The teen brain

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interactive presentation about the teen brain, the limbic system, and the impact of drugs & alcohol on the teen brain

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  • dear laurie
    thank you or all the links.congratuations .cordialement.
    when you will have the next triatlon ?:)
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  • le cerveau a peut etre le meme fonctionnement que l'univers tous entiers.
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  • All of the Frances Jensen video clips can be accessed from:
    [ http://www.childrenshospital.org/patientsfamilies/Site1393/mainpageS1393P316sublevel357.htm ]http://www.childrenshospital.org/patientsfamilies/Site1393/mainpageS1393P316sublevel357.html

    slide 23 video clip comes from Tom Wujecís TED Talk at:
    [ http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_on_3_ways_the_brain_creates_meaning.htm ]http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_on_3_ways_the_brain_creates_meaning.html I

    While not referenced in this presentation, I highly recommend Jill Bolte Taylorís TED Talk at:
    [ http://www.ted.com/talks/jill_bolte_taylor_s_powerful_stroke_of_insight.htm ]http://www.ted.com/talks/jill_bolte_taylor_s_powerful_stroke_of_insight.html

    and for humor while learning, Pinky & the Brain explain the parts of the brain at:
    [ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5nMsXg1L ]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5nMsXg1Lk
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  • Welcome to your brain! Place your hands on your head, just above your ears, and lovingly massage your head while you envision your brain that’s enclosed inside. Feel free to close your eyes.

    • your brain has about 100 billion neurons

    • these neurons form about 1,000 trillion neuronal connections
    • your brain weighs in at about 3 pounds of tissue
    • it is roughly 75 percent water

    • 10 percent fat
    • 8 percent protein
    • makes up less than 2 1/2 percent of your body’s weight

    • and uses 20 percent of your body’s energy

    If you closed your eyes, go ahead and open them now.

  • This is what a neuron looks like, if you could see one. Now imagine 100 billion of these in your brain.

  • Most of these 100 billion neurons (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yy994HpFudc) deal with the same thing – communicating and learning within your brain. To help them, there are some 50 neurotransmitters to facilitate this sending of impulses between neurons.

    The neurotransmitters are like the grease oiling the flow of signals. Starting from birth and throughout your life, your brain adds neurons as you learn something new, and prunes the neurons that are underutilized.



  • A pithy way of stating this process is “Use it or Lose it”, which means the more you do something, the more you reference the neuronal clusters related to this thing, and the stronger the connections get. That’s the “Use it”.

    But, the less you make use of those particular clusters, the weaker the connections get, and the brain prunes them to make way for new connections. That’s the “Lose it”.

  • The brain develops back to front. Place a hand on the area you think develops last. [frontal lobes/forehead area]

  • Your frontal cortex will not finish developing until sometime in your early to mid 20s. View the video at: http://www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/DEVEL/dynamic.html



  • The frontal cortex is often referred to as the brain’s chief executive officer because it is responsible for executing your decisions. However, because as a teenager your frontal lobes are not yet fully developed, your CEO isn’t always at the top of its game. For instance,

    • You might not always anticipate the consequences of how your actions will impact yourself or others.

    • You may be an expert in one area, such as a sport or playing an instrument, or writing poetry, but that does not automatically transfer to becoming an expert in another area.

    • Emotions and memory are chemically based. A change in chemistry can change an emotion, and that chemical state can last for a long time beyond the initial change. We’ll talk more about this when we visit the Limbic System.

    • And lastly, in order for learning to stick, you need to see the personal consequence that makes the lesson meaningful for you.



  • [Return to everyone their drawings of the brain they made from several weeks ago.]

    Use your drawing as a template for creating in clay a side view model of a brain. Be sure to label the parts, and use different colors for each part.

  • Frances Jensen is a doctor, senior assistant in neurology at Boston’s Children’s Hospital, and a professor at Harvard Medical School.

    She is also the mother of sons, and when one of them was a teenager she determined that there had to be explanations for why his behavior was the way it was. She set out to understand the teen brain, and the result was “Teen Brain 101”, a series of sessions that she presents to teens at their high schools.

    Here is one of several clips you will eventually see of Dr Jensen talking about the teen brain.

    [Click to play the movie on the next slide.]

  • View the video at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/clinicalservices/videos/Jensen03.mov




  • You can see where the parts of the limbic system are in relation to your four lobes, the cerebellum, and brain stem (which contians the pons and medulla oblongata).

    Go ahead and add the limbic system to your clay model of the brain. Specifically add and label the amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus and hippocampus.



  • Your limbic system … repeat after me –









  • [to introduce the next slide] Tom Wujec is a Fellow at Autodesk, a company that makes 2D and 3D design software. What you are going to see next is an excerpt from a TED talk where he discussed three ways the brain makes meaning. In this clip, he talks about the limbic system.

  • View the entire video at: http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_on_3_ways_the_brain_creates_meaning.html


  • Your limbic system deals with your emotions. Paul Ekman is a psychologist who studied the relationship between human emotions and facial expressions. He discovered that our facial response to emotions is universal, and not determined by the culture we live in, and suggested that there were 6 basic types of emotions. There are plenty of other emotions, but the thought was that they all fall within these 6 basic categories.

    So, we are going to do a little experiment of our own. Limber up your faces – shake your head, tongue and mouth side to side, blow some air out of your mouth, stretch your lips and mouth. Also limber up your shoulders by scrunching them up to your ears and then letting them fall to a relaxed position, then do a few shoulder rolls forward and then back.

    Okay, now open your computers, turn them to take pictures of your face – not to worry, you will not be sharing these with anyone! – and open your picture taking software. On the Macs that is PhotoBooth.

    I am going to display an emotion word on the screen. Look at your camera, make a face that represents that emotion, and take a picture. Go with your very first face, your gut response; only take 1 picture for each emotion. We will repeat this 6 times for the 6 universal types of emotions. When we are finished, I will show you a picture of faces representing those emotions, and you can compare your version with the universal version.

  • Your limbic system deals with your emotions. Paul Ekman is a psychologist who studied the relationship between human emotions and facial expressions. He discovered that our facial response to emotions is universal, and not determined by the culture we live in, and suggested that there were 6 basic types of emotions. There are plenty of other emotions, but the thought was that they all fall within these 6 basic categories.

    So, we are going to do a little experiment of our own. Limber up your faces – shake your head, tongue and mouth side to side, blow some air out of your mouth, stretch your lips and mouth. Also limber up your shoulders by scrunching them up to your ears and then letting them fall to a relaxed position, then do a few shoulder rolls forward and then back.

    Okay, now open your computers, turn them to take pictures of your face – not to worry, you will not be sharing these with anyone! – and open your picture taking software. On the Macs that is PhotoBooth.

    I am going to display an emotion word on the screen. Look at your camera, make a face that represents that emotion, and take a picture. Go with your very first face, your gut response; only take 1 picture for each emotion. We will repeat this 6 times for the 6 universal types of emotions. When we are finished, I will show you a picture of faces representing those emotions, and you can compare your version with the universal version.

  • Your limbic system deals with your emotions. Paul Ekman is a psychologist who studied the relationship between human emotions and facial expressions. He discovered that our facial response to emotions is universal, and not determined by the culture we live in, and suggested that there were 6 basic types of emotions. There are plenty of other emotions, but the thought was that they all fall within these 6 basic categories.

    So, we are going to do a little experiment of our own. Limber up your faces – shake your head, tongue and mouth side to side, blow some air out of your mouth, stretch your lips and mouth. Also limber up your shoulders by scrunching them up to your ears and then letting them fall to a relaxed position, then do a few shoulder rolls forward and then back.

    Okay, now open your computers, turn them to take pictures of your face – not to worry, you will not be sharing these with anyone! – and open your picture taking software. On the Macs that is PhotoBooth.

    I am going to display an emotion word on the screen. Look at your camera, make a face that represents that emotion, and take a picture. Go with your very first face, your gut response; only take 1 picture for each emotion. We will repeat this 6 times for the 6 universal types of emotions. When we are finished, I will show you a picture of faces representing those emotions, and you can compare your version with the universal version.

  • Your limbic system deals with your emotions. Paul Ekman is a psychologist who studied the relationship between human emotions and facial expressions. He discovered that our facial response to emotions is universal, and not determined by the culture we live in, and suggested that there were 6 basic types of emotions. There are plenty of other emotions, but the thought was that they all fall within these 6 basic categories.

    So, we are going to do a little experiment of our own. Limber up your faces – shake your head, tongue and mouth side to side, blow some air out of your mouth, stretch your lips and mouth. Also limber up your shoulders by scrunching them up to your ears and then letting them fall to a relaxed position, then do a few shoulder rolls forward and then back.

    Okay, now open your computers, turn them to take pictures of your face – not to worry, you will not be sharing these with anyone! – and open your picture taking software. On the Macs that is PhotoBooth.

    I am going to display an emotion word on the screen. Look at your camera, make a face that represents that emotion, and take a picture. Go with your very first face, your gut response; only take 1 picture for each emotion. We will repeat this 6 times for the 6 universal types of emotions. When we are finished, I will show you a picture of faces representing those emotions, and you can compare your version with the universal version.

  • Your limbic system deals with your emotions. Paul Ekman is a psychologist who studied the relationship between human emotions and facial expressions. He discovered that our facial response to emotions is universal, and not determined by the culture we live in, and suggested that there were 6 basic types of emotions. There are plenty of other emotions, but the thought was that they all fall within these 6 basic categories.

    So, we are going to do a little experiment of our own. Limber up your faces – shake your head, tongue and mouth side to side, blow some air out of your mouth, stretch your lips and mouth. Also limber up your shoulders by scrunching them up to your ears and then letting them fall to a relaxed position, then do a few shoulder rolls forward and then back.

    Okay, now open your computers, turn them to take pictures of your face – not to worry, you will not be sharing these with anyone! – and open your picture taking software. On the Macs that is PhotoBooth.

    I am going to display an emotion word on the screen. Look at your camera, make a face that represents that emotion, and take a picture. Go with your very first face, your gut response; only take 1 picture for each emotion. We will repeat this 6 times for the 6 universal types of emotions. When we are finished, I will show you a picture of faces representing those emotions, and you can compare your version with the universal version.

  • Your limbic system deals with your emotions. Paul Ekman is a psychologist who studied the relationship between human emotions and facial expressions. He discovered that our facial response to emotions is universal, and not determined by the culture we live in, and suggested that there were 6 basic types of emotions. There are plenty of other emotions, but the thought was that they all fall within these 6 basic categories.

    So, we are going to do a little experiment of our own. Limber up your faces – shake your head, tongue and mouth side to side, blow some air out of your mouth, stretch your lips and mouth. Also limber up your shoulders by scrunching them up to your ears and then letting them fall to a relaxed position, then do a few shoulder rolls forward and then back.

    Okay, now open your computers, turn them to take pictures of your face – not to worry, you will not be sharing these with anyone! – and open your picture taking software. On the Macs that is PhotoBooth.

    I am going to display an emotion word on the screen. Look at your camera, make a face that represents that emotion, and take a picture. Go with your very first face, your gut response; only take 1 picture for each emotion. We will repeat this 6 times for the 6 universal types of emotions. When we are finished, I will show you a picture of faces representing those emotions, and you can compare your version with the universal version.

  • Your limbic system is the chemistry and drama department of your brain. No learning can take place without the participation and consent of this affective network because your brain is only interested in what is relevant to its own survival and well-being.

    This is the part of the brain that got our ancestors pumped to catch their next meal, or pumped to run from predators.

  • It is the task of the limbic system to keep us safe and sound. It does this by interpreting information from our senses and the world around us.

    The thing is, sometimes we get so caught up in the moment that our limbic system short circuits our reasoning system.

    This can be good, as when our bodies take flight when caught in a dangerous situation like a fire. On the other hand, if we panic and don’t stop to think, we might run into the fire, rather than away from it.

    Let’s take a more detailed look at the parts of the limbic system.

  • The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped nugget located underneath the hypothalamus and next to the hippocampus. It has the huge task of managing our emotions, helping to process our memories, and managing our response to fear and stress – that “fight or flight” reaction. That’s a lot to do, so the hippocampus and hypothalamus chime in with some assistance.



  • The “wow” type of event that the amygdala responds to can be an emergency or something that simply startles you or produces an emotional response.

    In responding, the amygdala causes the release of neurohormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.

  • Your brain keeps tabs on itself and your body, which are your internals, and also monitors the world around you, the externals.

  • The hypothalamus monitors how your body is doing internally, and based upon that monitoring directs the pituitary to release hormones. It is our internal scheduler, and also assists the amygdala in managing our response to fear and stress. In particular, the hypothalamus monitors [switch to next slide]

  • temperature

  • appetite

  • thirst

  • sleep

  • and sexual functioning.

  • In terms of monitoring, we’ve got the inside of the body covered by the hypothalamus, but how about what is going on outside of the body? Turns out that is the job of the thalamus. Before the hippocampus can catalogue and file information, that information has to be filtered through the thalamus.

    The thalamus sends information to the part of the brain that deals with that type of information; in other words, as information comes in via our five senses – (as these are mentioned, encourage everyone to wiggle their ears, blink their eyes, wiggle their nose, flap their tongue, and run their thumbs over the tips of their fingers) hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch – it gets sent to the appropriate part of the brain for that type of information.

  • If the brain decides the information is a keeper, the factual portion is sent to the hippocampus, and the emotional component – if there is one – gets sent to the amygdala.

  • Factual memories are not actually stored in the hippocampus; rather, the hippocampus simply catalogues and files the information if the brain has determined the information worthy of saving.

    The information arrives at the hippocampus after the thalamus has sent it first to the part of the brain that processes that type of memory. Then, if the brain determines the information worthy of saving, it is sent to the hippocampus for filing.

    It turns out that memories tend to be stored in the parts of the brain in which they are initially processed.



  • Here is a handy way to understand the roles of the amygdala and the hippocampus:

    The hippocampus tells you who the other boys and girls are (factual information), and the amygdala tells you whether you like them or not (emotional information). [quoted from Marilee Sprenger]

  • The limbic system taps into your emotional brain, which also facilitates the storage and recall of information. In fact, the structures in your mid-brain (the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus) are storage centers for memory. Indeed, the stronger the emotional component of an event, the stronger the memory of that event.

    All of your emotions are processed in the limbic system and are effected by some of those 50 plus neurotransmitters, among them dopamine, serotonin and norepeniphrine.






  • What do you consider a drug?













  • Drug stops working because your body acclimates to the drug.

  • This is the flip side of tolerance. Your body works normally ONLY when it has the drug.

  • What is feels like when your body tries to function without the drug on which it has become dependent. This is the headache that regular caffeine drinkers get when they stop drinking coffee.

  • What is feels like when you are compelled to repeat the experience of taking the drug over and over and over, unable to control your input regardless of the negative consequences.

  • Remember where we feel pleasure? Drugs that are addictive act upon the part of the brain that feels pleasure. The drug stimulates our Limbic System. The drugs that impact our behaviour and feelings act on specific cells in the brain. In some instances, this is helpful, such as drugs that treat diseases of the brain (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, epilepsy).



  • In order for this neuron to communicate with another neuron, it needs neurotransmitters. For instance, when you do something that makes you feel good, your brain releases neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and endorphin, which happen to be called the “feel good” neurotransmitters. They are your brain’s built-in natural reward system.

  • When you smile wide enough to crinkle the corners of your eyes, endorphins are released.

  • When you are active sufficiently to produce a “runner’s” or “exerciser’s high”, dopamine is released.

  • When you receive positive feedback, serotonin is released.

  • Normally, when neurotransmitters are released, they flow across the synapse and are picked up by receptors on the receiving neuron. After the neurotransmitter has delivered its signal, it returns to the sending neuron in a process called reuptake.

    Okay, everybody up! [Do a physical activity to activate the “feel good” neurotransmitters. Get some laughter going, as well.]

    [Afterwards, go around the room and ask everyone to blurt out how they feel at that very moment. Write their responses on the board.]

    Normally, there is a blood-brain barrier that keeps most of the substances in our bloodstream out of our brain. All of the drugs that impact how we feel are able to cross this blood-brain barrier. When an external chemical substance is added to your brain’s chemical mix, the substance attaches to whatever receptor it happens to stick to.




  • Externally added chemicals impact the reuptake system in a negative manner. Receptors for drugs that act on the brain are usually spread throughout the brain. The best drugs used to treat diseases are those that impact only a few neurons so that the disease can be treated without impacting other brain functions.

    However, must drugs impact many neurons, so a drug like alcohol impacts a receptor that exists all over the brain, and is therefore capable of affecting almost every function of the brain.




  • Interact with this web site at: http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synapse.swf
    Please visit this site: http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synapse.swf and view the various simulations. Pay close attention to how the neurotransmitters function on their own, and how that changes when an external chemical substance is introduced into the brain.


  • When you add alcohol or drugs into your brain’s normal chemical mix, it’s like training your brain to use a crutch that it may eventually be unable to give up.

    Here is Frances Jensen explaining how drugs and alcohol affect the teen brain.

  • View this video at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/clinicalservices/videos/Jensen05.mov

    If you are interested in further information about how drugs or alcohol can impact your brain, or if you would prefer a text version of this information, please visit “This is your brain on drugs” at http://help4teachers.com/brainondrugs.htm or “Drug Effects on the Brain” at http://help4teachers.com/drugs.htm. Both articles are by Dr Kathie Nunley, an author, researcher and speaker about the brain, and teaching in mixed-ability classrooms.




  • View this video at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/clinicalservices/videos/Jensen07.mov

  • View this video at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOKK8mAkiUI
  • The teen brain

    1. 1. The Teen Brain The Limbic System Alcohol & Drugs
    2. 2. The Teen Brain
    3. 3. neuronal soup pour in the limbic system GIGO http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/jill_bolte_taylor_s_powerful_stroke_of_insight.html brain stats
    4. 4. The Dana Sourcebook of Brain Science Resources for Secondary and Post-Secondary Teachers and Students Second Edition
    5. 5. This video from Georgia Tech's NeuroLab shows the firing of neurons as they send and receive electrical signals. The movie was made by PhD students Michelle Kuykendal and Gareth Guvanasen. http:// www.youtube.com/ watch?v=yy994HpFudc
    6. 6. use it or lose it http://rlv.zcache.com/brain_use_it_or_lose_it_tshirt-p235118434236353392trlf_400.jpg
    7. 7. your brain development http://www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/DEVEL/dynamic.html
    8. 8. http://www.loni.ucla.edu/~thompson/DEVEL/dynamic.html
    9. 9. frontal cortex = CEO http://www.artsjournal.com/dewey21c/executive-function.jpg
    10. 10. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chmodel.html
    11. 11. Paradox of the Teen Brain http://www.childrenshospital.org/patientsfamilies/Site1393/mainpageS1393P316sublevel357.html
    12. 12. http://www.childrenshospital.org/patientsfamilies/Site1393/mainpageS1393P316sublevel357.html
    13. 13. On your wiki Journal page create: [[OsborneBrain]] On the new Brain page: • 2 items you find interesting or that you’d like to remember about your brain • a question you might have SAVE & CLOSE the page.
    14. 14. The Teen Brain The Limbic System Alcohol & Drugs
    15. 15. The Limbic System http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview.asp?search=site&catref=sbu0091&MA_Category=&ANDkeyword=zebra+stress&ORkeyword=&TITLEkeyword=&NEGATIVEkeyword=
    16. 16. limbic labeled Hypothalamus
    17. 17. amygdala
    18. 18. hypothalamus
    19. 19. thalamus
    20. 20. hippocampus
    21. 21. amygdala hypothalamus thalamus hippocampus
    22. 22. http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_on_3_ways_the_brain_creates_meaning.html
    23. 23. anger
    24. 24. anger fear
    25. 25. anger fear disgust
    26. 26. anger fear disgust surprise
    27. 27. anger fear disgust surprise happiness
    28. 28. anger fear disgust surprise happiness sadness
    29. 29. anger fear disgust surprise happiness sadness http://www.opendot.co.uk/
    30. 30. http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_on_3_ways_the_brain_creates_meaning.html
    31. 31. amygdala emotional WOW drawing by L. Bartels
    32. 32. http://jameswoodward.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/amazement.jpg
    33. 33. internal hypothalamus the monitoring of stimuli external thalamus
    34. 34. hypothalamus INTERNAL drawing by L. Bartels
    35. 35. http://thumb1.shutterstock.com.edgesuite.net/display_pic_with_logo/72286/72286,1157348931,3/stock-photo-temperature-of-healthy-baby-is-fahrenheit-degrees-1787699.jpg
    36. 36. photo taken by L. Bartels
    37. 37. http://i.ivillage.com/WB/slideshows/child_diabetes/thirsty_325.jpg
    38. 38. photo taken by L. Bartels
    39. 39. http://images.quickblogcast.com/34726-32374/viagra50mg_front.jpg
    40. 40. thalamus EXTERNAL drawing by L. Bartels
    41. 41. facts hippocampus the cataloging of memories emotions amygdala
    42. 42. hippocampus factual CATALOG drawing by L. Bartels
    43. 43. facts WHO? hippocampus photo from L. Bartels collection emotions LIKE? amygdala
    44. 44. emotions rule! http://rlv.zcache.com/i_have_a_gut_feeling_about_the_limbic_system_tshirt-p235178304311557037yrfj_400.jpg
    45. 45. On your Brain page: • list & describe the parts of the Limbic System • Recall a strong memory you have. What impact did emotion have on this memory? What emotions were involved in this memory? SAVE & CLOSE the page.
    46. 46. The Teen Brain The Limbic System Alcohol & Drugs
    47. 47. Alcohol & Drugs
    48. 48. Raise your hand if you take drugs.
    49. 49. : Multi- vitamin : Aspirin : Iron : Niacin : Calcium photo taken by L. Bartels
    50. 50. Raise your hand if you take drugs.
    51. 51. A drug is any substance that a person puts in his or her body with the intention of changing how it [the body] works. pg 32 JUST SAY KNOW by Cynthia Kuhn, Scott Swartzwelder and Wilkie Wilson
    52. 52. How do drugs get into our bodies?
    53. 53. http://cdn.24.com/files/Cms/General/d/75/ c0637622947044d98a736fbca4866b8d.jpg Topically on the skin
    54. 54. http://cdn.24.com/files/Cms/General/d/75/ Injection in muscle or blood c0637622947044d98a736fbca4866b8d.jpg Topically on the skin http://christmaswithkids.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/1263548022_bc423b6071.jpg
    55. 55. http://cdn.24.com/files/Cms/General/d/75/ Injection in muscle or blood c0637622947044d98a736fbca4866b8d.jpg Topically on the skin Inhaling via nose or mouth http://christmaswithkids.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/1263548022_bc423b6071.jpg http://cdn.24.com/files/Cms/General/d/75/c0637622947044d98a736fbca4866b8d.jpg http://christmaswithkids.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/1263548022_bc423b6071.jpg
    56. 56. Swallowing http://www.aolcdn.com/aol-body/woman- taking-vitamins-pill186wy062507.jpg http://cdn.24.com/files/Cms/General/d/75/ Injection in muscle or blood c0637622947044d98a736fbca4866b8d.jpg Topically on the skin Inhaling via nose or mouth http://christmaswithkids.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/1263548022_bc423b6071.jpg http://cdn.24.com/files/Cms/General/d/75/c0637622947044d98a736fbca4866b8d.jpg http://christmaswithkids.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/1263548022_bc423b6071.jpg
    57. 57. ONCE IN THE BODY… • enters the bloodstream • attaches someplace specific
    58. 58. POSITIVE FIXES SOMETHING THAT IS MALFUNCTIONING
    59. 59. POSITIVE FIXES SOMETHING THAT IS MALFUNCTIONING NEGATIVE ALTERS SOMETHING THAT IS FUNCTIONING WELL aka negative side effect
    60. 60. When you take a drug (ex. antibiotics, caffeine, recreational) continually, aka drug abuse…
    61. 61. TOLERANCE
    62. 62. TOLERANCE DEPENDENCE
    63. 63. TOLERANCE DEPENDENCE WITHDRAWAL
    64. 64. TOLERANCE DEPENDENCE WITHDRAWAL ADDICTION
    65. 65. http://www.ted.com/talks/tom_wujec_on_3_ways_the_brain_creates_meaning.html
    66. 66. The Dana Sourcebook of Brain Science Resources for Secondary and Post-Secondary Teachers and Students Second Edition
    67. 67. photo taken by L. Bartels
    68. 68. photo from L. Bartels collection
    69. 69. photo taken by L. Bartels
    70. 70. The Dana Sourcebook of Brain Science Resources for Secondary and Post-Secondary Teachers and Students Second Edition
    71. 71. The Dana Sourcebook of Brain Science Resources for Secondary and Post-Secondary Teachers and Students Second Edition
    72. 72. http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animations/synapse.swf
    73. 73. http://www.apmmedical.com/images/crutch.jpg
    74. 74. http://www.childrenshospital.org/clinicalservices/videos/Jensen05.mov http://www.childrenshospital.org/patientsfamilies/Site1393/mainpageS1393P316sublevel357.html
    75. 75. fried http://rlv.zcache.com/your_brain_on_drugs_tshirt-p235715517840758527qqbf_400.jpg
    76. 76. On your Brain page respond to this quote by Abraham Lincoln, 1842: Happy day…when all appetites controlled, all poisons subdued, there shall be neither a slave nor a drunkard on the earth. SAVE & CLOSE the page.
    77. 77. http://www.childrenshospital.org/clinicalservices/videos/Jensen07.mov
    78. 78. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOKK8mAkiUI - THE WIZARD OF OZ

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