontent,forexample from politicians or civil servants, it is their professional duty to publish or broadcast this content, where this is in the public interest and where they are legally allowed to do so.This Code supports that duty. 3.2 Media outlets have a moral obligation to protect confidential sources of informationandtorespectconfidencesknowinglyandwillinglyacceptedin the course of their work. This Code supports that obligation. 3.3 Incasesofnationalemergency,mediaoutletsmaywishtolimitdisclosure of sensitive information in order to avoid danger to life (e.g. of armed- servicespersonnelinwartime)ortopublicsafety.ThisCodesupportsmedia outlets’righttomakesuchchoices. 3.4 Embargoesonthereleaseofcontentuntilacertaintimewhichareimposed by the originator of that content (such as an embargo on a press release) should be respected unless the originator makes the content public, after whichmediaoutletsmayalsopublishorbroadcastit. 3.5 The laws of copyright and intellectual property should be observed, recognising that these allow for extracts or quotations from works to be carriedinthemediaaslongasattributionisgiven. 4 Identification and attribution of content 4.1 Media outlets should make a clear distinction between fact, comment and speculation.Careshouldbetakenovertheuseofrecognisedmediafigures, such as newscasters, in other programme contexts and especially in advertisements. 4.2 Contentwhichhasbeenprovidedtomediaoutletsbygovernment,byother officialsources,bycommercialconcerns,bycampaigningorganisationsor bymembersofthepublicshould,subjecttotheobligationtoonconfidential sources, be identified as such. 11
  21. 21. 21 3/ aygufMum;vmaom taMumif;t&mrsm;? uefYowf owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh3/ aygufMum;vmaom taMumif;t&mrsm;? uefYowf owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh3/ aygufMum;vmaom taMumif;t&mrsm;? uefYowf owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh3/ aygufMum;vmaom taMumif;t&mrsm;? uefYowf owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh3/ aygufMum;vmaom taMumif;t&mrsm;? uefYowf owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh owif;&if;jrpfudk umuG,fjcif;owif;&if;jrpfudk umuG,fjcif;owif;&if;jrpfudk umuG,fjcif;owif;&if;jrpfudk umuG,fjcif;owif;&if;jrpfudk umuG,fjcif; 3.1? rD'D,mXmewpfckonf aygufMum;vmaom Xmeqdkif&mESifh tjcm;owif;tcsuf tvufrsm; (Oyrm EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh jynfolY0efxrf;rsm;xHrS tcsuftvufrsm;)ukd trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaponf[k cdkifvHkygu vlod&SifMum; xkwfazmf&rnfh ya&mfzuf&Sife,f wm0ef&Sdonf/ rD'D,musifh0wfu þwm0ef0wå&m;udk axmufcHonf/ 3.2? rD'D,mXmersm;onf vQKdU0Suftyfaom owif;&if;jrpfrsm;udk umuG,fay;&ef usifh0wft& wm0ef&SdNyD; rD'D,mvkyfief;pOfwpf&yfvHk;wGif xdkvQKdU0Sufcsufudk tod&Sd&Sd av;pm;vdkufem&ef vdktyfonf/ xdkodkY umuG,fay;&ef wm0ef&SdrIudk þrD'D,musifh0wfu axmufcHonf/ 3.3? EdkifiHawmftqifh ta&;ay:tajctae usa&mufaomtcgrsm;wGif rD'D,mXmersm; taejzifh touftEÅ&m,f&SdrI (Oyrm ppfumvtwGif; ppfa&;wm0ef&Sdolrsm;udk razmfjyjcif;) odkYr[kwf jynfolvlxk touftdk;tdrfvHkjcHKa&;udk xdcdkufEdkifaom owif;tcsuftvuf rsm;udk razmfxkwfbJ uefYowfxm;Edkifonf/ rD'D,musifh0wfu rD'D,mrsm; xkdodkY rdrd oabmtavsmuf a&G;cs,faqmif&GufrIudk todtrSwfjyKvufcHonf/ 3.4? owif;xkwfjyef&ef tcsdefuefYowfxm;aom owif;rsm;udk vuf0,f&&Sd xm;aomfvnf; rl&if;owif;xkwfjyefolu owfrSwfxm;aom tcsdefa&mufrSom xkwfjyef&rnf/ 3.5? rlydkifcGifhOya'ESifh ÓPypönf;ydkifqdkifrI Oya'rsm;udk av;pm;vdkufem&rnf/ rlydkifcGifh&Sdaom taMumif;t&mrsm;rS aumufEkwfcsuf? udk;um;csufrsm;udkom rl&if;ydkif&SifodkY ñTef;qdkNyD; xnfhoGif;azmfjycGifh&SdaMumif; od&Sd&rnf/ 4/ owif;rD'D,mwGifazmfjyaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk cGJjcm;owfrSwfjcif;ESifh4/ owif;rD'D,mwGifazmfjyaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk cGJjcm;owfrSwfjcif;ESifh4/ owif;rD'D,mwGifazmfjyaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk cGJjcm;owfrSwfjcif;ESifh4/ owif;rD'D,mwGifazmfjyaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk cGJjcm;owfrSwfjcif;ESifh4/ owif;rD'D,mwGifazmfjyaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk cGJjcm;owfrSwfjcif;ESifh trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf tñTef;jyKjcif;trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf tñTef;jyKjcif;trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf tñTef;jyKjcif;trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf tñTef;jyKjcif;trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf tñTef;jyKjcif; 4.1? owif;rD'D,mXmersm;onf tcsuftvufrsm;? rSwfcsufpum;rsm;ESifh rSef;q a[mudef;xkwfrIrsm;udk &Sif;vif;uGJjym;pGm azmfjy&rnf/ txl;ojzifh vlodrsm;aom owif; aMunmolrsm;udk tjcm;aomtpDtpOfrsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;aMumfjimrsm;wGif toHk;jyKjcif;udk owdjyKoifhonf/ 4.2? owif;&if;jrpfudk vHkjcHKpGmxdef;odrf;&rnfqdkaom usihf0wfESifhrqefYusifvQif tpdk;&? tjcm;w&m;0ifowif;&if;jrpfrsm;? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;? tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh trsm;jynfolrS rD'D,mXmersm;odkY ay;ydkYvmaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;tm; rnfonfht&if;tjrpfrS &&Sdonfudk xif&Sm;pGm azmfjyxnfhoGif;&rnf/ 11
  22. 22. 23 4.3 Where this is likely to play a positive role in the control or alleviation of naturaldisasters,mediaoutletsmaywishtotransmitofficialannouncements, instructions or advice; in this case, their nature and origin should be made clear. 5 Privacy and the public interest 5.1 Thepublicationorbroadcastingofinformationabouttheprivateorfamily lives of individuals without their consent is acceptable only where this is justifiedinthepublicinterest. 5.2 Normally,consentshouldbeobtainedbeforearecordingorpictureistaken of an individual in a private place, defined as a place where the individual has a reasonable expectation of privacy. This is without prejudice to the dissemination, in the public interest, of images of individuals where it is impractical to obtain consent, for example in a crowded location. When suchcontentisusedtoillustrateaspecificpoint,careshouldbetakennotto associateanidentifiableindividualwithapotentiallydamagingimplication (suchasamedicalstatisticoranextremepoliticalopinion). 6 Grief, bereavement and distress 6.1 Media workers should approach people in extreme distress or suffering frompersonalgrieforshockwithsensitivityanddiscretion.Thisiswithout prejudice to the right of media outlets to report on legal proceedings, includinginvestigationsintocrimesandprocedurestakingplacebeforecourts andotherbodieswiththepowertoimposelegallybindingremedies. 7 Harassment, pursuit and covert recording 7.1 Media outlets should not seek interviews or information by intimidation, harassment or coercion. 12
  23. 23. 23 4.3? obm0ab;tEÅ&m,frsm; usa&mufrIrsKd;uJhodkYaom tjzpfqdk;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí rD'D,mrsm;taejzifh tjyKoabmaqmifaom tcef;u@wGifom &Sdoifhonf/ tpdk;& w&m;0if aMunmcsufrsm;? ñTefMum;csufrsm;ESifh tMuHjyKcsufrsm;udk wpfqifhjzefYjzL;vdkygu &if;jrpfESifh taMumif;t&mudk &Sif;vif;pGm xnfhoGif;azmfjy&rnf/ 5/ udk,fa&;vGwfvyfcGifhESifh trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;5/ udk,fa&;vGwfvyfcGifhESifh trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;5/ udk,fa&;vGwfvyfcGifhESifh trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;5/ udk,fa&;vGwfvyfcGifhESifh trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;5/ udk,fa&;vGwfvyfcGifhESifh trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm; 5.1? trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;twGufjzpfonf[k txift&Sm;jyEdkifvQif vlwpfOD;csif;ESifh rdom;pkrsm; yk*¾vdub0qdkif&m owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ,if;wkdY oabmwl cGifhjyKcsufrygbJ a&;om;azmfjyjcif; odkYr[kwf xkwfvTifhjcif;udk jyKvkyfEdkifonf/ 5.2? vlyk*¾dKvfrsm; taejzifh udk,fa&;vGwfvyfcGifh&Sdrnf[k aMumif;usKd;nDñGwfpGm arQmfvifhEkdifaomae&mrsm;wGif vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;tm; BudKwifcGifhjyKcsuf awmif;cHjcif;rjyKbJ toH? AD'D,dkrSwfwrf;wifjcif;ESifh "mwfyHk½dkufjcif; rjyK&yg/ odkY&mwGif trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf jzpfygu BudKwifcGifhjyKcsufawmif;cH&ef vufawGUwGif rjzpfEdkifaom tajctaersm; (Oyrm - vltkyfMum;xJ)wGif cGifhjyKcsufrawmif;bJ rSwfwrf;wifEdkifonf/ xdk½kyfyHkrsm;udk taMumif;t&mwpf&yf ñTef;qdk&eftwGuf toHk;jyKaomtcgwGif xif&Sm;olrsm;udk ¤if;wkYd *kPfoa&xdcdkufaprnfh taMumif;t&mrsm;ESifh ,SOfwGJazmfjyjcif;udk owdjyK qifjcif&rnf/ (Oyrm-usef;rma&; csdKU,Gif;rIESifh tpGef;a&muf EkdifiHa&; t,ltqqdkif&m owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ponf) 6/ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif;? aoqHk;jcif;ESifh ab;'ku©a&mufjcif;6/ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif;? aoqHk;jcif;ESifh ab;'ku©a&mufjcif;6/ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif;? aoqHk;jcif;ESifh ab;'ku©a&mufjcif;6/ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif;? aoqHk;jcif;ESifh ab;'ku©a&mufjcif;6/ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif;? aoqHk;jcif;ESifh ab;'ku©a&mufjcif; 6.1? ab;'ku©a&mufaeolrsm;? 0rf;enf;aMuuGJaeolrsm;? yk*¾vxdcdkufemusifrIESifh wkefvIyfacsmufcsm;rI MuHKawGYaeolrsm;udk csOf;uyf&mwGif pmemem;vnfrIESifh owdjyKqifjcif &rnf/ odkYaomf owif;azmfjy&mwGif Oya'aMumif;&mjzpfpOfrsm;udk tpD&ifcHjcif; udpö&yfrsm;? &mZ0wfrIrsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;jcif;ESifh w&m;½Hk; odkYr[kwf Oya't& twnfjzpfonfh ajz&Sif;qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk ay;Edkifonfh tzGJUtpnf;rsm; vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk BudKwift[efY twm; rjzpfap&/ 7/ rSwfwrf;,l&mwGif um,da`E´xdyg;jcif;? twif;tusyf&,ljcif;ESifh7/ rSwfwrf;,l&mwGif um,da`E´xdyg;jcif;? twif;tusyf&,ljcif;ESifh7/ rSwfwrf;,l&mwGif um,da`E´xdyg;jcif;? twif;tusyf&,ljcif;ESifh7/ rSwfwrf;,l&mwGif um,da`E´xdyg;jcif;? twif;tusyf&,ljcif;ESifh7/ rSwfwrf;,l&mwGif um,da`E´xdyg;jcif;? twif;tusyf&,ljcif;ESifh acsmif;ajrmif;&,ljcif;acsmif;ajrmif;&,ljcif;acsmif;ajrmif;&,ljcif;acsmif;ajrmif;&,ljcif;acsmif;ajrmif;&,ljcif; 7.1? yHkrSeftm;jzifh rD'D,mrsm;onf tifwmAsL;ESifh owif;tcsuftvuf rSwfwrf;rsm; &,l&mwGif Ncdrf;ajcmufjcif;? rzG,fr&mjyKvkyfjcif;ESifh twif;tusyf zdtm;ay; aqmif&Gufjcif; rjyK&/ 12
  24. 24. 25 7.2 Mediaworkersshouldnot,unlessthisisjustifiedinthepublicinterest,use deception,includingbyusingpeoplewhoareclosetotheindividualtoget information from them orpersist in questioning, telephoning, pursuing or photographingindividualsonceaskedtodesistorremainontheirproperty when asked to leave, or follow people in these cases. 7.3 The use of covert technical recording tools, such as concealed cameras or microphones,toobtaincovertrecordingsisnotlegitimateunlessthecontent sogathered:isoflegitimatepublicinterest;isessentialtothecredibilityand authorityofthepiece;andcouldnothavebeenobtainedorobtainedsafely byanyotherlegitimatemeans;andthepracticehasbeenexplicitlyapproved by a senior editor, provided that this latter requirement may be waived in emergencysituations. 7.4 In set-up situations, such as ‘candid camera’ formats in television entertainment,whereaspecificindividual’sbehaviourisrecordedwithout theirknowledgeorpriorwarning,theirconsentshouldbesoughtbeforethe contentistransmitted.Itsusewithouttheirpermissioncanbejustifiedonly if this is necessary to make an important point of public interest, and this should be approved at a senior editorial level. 7.5 Individualsshouldbetoldwhenatelephoneconversationisbeingrecorded formediapurposes,exceptwhentheprovisionsforcovertrecordingapply. 8 Subterfuge 8.1 Media outlets should normally use straightforward means to obtain information,identifyingthemselvesasjournalistsandtheirorganisation.The useofafalseidentityorsimilartechniquesisjustifiedonlywheredisclosure isinthepublicinterestandthecontentcouldnothavebeenobtainedbyany othermeans. 13
  25. 25. 25 7.2? trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;twGufjzpfaMumif; tcdkiftrmoufaojyEkdifjcif; r&Sdygu vSnfhjzm;aomenf;jzifh csOf;uyfjcif;? Oyrm um,uH&SifESifh eD;pyfaomolrsm;xH owif; tvdkYiSm csOf;uyfjcif;? tajzr&rcsif; ar;cGef;ar;jref;jcif;? zkef;qufjcif;? aemufrS vdkufjcif;wdkYwGif um,uH&Sifu jiif;qdkjcif; odkYr[kwf ydkifeuftwGif;rS xGufcGmoGm;&ef awmif;qdkjcif; cH&NyD;aemuf qufvufaqmif&Gufjcif; rjyKvkyf&/ xdkodkYjzpfNyD;aemufwGifvnf; xdkyk*¾dKvfrsm;xHodkY xyfrHcsOf;uyfjcif; rjyKvkyfoifhay/ 7.3? vQKdU0Sufuifr&mrsm;ESifh toHzrf;pufrsm;oHk;jcif;wdkY tygt0if vQdKU0Sufowif; axmufvSrf;aom enf;ynmrsm;udk oHk;&mwGifvnf; xdkodkY&,laom tcsuftvufrSwfwrf; onf trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;twGufjzpfaMumif; taotcsmoufaojyEdkifjcif;? owif; w&m;0ifrIESifh cdkifvHkrSefuefrItwGuf tvGefta&;ygaom tcsuftvufjzpfjcif;? tjcm;aom w&m;0ifenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh &&SdEdkif&ef vHk;0rjzpfEdkifjcif;paom tajctaersm;wGif tBuD;wef; t,f'Dwmu wdus&Sif;vif;pGm oabmwlcGifhjyKrSom w&m;0ifaqmif&GufydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif ta&;ay:tajctaersm;ü tBuD;wef;t,f'Dwm cGifhjyKcsufr,lbJ aqmif&GufEdkifjyD; ,if;odkYaqmif&Guf&aMumif;udk oufqkdif&mt,f'DwmxH vsifjrefpGm owif;ay;ydkY&rnf/ 7.4? ½kyfoHowif;rD'D,mrsm;wGif tpDtpOfpwifr½dkuful;rD uifr&m prf;oyfwyfqifcsdefü cGifhjyKcsufr,lbJ odkYr[kwf vltrsm; owdrrlrdbJ ½kduful;aomjzwfydkif;rsm;udk jyefvnfxkwf vTifhrnfqdkygu cGifhjyKcsufawmif;cHNyD;rS jyefvnfxkwfvTifh&rnf/ cGifhjyKcsufr&bJ xkwfvTifhrnf qdkyguvnf; trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaMumif; tcdkiftrm oufaojyEdkif&rnfhtjyif tBuD;wef;t,f'Dwm oabmwlcGifhjyKcsufvnf; vdktyfonf/ 7.5? tBuD;wef;t,f'Dwmu vQKdU0SuftoHzrf;&ef w&m;0if cGifhjyKaom tajctaersKd;rSty w,fvDzkef;qufoG,fajymqdkrIrsm;udk toHzrf;,lrnfqdkygu owif;&if;jrpfrsm;xH BudKwif today;&rnf/ 8/ ta,mifaqmif? vSnfhpm;jcif;8/ ta,mifaqmif? vSnfhpm;jcif;8/ ta,mifaqmif? vSnfhpm;jcif;8/ ta,mifaqmif? vSnfhpm;jcif;8/ ta,mifaqmif? vSnfhpm;jcif; 8.1? owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ukd &&Sd&eftwGuf rdrdrnfolrnf0gqdkonfESifh rnfonfh tzGJUtpnf;udk udk,fpm;jyKaMumif; &Sif;vif;pGmazmfjyNyD; ½dk;ajzmifhpGm aqmif&Guf&rnf/ trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaMumif; tcdkiftrmoufaojyEdkifNyD; tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh owif;&&SdEdkifjcif; r&Sdaom tajctaersKd;rSty trnfemr vSD;vTJajymqdkjcif;ESifh tjcm; r½dk;ajzmifhaom enf;vrf;rsm; toHk;rjyK&/ 13
  26. 26. 27 9 Interviews 9.1 Conventional interviews should be arranged, conducted and edited fairly and honestly. Interviewees are entitled to know in advance the format and subject(althoughnotnecessarilythedetailedcontent)oftheinterview,and whether, for broadcasters, it will be live or recorded. 9.2 Ifaprospectiveintervieweeattemptstoimposeconditionsonaninterview (forexamplebyrefusingtoappearwithotherinterviewees,byinsistingthat thecontributionnotbeeditedorbydemandingalistofquestionsforvetting inadvance),themediaoutletmaywithdrawtheinvitation.Anyconditions which are accepted may be made clear to the audience. 9.3 Anyone has an absolute right to refuse to take part in a programme or interview.Iftheydoso,theirrefusalshouldbedescribedtotheaudiencein neutral terms (such as ‘declined our invitation’ or ‘was unavailable for comment’).Themediaoutletmaypublishorbroadcasttheknownviewsof a non-participant, provided this is done in a fair and balanced way. 9.4 The presentation and/or editing of an interview should not distort or misrepresent the views of the interviewee, or suggest that he or she said something he or she did not. 9.5 There should be sound public interest reasons for allowing an interviewee to be presented anonymously. 9.6 ‘Doorstepping’, i.e. catching people unaware for an interview, should be resorted to only when a direct approach has failed provided that where a directapproachmightleadtothesuppressionofpublicinterestinformation thisrequirementmaybewaived. 14
  27. 27. 27 9/ tifwmAsL;jcif;9/ tifwmAsL;jcif;9/ tifwmAsL;jcif;9/ tifwmAsL;jcif;9/ tifwmAsL;jcif; 9.1? orm;½dk;us tifwmAsL;rsm;udk pDpOfjcif;? ar;jref;jcif;ESifh wnf;jzwfjcif;wdkYudk rQw? ½dk;ajzmifhpGm aqmif&Guf&rnf/ tifwmAsL; ajzqdkrnfholrsm;onfvnf; tifwmAsL; tpDtpOfyHkpHESifh taMumif;t&mrsm;udk BudKwifodydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ (taMumif;t&m tao;pdwf BudKwifajymxm;&ef rvdk/) ½kyfoHtifwmAsL; jzpfygu wdkuf½dkufxkwfvTifhrnf odkYr[kwf rSwfwrf;wifrnfudk BudKwiftoday;xm;&rnf/ 9.2? tu,fí tifwmAsL;cH&ef vsmxm;aomolu tifwmAsL;ESifhywfoufNyD;? vdkvm; aomtcsufrsm; (tjcm;tifwmAsL;cH yk*¾dKvfrsm;ESifh twl,SOfwGJazmfjyjcif;udk BudKwifjiif;qdkjcif;? wpfpHkwpf&m wnf;jzwfjcif;rjyK&ef awmif;qdkjcif;? ar;cGef;rsm;udk a&G;cs,fajzMum;&eftwGuf BudKwifay;ydkY&ef awmif;qdkjcif;ponf)udk twif;tusyf awmif;qdkvmygu owif;rD'D,mXme onf tifwmAsL;&ef urf;vSrf;csufudk ½kyfodrf;Ekdifonf/ xdkawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vdkufavsmcJh yguvnf; rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk vdkufavsmcJhaMumif; a&;om;xkwfvTifh&mwGif &Sif;vif;pGm xnfhoGif;azmfjy&rnf/ 9.3? rnfolrqdk rD'D,mtpDtpOfrsm;ESifh tifwmAsL;rsm;wGif yg0ifjcif;udk jiif;qdk&ef tcGifhta&;&Sdonf/ xdkodkYjiif;qdkaMumif;udkvnf; tjcm;t"dyÜm,fwpfpHkwpf&m oufa&mufjcif; r&Sdaom toHk;tEIef;rsm;jzifh rD'D,mwGif azmfjyEdkifonf/ (Oyrm-tifwmAsL; urf;vSrf;jcif; udk jiif;qdkonf? rSwfcsufwpfpHkwpf&m ay;Edkifjcif;r&Sdyg ponf)/ rD'D,mrsm;onf wdkuf½dkuf tifwmAsL;xm;jcif; r&Sdolrsm; vlodxif&Sm; xkwfazmfajymMum;xm;NyD;jzpfaom rSwfcsuf rsm;udk [efcsufnDrQwpGm xnfhoGif;azmfjyEdkifonf/ 9.4? tifwmAsL;wifqufjcif;ESifh wnf;jzwfjcif;wdkYwGif tifwmAsL;ajzqdkol oabmxm; &yfwnfcsufrsm;udk yHkzsufjcif; odkYr[kwf rrSefruef jyefvnfazmfjyjcif; rjyKvkyf&/ 9.5? trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaMumif; cdkifvHkonfh taMumif;jycsufr&SdbJ tifwmAsL; ajzqdkoludk trnfrazmfvdkoltjzpf ajzqdkcGifhrjyK&/ 9.6? trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf vdktyfaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;&,l&mwGif wdkuf½dkufcsOf;uyf&ef rjzpfEkdifjcif;? odkYr[kwf wdkuf½dkufcsOf;uyfygu taxmuftxm; qHk;½IH;jcif;ESifh owif;xdefcsefjcif;wdkY jzpfEdkifaom tajctaersKd;rSty BudKwiftaMumif;rMum;bJ a&Smifwcif tifwmAsL;ar;jref;jcif;udk a&SmifMuOf&rnf/ 14
  28. 28. 29 10 Discrimination 10.1 Media outlets should avoid any discriminatory, derogatory or patronising reference to people’s race, colour, religion, sex, sexual orientation or preference,age,physicalormentaldisabilityorillness. 10.2 Thecharacteristicslistedabove(race,colour,etc.)shouldnotbeidentified inmediacontentexceptwherethisisdirectlyrelevantoraddssignificantly to readers’, listeners’ or viewers’ understanding. Particular care should be takenregardingreferencestovulnerableminorities. 10.3 Mediaoutletsarefreetoreportandcommentonallmattersofpublicinterest, but they should take care not to encourage or promote racial, ethnic or sectarian hatred or discord, including by one-sided reporting on ethnic tensions. 11 Religion 11.1 Mediaoutletsshouldrespectthespecialplacewhichreligionsarelikelyto hold in the lives of their adherents. Sensitive and balanced treatment of religiousthemesisparticularlyimportantinamulti-faithsocietylikeMyanmar, and media outlets should be aware of the offence which can be caused to believersbycasual,gratuitousandexpletivereferencestoreligiousfigures. 11.2 Religious programmes which are broadcast on television or radio should notproselytiseorattempttoinfluencetheaudiencebypreyingontheirfears, bymakingclaimsaboutindividualsorgroupswhichcannotbesubstantiated, orbydenigratingthereligiousbeliefsofothers. 15
  29. 29. 29 10/ cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;10/ cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;10/ cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;10/ cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;10/ cGJjcm;qufqHjcif; 10.1? vlrsKd;? tom;ta&mif? udk;uG,f,HkMunfrI? vdif? vdifwdrf;ñTwfrI? touft&G,f? udk,fum,ydkif;ESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m roefpGrf;rI? emrusef;rIwdkYESifh ywfoufNyD; cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;? xdcdkufepfemapjcif;ESifh ESdrhfcsjcif; t"dyÜm,foufa&mufapaom rnfonfhtoHk;tEIef;? wifqufrI rsKd;udkrQ rjyKvkyf&/ 10.2? owif;wifjyrIwGif wdkuf½dkufoufqdkifjcif;? zwf½Iol? em;qif Munfh½Iolrsm; taMumif;t&mtay: em;vnfrIudk xl;xl;uJuJ oufa&mufapjcif;&Sdaom tajctaersm;rSty txuf(10.1)yg 0daoorsm;udk rD'D,mrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;azmfjyjcif; rjyK&/ xdcdkufvG,faom tkyfpkrsm;tm; txuf(10.1)yg 0daoo&nfñTef;csufrsm;jzifh wGJzufazmfjyrnfqkdygu txl; *½kjyKoifhonf/ 10.3? rD'D,mrsm;onf trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;ESifh qufpyfaom rnfonfhtaMumif; t&mudkrqdk vGwfvyfpGm azmfjycGifhESifh a0zefoHk;oyfcGifh&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif vlrsKd;a&; y#dyu©rsm;ü bufwpfzufwnf;rS owif;a&;jcif;tygt0if vlrsKd;a&; odkYr[kwf tkyfpktcsif;csif; trkef;w&m;rsm;ESifh oabmuGJvGJrIrsm;udk tm;ay;vIHYaqmfjcif; rjyKrdap&ef txl;owdjyK&rnf/ 11/ udk;uG,f,HkMunfrI11/ udk;uG,f,HkMunfrI11/ udk;uG,f,HkMunfrI11/ udk;uG,f,HkMunfrI11/ udk;uG,f,HkMunfrI 11.1? rD'D,mrsm;onf udk;uG,f,HkMunfolrsm; oufqdkif&m bmomw&m;? t,l toD;oD; ta&;ygrIudk aumif;pGmem;vnfav;pm;&rnf/ jrefrmEdkifiHuJhodkY udk;uG,f,HkMunfrI trsKd;pHkpGm &Sdaeaom vlYtzGJUtpnf;rsm;wGif bmoma&;qdkif&m taMumif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; em;vnfrI&Sd&SdESifh rQwaom a&;om;wifqufrIrsKd;rSm txl;ta&;wBuD; vdktyf onf/ bmoma&;ESifhqdkifaom taMumif;t&m? vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;ESifhywfoufNyD; r&nf&G,faom trSm;rsm;? rvdktyfbJ wifpm;cdkif;EdIif;rIrsm;ESifh xdyg;rIrsm;onf udk;uG,f,HkMunfolrsm;udk rnfodkYxdcdkufapmfum;rIrsm; jzpfaponfudk aumif;pGmem;vnf*½kjyK&rnf/ 11.2? ½kyfoHESifh a&'D,dkrsm;wGif xkwfvTifhaom bmoma&;qdkif&m tpDtpOfrsm;onfvnf; em,lolrsm;udk taMumufw&m;oHk;NyD; MoZmvTrf;&ef BudK;pm;jcif;? vufawGUoufaojy? taumiftxnfazmf&ef rjzpfEkdifaom obm0vGefwefcdk;xl;rsm;udk wpfOD;csif; odkYr[kwf tkyfpkvdkuf&Ekdifrnf[k a<u;aMumf? a[majymjcif; odkYr[kwf tjcm;bmom0ifrsm;udk xdyg;? ESdrfcsjcif;rsm; vHk;0r&Sdap&/ 15
  30. 30. 31 12 Strong language 12.1 The gratuitous use of strong swearwords or obscene or blasphemous language should be avoided. The dissemination of such terms is justified onlywhereitisessentialtotheaudience’sunderstanding,includingbecause it forms part of a direct quotation, or to the dramatic development of a story. 13 The involvement of children 13.1 Children(seenotesfordefinition)shouldnotbeinterviewedintheabsence of, or without the consent of, a parent or other adult responsible for the child,unlessthisisjustifiedinthepublicinterest,includingbecausethechild does not have a parent or guardian. 13.2 Children should not be approached or interviewed at school without the permission of the headmaster or headmistress or concerned teacher. 13.3 The dissemination through the media without consent of content about a child’s private life cannot be justified solely by the fame, prominence or position of his or her parents. 13.4 Children should not be paid or otherwise compensated (for example by giving a gift) to obtain content relating to the child’s welfare, and parents and guardians should not be paid or otherwise compensated for content abouttheirchildrenorwards,unlessthisisclearlyinthechild’sinterest. 14 Victims of sexual crimes 14.1 Victims of sexual crimes should not be identified, or content published or broadcast from which their identity is likely to be inferred, and children should not be identified where they are appearing as witnesses in sexual offencecases,unlessthisispermittedbylawandcanalsobejustifiedinthe publicinterest. 14.2 Reports of cases alleging sexual offences against a child may identify an involvedadultbutmaynotidentifythechildorincludefactswhichimplya closerelationshipbetweenanaccusedadultandachildvictim,unlessthisis permitted by law and can also be justified in the public interest. 16
  31. 31. 31 111112/ jyif;xefMurf;wrf;aom bmompum;toHk;tEIef;2/ jyif;xefMurf;wrf;aom bmompum;toHk;tEIef;2/ jyif;xefMurf;wrf;aom bmompum;toHk;tEIef;2/ jyif;xefMurf;wrf;aom bmompum;toHk;tEIef;2/ jyif;xefMurf;wrf;aom bmompum;toHk;tEIef; 12.1? ½kefY&if;Murf;wrf;aom? npfnrf;aom? ,kwfnHhaom teuft"dyÜm,fxGufonfh pum;vHk;rsm;tm; rvdktyfbJ oHk;pGJjcif;udk a&SmifMuOf&rnf/ pmzwfy&dowf odkYr[kwf ½kyfoHy&dowfrsm; em;vnfrIudk xl;uJpGm taxmuftyHh jzpfapaomtcgESifh wdkuf½dkufajympum;wGif tpdwftydkif;taejzifh yg0ifaejcif; odkYr[kwf wifjyaeaom Zmwfvrf; tESpfom&udk yHhydk;ulnDay;onf[k oufaojyEkdifaomtcgrsm;rSvGJí oHk;pGJjcif; rjyK&/ 13/ uav;oli,frsm;13/ uav;oli,frsm;13/ uav;oli,frsm;13/ uav;oli,frsm;13/ uav;oli,frsm; 13.1? uav;oli,frsm;udk rdb odkYr[kwf tkyfxdef;ol cGihfjyKcsufr&bJ odkYr[kwf ¤if;wdkY rsufarSmufr[kwfbJ tifwmAsL; rjyKvkyf&yg/ trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf txl;ta&;BuD;onfh tcgrsKd;rSvGJí odkYr[kwf uav;wGif rdba&m tkyfxdef;olyg r&SdaomtcgrSvGJí þya&mfzuf&Sife,f usifh0wfvdktyfcsufudk a&SmifvTJjcif; rjyK&/ 13.2? ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD;^q&mrBuD; okdYr[kwf twef;ykdifq&m^rwpfOD;OD; cGifhjyKcsuf r&bJ ausmif;y&d0kPftwGif; ausmif;om;rsm;udk csOf;uyfjcif;? tifwmAsL;jcif; rjyK&yg/ 13.3? uav;rdbrsm; xif&Sm;rI? vlodrsm;rIESifh &mxl;XmeEÅ&wdkYudk taMumif;jyKNyD; uav;ukd,fa&;b0ESifh ywfoufonfh taMumif;t&mrsm;udk azmfjyjcif; rjyK&/ 13.4? uav; b0ESifhqdkifaom taMumif;t&mrsm; azmfjy&eftwGuf uav;udk tcaMu;aiGay;jcif; odkYr[kwf vufaqmifay;jcif;uJhodkYaom tjcm;rufvHk;rsm;ay;jcif;? uav; odkYr[kwf tkyfxdef;cHtaMumif;udk azmfjy&eftwGuf rdbtkyfxdef;olrsm;udk tcaMu;aiG ay;jcif; odkYr[kwf tjcm;rufvHk; wpfrsKd;rsKd;ay;jcif; rjyK&/ 14/ vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefjcif;cH&olrsm;14/ vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefjcif;cH&olrsm;14/ vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefjcif;cH&olrsm;14/ vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefjcif;cH&olrsm;14/ vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefjcif;cH&olrsm; 14.1? vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefjcif;cH&aom "m;pmcHrsm;udk rnfolrnf0gazmfjyjcif;? ,if;wdkY rnfolrnf0gqdkonfudk od&SdEdkifaom taxmuftxm;rsm;azmfjyjcif; rjyKvkyf&yg/ Oya'aMumif;t& cGifhjyKcsuf&&SdNyD; trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;udkvnf; taxmuftyHHhay; Edkifrnf[k oufaojyEdkifaom tcgrsKd;rSvGJí vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif oufaotjzpf yg0ifaeaom uav;oli,frsm;udkvnf; rnfolrnf0g[k azmfjyjcif; rjyK&yg/ 14.2? Oya'aMumif;t& cGifhjyKcsuf&&SdNyD; trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;udkvnf; taxmuf tyHYay;Edkifrnf[k oufaojyEdkifaom tcgrsKd;rSvGJí uav;oli,frsm;ay: usL;vGefonf[k pGyfpGJcH&aom vdifqdkif&m &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif uav;oli,frsm;udk rnfolrnf0g[k azmfjyjcif; rjyK&/ t&G,fa&mufNyD; pGyfpGJcH&oludkrl azmfjyEdkifonf/ uav;ESifh pGyfpGJcH&olwdkYwGif eD;uyfaom qufqHa&; &Sdyguvnf; azmfjyjcif; rjyK&yg/ 16
  32. 32. 33 15 Portrayal of sexual conduct 15.1 When reporting on or portraying sexual activity or conduct, media outlets shouldbesensitivetothedangerofoffendingpublicdecencyorthefeelings of the audience, especially before the watershed. 16 Portrayal of violence in broadcasting 16.1 Broadcasters should be able to justify the realistic portrayal of violence or the threat of violence as being essential, in its content and intensity, to the integrity of the programme. In other words, they should be able to show that ‘sanitising’ or removing the violent content would undermine the programme’scoherence,completenessand/orhonesty.Especialcareshould be taken where there is a risk that portrayal of violence might fuel further violence. 16.2 Detailed and/or prolonged depiction of violence should not be broadcast through the media, particularly where the practices are capable of easy imitation and involve articles or substances readily available to children, suchasdomesticknivesorhouseholdchemicals.Similarrestrictionsapply to the portrayal of suicide or attempted suicide. 17 Scheduling considerations, ‘labelling’ and on-air warnings in broadcasting 17.1 Contentunsuitableforchildrenshouldnotbebroadcastattimeswhenlarge numbers of children may be expected to be viewing or listening. The ‘watershed’timeafterwhichthisexpectationmaybeprogressivelyrelaxed is 22:00. This provision also applies to trailers and promotions which are broadcast before 22:00, regardless of when the actual programmes are to be broadcast. 17
  33. 33. 33 15/ vdifqdkif&m tjyKtrlrsm;udk o½kyfazmfwifjyjcif;15/ vdifqdkif&m tjyKtrlrsm;udk o½kyfazmfwifjyjcif;15/ vdifqdkif&m tjyKtrlrsm;udk o½kyfazmfwifjyjcif;15/ vdifqdkif&m tjyKtrlrsm;udk o½kyfazmfwifjyjcif;15/ vdifqdkif&m tjyKtrlrsm;udk o½kyfazmfwifjyjcif; 15.1? vdifqdkif&m tjyKtrlrsm;ESifh aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk wifjyjcif;? jyefvnf azmfjy jcif;rsm; jyKvkyf&mwGif trsm;jynfol zwf½Iem;qifí tjrifrwifhw,fjcif;? Munfh½Iolrsm; pdwfroufrom jzpfapjcif;rsm; rjzpfap&ef txl;owdjyK&rnf/ txl;ojzifh ½kyfjrifoHMum; rsm;wGif Munfh½Ioltrsm;pk&Sdaeaom tcsdefrsm;twGif; xkwfvTifhjcif;rjyK&ef txl;owdjyK&rnf/ 16/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifhrIrsm;wGif tMurf;zufrIrsm;ESihf aoG;xGufoH,dkrIrsm;udk16/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifhrIrsm;wGif tMurf;zufrIrsm;ESihf aoG;xGufoH,dkrIrsm;udk16/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifhrIrsm;wGif tMurf;zufrIrsm;ESihf aoG;xGufoH,dkrIrsm;udk16/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifhrIrsm;wGif tMurf;zufrIrsm;ESihf aoG;xGufoH,dkrIrsm;udk16/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifhrIrsm;wGif tMurf;zufrIrsm;ESihf aoG;xGufoH,dkrIrsm;udk wifjyjcif;wifjyjcif;wifjyjcif;wifjyjcif;wifjyjcif; 16.1? ½kyfoHxkwfvTifholrsm;onf tMurf;zufrIrsm; wu,fho½kyfrSef odkYr[kwf Ncdrf;ajcmufrI (taMumif;t&mrsm;ESifh &ufpufMurf;MuKwfrIrsm;)udk tpDtpOfwGif xnfhoGif; wifjy&eftwGuf cdkifvHkaom taMumif;jycsufrsm; &Sd&rnf/ tpDtpOf NyD;jynfhpkHrI? rSefuefrIESifh axmifhaphrIwdkYtwGuf vdktyfaMumif; oufaojyEdkifjcif;r&SdbJ xdkodkY tao;pdwf azmfjyjcif; rjyK&yg/ txl;ojzifh tMurf;zufrIrsm;udk o½kyfazmfwifjyjcif;u aemufqufwGJ tMurf;zufrIrsm; jzpfay:ap&ef wGef;tm;ay;Edkifaom tajctaersm;udk txl;owdxm;&rnf/ 16.2? tMurf;zufrIrsm;udk tao;pdwfyHkay:atmif azmfjyjcif;? tptqHk; o½kyfazmf wifqufjcif;rsKd;udk a&Smif&Sm;oifhonf/ txl;ojzifh azmfjyrnfhtMurf;zufrI yHkpHrsm;udk tvG,fwul twkcdk;Ekdifaomtcg odkYr[kwf uav;oli,frsm; tvG,fwul vufvSrf;rDaom rD;zdkacsmifoHk;"m;? tdrfoHk;"mwkypönf;rsm;paom ypönf;rsm;jzifh tMurf;zufrI usL;vGefaom tcgrsKd;rsm;wGif tao;pdwfazmfjyjcif;udk a&Smif&Sm;&rnf/ tvm;wlyif rdrdudk,fudk tqHk; pD&ifrIrsm;ESifh tqHk;pD&if&ef BudK;yrf;rIrsm;udkvnf; tao;pdwfazmfjyjcif; rjyK&/ 17/ ½kyfoHvTifh tpDtpOfrsm;a&;qGJjcif;? tpDtpOfrsm;acgif;pOfwyfjcif;ESifh17/ ½kyfoHvTifh tpDtpOfrsm;a&;qGJjcif;? tpDtpOfrsm;acgif;pOfwyfjcif;ESifh17/ ½kyfoHvTifh tpDtpOfrsm;a&;qGJjcif;? tpDtpOfrsm;acgif;pOfwyfjcif;ESifh17/ ½kyfoHvTifh tpDtpOfrsm;a&;qGJjcif;? tpDtpOfrsm;acgif;pOfwyfjcif;ESifh17/ ½kyfoHvTifh tpDtpOfrsm;a&;qGJjcif;? tpDtpOfrsm;acgif;pOfwyfjcif;ESifh rxkwfvTifhrrxkwfvTifhrrxkwfvTifhrrxkwfvTifhrrxkwfvTifhrDDDDD BudKwiftoday;aMunmjcif;BudKwiftoday;aMunmjcif;BudKwiftoday;aMunmjcif;BudKwiftoday;aMunmjcif;BudKwiftoday;aMunmjcif; 17.1? uav;oli,frsm;ESifh roifhavsmfaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk uav;oli,ftrsm;pk Munfh½Icsdef? odkYr[kwf em;qifcsdef[k ,lq&aom tcsdefrsm;wGif xkwfvTifhjcif; rjyK&/ 22;00 em&D aemufydkif; tcsdefrsm;wGifrl xdkuefYowfcsufudk avQmhaygh pOf;pm;avh&Sdonf/ jyornfh uefYowftpDtpOfESifh ywfoufaom erlemtydkif;rsm;ESifh jr§ifhwifa&;tpDtpOf tydkif;rsm;udkvnf; 22;00 em&D rwdkifrDwGif jyojcif;rjyK&/ 17
  34. 34. 35 17.2 Whereacquiredprogrammeshavebeengivenasuitabilityclassificationat origin, this should be reviewed and edited for appropriateness in the Myanmar context and then included in promotions and trailers and shown beforeoratthebeginningoftransmissionoftheprogramme.Mediaoutlets may also attach such classifications to their own programmes and to unclassified acquired programmes. In all cases, an appropriate warning shouldbebroadcastbeforeoratthebeginningofanyprogrammecontaining contentwhichislikelytobedisturbingoroffensivetotheaveragevieweror listener,orharmfultochildren,bearinginmindthenatureofthemediaoutlet, thetimeoftransmissionandthelikelyaudience. 18 Crime and anti-social behaviour 18.1 Crimeandanti-socialbehaviour,especiallywhereitinvolvesviolence,should not be glamorised or reported or portrayed in a manner which is likely to encourageimitationorexperimentation. 18 .2 Relatives of people accused or convicted of crime should not normally be identifiedunlessthisisdirectlyrelevant. 19 Kidnappingandhi-jacking 19.1 Noinformationshouldbepublishedorbroadcastwhichislikelytoendanger lives in, or prejudice attempts to deal with, a kidnapping or a hi-jacking. 20 Demonstrations and civil unrest 20.1 Media outlets should be aware that media coverage can influence events and that their presence at the scene of a demonstration or civil unrest may be exploited by elements in the crowd. 18
  35. 35. 35 17.2? jyornfhtpDtpOfrsm;wGif Munfh½Ioludk uefYowfonfh tMuHjyKcsufrsm; xnfhoGif; &rnfhtjyif erlemtykdif;rsm;? tpDtpOf jr§ifhwifa&;aMumfjimrsm;ESifh xyfqifhxkwfvTifhrIrsm;wGifyg xdkuefYowf owday;csufudk xnfhoGif;&rnf/ tpDtpOfrsm;udkvnf; jrefrmvlrItzGJUtpnf;ESifh oifhavsmfjcif; &Sd ^r&Sd oHk;oyfwnf;jzwf&rnf/ rD'D,mtcGJrsm;rS jyornfh tpDtpOfrsm; wGifvnf; uefYowfowday;csufrsm; xnfhoGif;&rnfjzpfNyD; trsKd;tpm; rcGJEdkifyguvnf; trsKd;tpm; cGJrxm;[laom owday;csuf xnfhoGif;&rnf/ ysrf;rQ Munfh½Iem;qifolrsm;udk pdwftaESmifht,Sufjzpfaponfh? ½kefY&if;Murf;wrf;onf[k rSwf,lEdkifaponfh odkYr[kwf uav;oli,frsm;udk xdcdkufapEdkifonfh tpDtpOfrsm;udk jyo&mwGif ,if;tpDtpOfESifh ywfoufaom uefYowfowday;csufudk tpDtpOf rpcifjzpfap? tpDtpOf tpwGifjzpfap xnfhoGif;jyo&rnf/ xdkYtjyif rD'D,m oabmobm0? xkwfvTifhrnfhtcsdefESifh yHkrSef Munfh½IEdkifacs&Sdonfh y&dowfrsm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;NyD;rS xkwfvTifhrIrsm;ESifh uefYowfcsuf owday;rIrsm;ukd xkwfjyef&rnf/ 18/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;? vlrIpHEIef;rsm;ESifh zDvmjzpfaom tjyKtrlrsm;18/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;? vlrIpHEIef;rsm;ESifh zDvmjzpfaom tjyKtrlrsm;18/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;? vlrIpHEIef;rsm;ESifh zDvmjzpfaom tjyKtrlrsm;18/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;? vlrIpHEIef;rsm;ESifh zDvmjzpfaom tjyKtrlrsm;18/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;? vlrIpHEIef;rsm;ESifh zDvmjzpfaom tjyKtrlrsm; 18.1? &mZ0wfrIrsm;? vlrIpHEIef;rsm;ESifh zDvmjzpfaom tjyKtrlrsm;ESihfywfoufí twkcdk;jcif; odkYr[kwf prf;oyfjyKvkyfMunfhjcif;udk tm;ay;&ma&mufaom qGJaqmifrI jzpfaponfh a&;om;wifqufrIrsm;? owif;ay;ydkYrIrsm;ESifh o½kyfazmfwifqufrIrsm; a&SmifMuOf&rnf/ 18.2? owif;wifqufrItwGuf wdkuf½dkufqufpyf ywfoufaom tajctaersKd;rS vGJí &mZ0wfrIjzifh pGyfpGJcH&aom odkYr[kwf jypfrIxif&Sm;aMumif; pD&ifcsufcsrSwfjcif; cH&olrsm; rdom;pkESifh aqGrsKd;om;csif;rsm;udk yHkrSeftm;jzifh rnfolrnf0g trnfwyfNyD; azmfjyjcif; rjyK&/ 19/ jyefay;qGJjcif;ESifh tydkifpD;jcif;19/ jyefay;qGJjcif;ESifh tydkifpD;jcif;19/ jyefay;qGJjcif;ESifh tydkifpD;jcif;19/ jyefay;qGJjcif;ESifh tydkifpD;jcif;19/ jyefay;qGJjcif;ESifh tydkifpD;jcif; 19.1? jyefay;qGJrIESifh tydkifpD;rIrsm;twGif; "m;pmcHrsm;udk touftEÅ&m,f xdcdkuf apEdkifaom odkYr[kwf aphpyfn§dEdIif;jcif;udk vrf;aMumif;vGJapEkdifaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm; wifjyjcif; rjyK&/ 20/ qE´jyrIrsm;ESifh jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&; rNidrfoufrIrsm;20/ qE´jyrIrsm;ESifh jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&; rNidrfoufrIrsm;20/ qE´jyrIrsm;ESifh jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&; rNidrfoufrIrsm;20/ qE´jyrIrsm;ESifh jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&; rNidrfoufrIrsm;20/ qE´jyrIrsm;ESifh jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&; rNidrfoufrIrsm; 20.1? txufyg tjzpftysufrsm; jzpfyGm;&mwGif rD'D,mrsm; MoZmvTrf;rI BuD;rm;onfudk *½kjyK&rnfjzpfjyD; rD'D,mrsm;a&muf&Sdaejcif;udk tcGifhaumif;,lEdkifaomolrsm;vnf; vltkyfxJwGif &Sdaeonfudk owdxm;&rnf/ 18
  36. 36. 37 20.2 Livecoverageofdemonstrationsanddisturbancesshouldbeplacedincontext and should, where these incidents involve sensitive matters, such as race relations, be balanced in nature. 21 Relations with the police and other authorities 21.1 Media workers should not appear to act as direct agents of the police or otherauthoritiessincethiscouldcallintoquestiontheireditorialindependence or put the safety of their staff at risk. 21.2 ThisCodesupportstheprinciplethatcontentwhichhasnotbeenpublished orbroadcastshouldnotbereleasedtotheauthoritiesexceptwhererequired by law, including in response to a court order. 22 Payment in criminal cases 22.1 Payments should not be made, directly or indirectly, to individuals who have been convicted of or have confessed to crimes, or to their associates orrelatives,forinformationrelatedtothosecrimes. 22.2 Nopaymentorofferofpaymentshouldbemade,directlyorindirectly,for informationtoanypersonexpectedtobeawitnessincriminalproceedings untiltheproceedingsarebroughttoafinalconclusionbywhatevermeans. 22.3 Paymentsofthiskindmayveryexceptionallybeallowedwherethisisjustified inthepublicinterestandwherethecontentcannotbeobtainedbyanyother means. 23 Advertising, product-placement and ‘undue prominence’ 23.1 Advertisementsshouldbeclearlydistinguishedfromothermediacontent, normallybyavisualdeviceorajingle. 19
  37. 37. 37 20.2? qE´jyrIrsm;ESifh qlyltHk<urIrsm;udk wdkuf½dkuf xkwfvTifhrnfqdkygu ,if;wdkY aemufcHtaMumif;rsm;ESifhwuG xkwfvTifh&rnf/ txl;ojzifh vlrsKd;a&;udpörsm;uJhokYd txdt&S rcHaom jyóem&yfrsm;ESifh ywfoufygu owif;azmfjyyHkonf rQrQww&Sd&ef vdkonf/ 21/ &JwyfzGJY? tjcm;tmPmydkif tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqHa&;21/ &JwyfzGJY? tjcm;tmPmydkif tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqHa&;21/ &JwyfzGJY? tjcm;tmPmydkif tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqHa&;21/ &JwyfzGJY? tjcm;tmPmydkif tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqHa&;21/ &JwyfzGJY? tjcm;tmPmydkif tzGJUtpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqHa&; 21.1? rD'D,mvkyfief; vkyfudkifolrsm;onf &JwyfzGJUESifh tjcm;tmPmydkif tzGJUtpnf;rsm; owif;ay;tjzpf aqmif&Gufjcif; rjyK&yg/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf t,f'Dwmrsm; oD;jcm; vGwfvyfrIESifh rD'D,mwm0efxrf;aqmifaeolrsm;twGuf tEÅ&m,fusa&mufEkdifajc&Sdaom aMumifh jzpfonf/ 21.2? w&m;½Hk;trdefYt& aqmif&Guf&aom tajctaersKd;rSvGJí yHkESdyfazmfjyjcif; odkYr[kwf xkwfvTifhxm;jcif;r&Sdaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk vHkjcHKa&;tmPmydkifrsm;xHodkY vTJajymif; ay;jcif; rjyK&/ 22/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif owif;0,f,ljcif;22/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif owif;0,f,ljcif;22/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif owif;0,f,ljcif;22/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif owif;0,f,ljcif;22/ &mZ0wfrIrsm;wGif owif;0,f,ljcif; 22.1? &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefaMumif; pD&ifcsufusolrsm; odkYr[kwf ajzmifhcsufay;xm;olrsm; odkYr[kwf ¤if;wdkY vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;ESifh aqGrsKd;rsm;tm; &mZ0wfrIrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm; &&Sd&eftwGuf wdkuf½dkufjzpfap? oG,f0dkufíjzpfap tcaMu;aiG ay;í 0,f,ljcif; rjyK&/ 22.2? &mZ0wftrItcif;rsm;wGif oufaojzpfEkdifaomolrsm;xHrS owif;tcsuftvuf rsm;ESifh taxmuftxm;rsm;udk wenf;enf;jzifh trItqHk;owfpD&ifcsufcs rNyD;rcsif; wdkuf½dkufjzpfap? oG,f0dkufíjzpfap 0,f,ljcif;? 0,f,l&ef urf;vSrf;jcif; rjyK&/ 22.3? txl;>cif;csufjyKEdkifaom tajctaetcsKdUrSvGJí trsm;jynfoltusKd;twGuf ,if;owif;tcsuftvufrsm; vdktyfonf[k oufaojyEkdifNyD; tjcm;enf;rsm;jzifh &&efenf;vrf; r&SdaomtcgrsKd;rSty xdkodkY tcaMu;aiGay; 0,f,ljcif; rjyK&/ 23/ aMumfjimjcif;? ukefypönf;rsm; xnfhoGif;jyojcif;ESifh aMumfjimr[kwfaom23/ aMumfjimjcif;? ukefypönf;rsm; xnfhoGif;jyojcif;ESifh aMumfjimr[kwfaom23/ aMumfjimjcif;? ukefypönf;rsm; xnfhoGif;jyojcif;ESifh aMumfjimr[kwfaom23/ aMumfjimjcif;? ukefypönf;rsm; xnfhoGif;jyojcif;ESifh aMumfjimr[kwfaom23/ aMumfjimjcif;? ukefypönf;rsm; xnfhoGif;jyojcif;ESifh aMumfjimr[kwfaom tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tvGeftuGßH ñTef;qdkjcif;tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tvGeftuGßH ñTef;qdkjcif;tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tvGeftuGßH ñTef;qdkjcif;tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tvGeftuGßH ñTef;qdkjcif;tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tvGeftuGßH ñTef;qdkjcif; 23.1? aMumfjimrsm;ESifh tjcm;aom rD'D,mtcef;u@rsm;udk aumfvHcGJazmfjyjcif;? wD;vHk;oHpOfwpfckjzifh trSwftom;jyKjcif;paom odomxif&Sm;onfh yHkpHwpfrsKd;rsKd;jzifh tjriftm½Hk &Sif;vif;ap&ef cGJjcm;azmfjy&rnf/ 19
  38. 38. 39 23.2 Advertising should normally be confined to paid-for advertising space or time(‘commercialbreaks’).Productplacementwithinothermediacontent in return for payment or other considerations is not acceptable. Where referenceismadewithinprogrammesorarticlestocommercialproductsor services, they should not be given greater prominence than is justified by purelyeditorialconsiderations. 23.3 Advertising content should respect the principles of ‘legal, decent, honest and truthful’.Advertisements should observe similar criteria to editorial content in terms of taste, decency and social responsibility. It should not disparage identifiable competitors or other products and any comparisons should be based on facts which can be substantiated. Testimonials or endorsements should be genuine and relate to the endorser’s personal experience. 24 Competitions 24.1 Mediaoutletsshouldensurethat,asregardsmediacoverageofcompetitions, thereisnocollusionbetweenthemediaoutletandcontestantswhichresults in an advantage for any contestant over any other. 25 Personal interest and influence 25.1 People engaged in the media should not allow personal or family interests toinfluencethemintheconductoftheirprofessionalduties. 25.2 They should not allow themselves to be influenced by any person through anofferofpayment,giftorotheradvantage,orbyadvertisingorcommercial considerations. 20
  39. 39. 39 23.2? aMumfjimrsm;udk yHkrSefowfrSwfay;avh&Sdonfh pmrsufESmae&mrsm;ESifh xkwfvTifhcsdef rsm;rSvGJí usefae&mrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;jcif;udk a&SmifMuOfoifhonf/ tjcm;aom rD'D,m tcef;u@rsm;wGifvnf; ukefypönf;aMumfjimrsm; xnfhoGif;jcif;udk a&SmifMuOfoifhonf/ pD;yGm;jzpfxkwfvkyfa&mif;csaom ukefpnf? 0efaqmifrIrsm;ESifh ywfoufívnf; tpDtpOftwGif; ñTef;qdkwifjy&ef vdktyfygu t,f'Dwm vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk ausmfvGefjcif;r&SdbJ tvGeftrif; ay:vGifxif&Sm;atmif tom;ay;azmfjyjcif; rjyK&/ 23.3? aMumfjimaom ukefypönf;? 0efaqmifrIrsm;tm;vHk;onf w&m;0ifjcif;? aumif;rGef qDavsmfjcif;? ½dk;ajzmifhjcif;ESifh t,HkMunfcHxdkufjcif;paom pnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifhtnD jzpf&rnf/ y&dowfrsm; cHpm;&aom t&om? aumif;rGefjynfhpHkrIESifh vlrIwm0ef odrIqdkif&m aMumfjimrsm; wGifvnf; t,f'DwmpHcsdefpHñTef;rsm;udk tñTef;jyKoHk;pGJ&ef vdkonf/ tjcm;aom aps;uGuf NydKifqdkifolrsm;ESifh xkwfukefrsm;tay:wGifvnf; uJh&JUjypfwifjcif;rsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;&rnf/ xdkYtjyif oufaotcdkiftvHk rjyEdkifaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk tm;udk;NyD; EdIif;,SOfazmfjyjcif; rjyK&/ pD;yGm;jzpf ukefpnf? 0efaqmifrIrsm;ESifhywfoufonfh oufaocHcsufrsm;? axmufcH ajymqdkcsufrsm;tm;vHk;onf tppftrSefjzpf&rnfhtjyif axmufcHol udk,fydkiftawGUtBuHK tay:wGifom tajccHxm;&rnf/ 24/ NydKifqdkifjcif;24/ NydKifqdkifjcif;24/ NydKifqdkifjcif;24/ NydKifqdkifjcif;24/ NydKifqdkifjcif; 24.1? rD'D,mXmersm;onf pD;yGm;a&;ESihfywfoufaom ,SOfNydKifrIrsm;udk rQwpGm vTrf;jcHK azmfjyoihfonf/ ,SOfNydKifolwpfOD;u tjcm;wpfOD;tay: tompD;&ap&ef rD'D,mESifh ,SOfjydKif olrsm;tMum; ravsmfruef yl;aygif;BuHpnfrIrsKd; r&Sdap&/ 25/ yk*¾vtusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;ESifh MoZmvTrf;rIrsm;25/ yk*¾vtusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;ESifh MoZmvTrf;rIrsm;25/ yk*¾vtusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;ESifh MoZmvTrf;rIrsm;25/ yk*¾vtusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;ESifh MoZmvTrf;rIrsm;25/ yk*¾vtusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;ESifh MoZmvTrf;rIrsm; 25.1? owif;rD'D,mvkyfief;rsm;wGif ya&mfzuf&Sife,f vkyfukdifaqmif&GufMuolrsm;onf yk*¾v odkYr[kwf rdom;pk tusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;twGuf ¤if;wkdYtay: MoZmvTrf;rdk;jcif; cGifhrjyK&/ 25.2? owif;rD'D,mvkyfief;rS ya&mfzuf&Sife,f aqmif&GufMuolrsm; udk,fwdkifuvnf; tcaMu;aiG? wHpdk;vufaqmif? tusKd;cHpm;cGifh odkYr[kwf pD;yGm;a&;aMumfjimrsm; xnfhoGif;rIESifh tjcm;pD;yGm;a&; tusKd;&v'frsm;udk tajccHNyD; MoZmvTrf;rdk;cHjcif; r&Sdap&efvnf; a&SmifMuOf &rnf/ 20
  40. 40. 41 26 Financialjournalism 26.1 Peopleengagedinthemediashouldnotusefinancialinformationreceived intheirprofessionalcapacityfortheirownortheirfamilies’profit,orpassit on to others, before it becomes publicly available. 26.2 Theyshouldnotcommentonfinancialholdingsinwhichtheyortheirfamilies have an interest without disclosing that interest to their editor and, where appropriate, to the audience. 26.3 Theyshouldnotbuyorsellfinancialholdingsaboutwhichtheyhavepublished or broadcast recently or on which they are about to comment. 27 Other considerations of content and treatment for broadcasters 27.1 Subliminaltechniques(theuseofimagesand/orsoundsofveryshortduration, of which the viewer or listener may not be consciously aware) should not be used in any context. Care should also be taken over the use of strobe lighteffects,whichcanaggravatecertainmedicalconditions. 27.2 If a programme features a hypnotist, he or she should not be shown performing straight to camera. Demonstrations of exorcism or of occult practicearenotpermittedinnewsandcurrentaffairsprogramming,except wheretheyarethesubjectofalegitimateinvestigation.Otherprogrammes containing such content should not be scheduled before the 22:00 ‘watershed’. 21
  41. 41. 41 26/ b@ma&;taMumif;t&mrsm; wifqufrI26/ b@ma&;taMumif;t&mrsm; wifqufrI26/ b@ma&;taMumif;t&mrsm; wifqufrI26/ b@ma&;taMumif;t&mrsm; wifqufrI26/ b@ma&;taMumif;t&mrsm; wifqufrI 26.1? owif;rD'D,mvkyfief; vkyfudkif&if; &&Sdaom b@ma&;qdkif&m owif;tcsuftvuf rsm;udk trsm;jynfolod&Sdatmif xkwfjyefjcif;rjyKrD rdrd odkYr[kwf rdom;pkyk*¾v tusKd;pD;yGm; twGuf toHk;csjcif;? tjcm;olrsm;udk vTJajymif;ay;tyfjcif; rjyK&/ 26.2? rdrdwdkYudk,fwdkif odkYr[kwf rdom;pk0ifrsm; ydkifqdkifywfoufrI&Sdaom b@maiG&if;ESD; jr§KyfESHrIrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; owif;a&;om;rnfqdkygu xdkodkY qufpyfrI&SdaMumif;udk t,f'DwmxHodkYjzpfap? vdktyfygu pmzwfy&dowfxHodkYjzpfap zGifh[today;&rnf/ 26.3? owif;rD'D,mrsm;wGif ya&mfzuf&Sife,f aqmif&GufMuolrsm;onf qdkif&mrD'D,mwGif rMumao;cifu owif;a&;om; xkwfvTifhazmfjyrI odkYr[kwf owif;cefYrSef; oHk;oyfcsuftjzpf azmfjyrIrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh b@maiG&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm; 0,f,ljcif;? a&mif;csjcif; rjyKoifh/ 27/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifholrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; taMumif;t&mydkif;ESifh pDpOfwifqufrI27/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifholrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; taMumif;t&mydkif;ESifh pDpOfwifqufrI27/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifholrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; taMumif;t&mydkif;ESifh pDpOfwifqufrI27/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifholrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; taMumif;t&mydkif;ESifh pDpOfwifqufrI27/ ½kyfoHxkwfvTifholrsm;ESifh ywfoufNyD; taMumif;t&mydkif;ESifh pDpOfwifqufrI tydkif;wGif apmifhxdef;oifhonfrsm;tydkif;wGif apmifhxdef;oifhonfrsm;tydkif;wGif apmifhxdef;oifhonfrsm;tydkif;wGif apmifhxdef;oifhonfrsm;tydkif;wGif apmifhxdef;oifhonfrsm; 27.1? Munfh½Iol em;qifolrsm; todpdwfudk ½IyfaxG;apEdkifonfh ½kyfyHkrsm;ESifh toHrsm; toHk;jyKjcif;udk rnfonfhtpDtpOfwGifrQ toHk;rjyKoifhyg/ "mwfyHk? AD'D,dk vQyfjyuftvif;rsm; onf vlYusef;rma&;udk xdcdkufapaomaMumifh txl;owdjyK oHk;pGJ&rnf/ 27.2? tdyfarGUcsjcif;udk wifjyaom tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tdyfarGUcsoltm; uifr&m wnfhwnfhodkYMunfhNyD; aqmif&Gufjcif; rjyKap&/ rD'D,musifh0wfESifh Oya'aMumif;t& pHkprf;azmfxkwfrIrsm;ESifh wdkuf½dkufoufqdkifaom tajctaersKd;rSty tpdrf;o&JESifjcif;ESifh tjcm; pkef;ua0arSmfqdkif&m udpö&yfrsm;udk owif;ESifh rsufarSmufa&;&m tpDtpOfrsm;twGif; xnfhoGif;jyojcif; rjyK&/ tjcm;tpDtpOfrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;rnfqdkyguvnf; 22;00 em&D aemufydkif;tcsdefrsm;wGifom xnfhoGif;&rnf/ 21
  42. 42. 43 28. NOTES 1.Children Unless otherwise specified in this Code, children means individuals who are less than 18 years old. People aged 18 and over are regarded as adults. 2. The Public Interest AsindicatedinthisCode,insomecasesmediabehaviourwhichisotherwisein breachofthisCodemaybejustifiedbyreferencetoanoverridingpublicinterest.In such cases, the Council will undertake a balancing of the public interest and the interestprotectedbytheCodestandard,toseewhichisdominant.Thelistoflegitimate publicinterestsisnotclosed,butsomeleadingexamplesare:thedetection,exposure or prevention of crime, corruption or serious impropriety; the protection of public healthandsafety;preventingthepublicfrombeingmisledonanimportantmatter; and satisfying an overriding public right to know. Revealing the private affairs of publicfiguresislegitimatewherethisisrelevanttotheirperformancein,orfitness for,theirpublicroles. It may be noted that ‘in the public interest’ is not the same as ‘of interest to the public’. Breach of this Code is not justified by mere curiosity. It is up to the media outlettodemonstratethat,inallofthecircumstances,theirbehaviourwasjustified byreferencetoalegitimateandoverridingpublicinterest.Incasesinvolvingchildren, an exceptional public interest will be required to override the otherwise dominant interestofthechild. 22
  43. 43. 43 28/ rSwfcsuf28/ rSwfcsuf28/ rSwfcsuf28/ rSwfcsuf28/ rSwfcsuf 1/ uav;oli,f1/ uav;oli,f1/ uav;oli,f1/ uav;oli,f1/ uav;oli,f þowif;rD'D,musifh0wfvrf;ñTefwGif tjcm;enf;rsm;jzifh jy|mef;xm;jcif;r&SdvQif touf 18 ESpf rjynfhao;oltm;vHk;udk uav;oli,fuav;oli,fuav;oli,fuav;oli,fuav;oli,f [k owfrSwfonf/ touf 18 ESpfESifh txufudk t&G,fa&mufol[k owfrSwfonf/ 2/ trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;2/ trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;2/ trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;2/ trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;2/ trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm; þowif;rD'D,musifh0wfvrf;ñTefwGif &nfñTef;azmfjyxm;csufrsm;tm; azmufzsufonf[k owfrSwf,lqEdkifaom vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;onf trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaponf[k ckdifvHkygu vufcH todtrSwfjyKEdkifonf/ þodkYaom tajctaersm;wGif aumifpDonf trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;ESifh þvrf;ñTeft& umuG,f&ef &nfrSef;xm;aom tusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;tMum; csdefnd§oHk;oyfjyD; rnfonfhbufu tav;omonfudk qHk;jzwfrnf jzpfonf/ trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;[k ac:qdkEdkifonfh taMumif;t&mrsm;pGm &Sdonfhteuf &mZ0wfrI? t*wdvdkufpm;rI? qdk;&Gm;aom usifh0wfazmufzsufrIrsm;uJhodkY trIudpörsm;tm; axmufvSrf;jcif;? azmfxkwfjcif;ESifh BudKwifumuG,fwm;qD;jcif;? trsm;jynfolusef;rma&;ESifh vHkjcHKa&;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smufjcif;? trsm;jynfolwkdY a&vdkufvGJap&efBudK;yrf;rIrsm;udk umuG,fwm;qD;jcif;ESifh trsm;jynfol owif;tcsuftvuf od&SdydkifcGifhudk jznfhqnf; ay;jcif; ponfwkdYrSm xif&Sm;aomOyrmrsm; jzpfonf/ trsm;jynfolqdkif&m vkyfief;e,fy,f wpfckckü xif&Sm;ausmfMum;olrsm; vkyfief;pGrf;aqmifEkdifpGrf;? usef;rma&;tajctae? jynfolrsm;tMum;wGif&Sdaeaom ¤if;wdkY vuf&Sdtaetxm;rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í a&;om; azmfjyrIrsm;rSm w&m;0ifonf/ trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;qdkonfESifh trsm;jynfol pdwfyg0ifpm;rIwdkY rwlnDonfudk owdjyKrdMu&rnf/ pyfpkvdkpdwf oufoufjzifh þusifh0wfvrf;ñTefyg jyXmef;csufrsm;udk rcsKd;azmuf&/ owif;rD'D,mrsm;onf rnfodkYaom tajctaersKd;wGifrqkd ¤if;wkdY vkyfaqmifcsufrsm; rSefuefrQwaMumif;udk trsm;jynfoltusKd;pD;yGm;tm; tajccHaMumif;ESifh w&m;0ifjzpfaMumif;wkdYjzifh azmfxkwfjyoEdkif&rnf/ uav;oli,frsm;ESifh oufqdkifaom taMumif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufí azmfjy&mwGifvnf; txl;`cGif;csufjyKay;xm;&ef vdktyfonfh trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm;wpf&yfjzpfrSom azmfjy&rnf/ / 22
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