Bloodborne pathogens training


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Bloodborne pathogens training

  1. 1. Bloodborne Pathogens Training ST. CLOUD SURGICAL CENTER
  2. 2. Objectives Introduction Pathogens How are Bloodborne Pathogens Spread Reducing your risk What to do if you are exposed Test your knowledge
  3. 3. What are Bloodborne Pathogens? Bloodborne pathogens (BBP) are infectious microorganisms present in blood that can cause disease in humans
  4. 4. The most commonly encountered pathogens include: ◦ Hepatitis B virus (HBV) ◦ Hepatitis C virus (HCV) ◦ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  5. 5. Other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) In addition to blood, the following human body materials are considered to be potentially infectious with HBV, HCV, or HIV ◦ Pericardial , peritoneal, pleural, amniotic or synovial fluid ◦ Semen/vaginal secretions ◦ Saliva in dental procedures ◦ Any body fluid or tissue visually containing blood
  6. 6. Hepatitis B and C Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver and is also the name of a family of viral infections that affect the liver HBV and HCV can begin as acute or short-term (illness occurs within the first six months) but in some people the virus remains in the body resulting in chronic or long- term liver problems
  7. 7. HBV Hepatitis B is a contagious and serious liver disease that can result in long-term health problems, including liver damage, liver failure, liver cancer, or even death 30% of adults and children over the age of 5 infected with acute HBV will not develop symptoms and many recover Most individuals with chronic HBV may remain symptom free for as long as 20-30 years For individuals 5 years of age old and older the risk for chronic infection is between 6-10% Hepatitis B can be prevented by getting the hepatitis B vaccine through a series of three injections
  8. 8. Hepatitis B Vaccinations The hepatitis B vaccination series is available at no cost after initial employee training to all employees with occupational exposure, those who can reasonably expect to come into contact with OPIM, unless: ◦ Documentation exists that the employee has previously received the series ◦ Antibody testing reveals that the employee is immune ◦ Medical evaluation shows that vaccination is contraindicated
  9. 9. HCV Hepatitis C is a contagious and serious liver disease that can result in long- term health problems, including liver damage, liver failure, liver cancer, or even death 75-85% of people will develop a chronic infection Many people who are infected with HCV do not know they are because they do not look or feel sick, however, damage is still occurring Hepatitis C is often detected during routine blood tests There is currently no vaccine available that can prevent HCV
  10. 10. Symptoms of HBV/HCV If symptoms appear they can include: ◦ Fever ◦ Fatigue ◦ Loss of appetite ◦ Nausea ◦ Vomiting ◦ Abdominal pain ◦ Dark urine ◦ Clay-colored bowel movements ◦ Joint pain ◦ Jaundice (yellowing in the skin or eyes)
  11. 11. HIV HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Today, an estimated 1.1 million people are living with HIV in the United States. Thanks to better treatments, people with HIV are now living longer—and with a better quality of life—than ever before. If you are living with HIV, it’s important to make choices that keep you healthy and protect others. Occupational transmission of HIV to health care workers is extremely rare. CDC recommends proper use of safety devices and barriers to prevent exposure to HIV in the health care setting.
  12. 12. Symptoms of HIV The symptoms of HIV vary, depending on the individual and what stage of the disease you are in Within 2-4 weeks after HIV infection, many, but not all, people experience flu-like symptoms, often described as the “worst flu ever.” Early Symptoms: Fever (most common symptom) Swollen glands Sore throat Rash Fatigue Muscle and joint aches and pains Headache
  13. 13. How are BBP spread? Bloodborne pathogens can be spread in the healthcare environment through direct and indirect modes of transmission
  14. 14. Direct transmission of BBP Contact with blood or OPIM through: ◦ Broken skin ◦ Open cuts, skin abrasions, dermatitis, acne ◦ Mucous membranes ◦ Eyes, nose, or mouth ◦ Needle sticks ◦ Sharps injuries ◦ Splashes or sprays
  15. 15. Indirect transmission of BBP Contact with blood or OPIM then touching eye, nose, mouth, or broken HBV can survive in dried blood for up to seven days on surfaces HCV can survive outside the body at room temperature on surfaces for at least 16 hours but no longer than 4 days
  16. 16. Who is at risk? OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens standard Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations states requirements employers must do to protect all workers who can reasonably be anticipated to come into contact with blood or OPIM as a result of doing their job duties are at risk for serious or life- threatening illnesses.
  17. 17. What can you do to PREVENT exposures? -Standard Precautions -Hand Hygiene -Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) -Sharps Safety
  18. 18. Standard precautions Involves treating all human blood and OPIM as if to be infectious for bloodborne pathogens Standard precautions include: ◦ Hand hygiene ◦ Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) ◦ Safe injection practices
  19. 19. Hand hygiene Good hand hygiene is critical to reduce the risk of spreading infections in ambulatory care settings. Use of alcohol-based hand rub is the primary mode of hand hygiene expect when hands are visibly soiled (e.g., dirt, blood, body fluids) (CDC)
  20. 20. Hand Hygiene
  21. 21. Key Recommendations Key situations where hand hygiene should be performed include: ◦ Before touching a patient, even if gloves will be worn ◦ Before exiting the patient’s care area after touching the patient or the patient’s immediate environment ◦ After contact with blood, body fluids or excretions, or wound dressings ◦ Prior to performing an aseptic task (e.g., placing an IV, preparing an injection) ◦ If hands will be moving from a contaminated-body site to a clean-body site during patient care ◦ After glove removal
  22. 22. PPE PPE is “specialized clothing or equipment , worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials” by creating a barrier between the worker and the infectious material (Phase 1 Recovery)
  23. 23. Types of PPE Gloves- protect hands Wear gloves for potential contact with blood, body fluids, mucous membranes, non-intact skin or contaminated equipment ◦ Do not wear the same pair of gloves for the care of more than one patient ◦ Do not wash gloves for the purpose of reuse ◦ Perform hand hygiene immediately after removing gloves ◦ Inspect glove before use ◦ Double gloving can provide an additional layer of protection
  24. 24. Types of PPE Gowns/aprons- protect skin and/or clothing ◦ Wear a gown to protect skin and clothing during procedures or activities where contact with blood or body fluids is anticipated ◦ Do not wear the same gown for the care of more than one patient Masks- protect mouth/nose Goggles- protect eyes Face shields- provide additional protection for the face, mouth, nose, and eyes
  25. 25. Key Recommendations Always wear PPE in exposure situations Replace torn or punctured PPE Wear mouth, nose and eye protection during procedures that are likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood or other body fluids Do not touch the outside of used PPE Properly remove and dispose of used PPE before leaving the work area
  26. 26. PPE Use Review
  27. 27. Sharps Safety A sharps injury is a penetrating stab wound from a needle, scalpel, or other sharp object that may result in exposure to blood or other body fluids. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 385,000 sharps-related injuries occur annually among health care workers in hospitals. Safety culture, engineering controls, safe handling techniques, and maintaining a sharps injury log are methods to promote sharps safety.
  28. 28. Engineering Controls Engineering controls means controls that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the workplace and include: ◦ Sharps disposal containers ◦ Immediate disposal of needles into a sharps container is standard procedure ◦ Self-sheathing needles ◦ Needle-less systems ◦ Autoclave ◦ Safe medical devices, often technology-based
  29. 29. Additional safety practices General hygiene ◦ Keep nails trimmed ◦ If you have cuts or sores on your hands cover these with a bandage or similar protection ◦ Use lotions to prevent skin breakdown ◦ In areas where there is a reasonable likelihood of exposure DO NOT: ◦ Eat ◦ Drink ◦ Smoke ◦ Apply cosmetics or lip balm ◦ Handle contact lenses
  30. 30. Maintenance/Housekeepin g Facility’s policy for cleaning Surfaces and coverings Laundry Regulated waste Warning signs
  31. 31. General Housekeeping The employer shall determine and implement an appropriate written schedule for cleaning and method of decontamination based upon the location within the facility, type of surface to be cleaned, type of soil present, and tasks or procedures being performed in the area. All equipment and environmental and working surfaces shall be cleaned and decontaminated after contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials. Broken glassware which may be contaminated shall not be picked up directly with the hands. It shall be cleaned up using mechanical means, such as a brush and dust pan, tongs, or forceps. See facility policies for additional information
  32. 32. Laundry ◦ Contaminated laundry shall be handled as little as possible with a minimum of agitation. ◦ Contaminated laundry shall be bagged or containerized at the location where it was used and shall not be sorted or rinsed in the location of use. ◦ The employer shall ensure that employees who have contact with contaminated laundry wear protective gloves and other appropriate personal protective equipment.
  33. 33. Regulated Waste Refers to: ◦ Any liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials ◦ Contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed ◦ Items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling ◦ Contaminated sharps ◦ Pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials All regulated waste must be disposed in properly labeled containers or red biohazard bags.
  34. 34. Signs and Labels Warning labels that include the universal biohazard symbol, followed by the term “biohazard” need to be affixed to containers of regulated waste, refrigerators and freezers containing blood or other potentially infectious material; and other containers used to store, transport, or ship blood or other potentially infectious materials. ◦ These labels are fluorescent orange, red, or orange-red ◦ Bags used to dispose of regulated waste must be red or orange red, and they, too, must have the biohazard symbol readily visible upon them. ◦ Regulated waste should be double-bagged to guard against the possibility of leakage if the first bag is punctured.
  35. 35. Exposure Control Plan This is a written plan to eliminate or minimize occupational exposures that must be prepared by the employer Employers must update this plan annually to reflect any changes BBP training must be offered upon initial employment and at least annually thereafter
  36. 36. Exposure Control Plan at SCSC The Post Exposure Prophylaxis Policy can be found on facility computers on the Public Drive The Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) care and follow-up is done in conjunction with Midwest Occupational Medicine (MOM) or private health care practitioner.
  37. 37. What to do if you are exposed? 1. Notify one of the following people: ◦ TeamLeader/Manager/MedicalDirector/ or Anesthesia Charge 2. Attend to wound care immediately 3. Sign the St. Cloud Surgical Center exposure consent to indicate if you will participate in the PEP program 4. Fill out the appropriate paperwork per the Team Leader 5. If you chose to participate in PEP, MOM is notified and an appointment is set up as soon as possible. MOM will determine the risk of exposure and counseling is provided by MOM. There is no cost to the employee for follow up blood draws.
  38. 38. What to do-Continued 6. RCU staff that is exposed will go to the St. Cloud Hospital ER for treatment. 7. Medical Staff may choose to go to MOM or private healthcare practitioner for care and counseling. 8. Sharps injury log, employee’s health records, and OSHA 300 log are maintained following an employee exposure. 9. St. Cloud Surgical Center will issue a letter to exposed individual containing a copy of recommendations from MOM within 15 days.
  39. 39. If exposed remember… *Do not panic *Infection due to exposure is not automatic ◦ HBV infected blood needlestick or cut exposure risk is between 6-30% ◦ HCV infected blood needlestick or cut exposure risk is 1.8% ◦ HIV infected blood needlestick or cut exposure risk is 0.3%
  40. 40. Test Your Knowledge The following slides will test your knowledge regarding: ◦ Pathogens ◦ How are Bloodborne Pathogens Spread ◦ Reducing your risk ◦ What to do if you are exposed Record your answers and check with corresponding answers following completion of the questions
  41. 41. Question 1 1. Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms which causes disease and are present in: A. Human blood and body fluids that may contain blood B. Sweat, tears, and saliva C. River water and certain kinds of soil D. None of the above
  42. 42. Question 2 2. What are the three diseases addressed you need to be cautious of at work? A. Syphilis, HCV, and Malaria B. HIV, HBV, and Syphilis C. HBV, HCV, and HIV D. Syphilis, Malaria, and HIV
  43. 43. Question 3 3. When workers come in contact with BBP during patient care duties; this is referred to as: A. Universal Precautions B. Occupational Exposure C. Work Risk Exposure D. Work Related Exposure
  44. 44. Question 4 4. Potentially infectious materials include all of the following EXCEPT: A. Saliva B. Semen C. Mucous D. Vaginal Secretions
  45. 45. Question 5 5. Hepatitis damages which body organ? A. Kidney B. Brain C. Heart D. Liver
  46. 46. Question 6 6. It is recommended that health care workers get the vaccine for which form of Hepatitis? A. Hepatitis A B. Hepatitis B C. Hepatitis C D. Hepatitis E
  47. 47. Question 7 7. True or False: HIV Transmission to health care workers if fairly common.
  48. 48. Question 8 8. Name 3 ways you can prevent exposures.
  49. 49. Question 9 9. If you are exposed put the following steps in order: A. Wash the wound B. Notify your supervisor C. Schedule and appointment with your health care provider or MOM D. Fill out the necessary paperwork
  50. 50. Question 10 10. Where can you find the Exposure Control Plan at St. Cloud Surgical Center? A. On each computer in the public drive B. A copy is posted in each locker room C. The employee handbook D. It is posted outside the lunchroom
  51. 51. Question 11 11. What are some additional safety practices: A. Trimmed nails, wearing hair off shoulders, use lotion B. Use lotion, trim nails, cover cuts or sores with bandages C. Apply lip balm, cover cuts or sores with bandages, trim nails
  52. 52. Question 12 12. True or False: Personal protective equipment (PPE) will protect you from all exposure incidents.
  53. 53. Question 13 13. Bloodborne pathogens may enter your system through: A. Mucous membranes B. Skin abrasions C. Open cuts D. Dermatitis E. All of the above
  54. 54. Question 14 14. True or False You should always treat all body fluids as if they are infectious and avoid direct skin contact with them.
  55. 55. Question 15 15. What is the most important hygiene precaution that prevents exposure to bloodborne pathogens? A. Wearing gloves when touching patients B. Washing hands C. Wearing a mask when near patients D. Wearing glasses when near patients
  56. 56. Answers 1. A 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. D 6. B 7. FALSE 8. Any 3 of the following: Standard Precautions, PPE, Hand Hygiene or Sharps Safety 9. B,A,D,C 10. A 11. B 12. FALSE 13. E 14. TRUE 15. B
  57. 57. Resources htm standared-precautions.html