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présentation sur la stratégie d\'implémentation d\'un CRM lors de l\'IFKAD 2010 à Matera!

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  • A literature review of the subject classified CRM in fifth general category [Ngai05] based on 205 articles: 1)       General: general concept of CRM including managerial and conceptual view 2)       Marketing: from the mass marketing to the one to one marketing [Peppers 99], the different links between marketing and CRM 3)       Sales: CRM is a tool that helps a sales function to be more efficient. CRM strategies integrate sales strategies: how to build new relationships with customers, how to maintain the current relationships… 4)       Support: Customer Relationships are not only focused on the sales and marketing but also on the other parts of the firms. 5) IT: CRM development is directly impacted by the development of IT.
  • Romano and colleagues [Romano 07] propose a different overview of all documentation on CRM (510 publications) based on the different phases of CRM lifecycle: adoption, acquisition, implementation, usage and maintenance. They conclude that IS research community is focused on acquisition, implementation and usage. This is aligned with the fact that CRM technology is recent. The marketing community is more interested in the adoption and uses phases in accordance with the fact that CRM needs a lot of marketing inputs in these phases.
  • Failure means
  • Resistance to change may arise due to disruption of habit, feeling of insecurity, fear of economic penalties or fear of the unknown Market orientation : companies have to shift with the old product centric approach to a customer centric approach
  • Many changes arrive with a new CRM system. Well resistance to change is linked to : a lack of awareness, the comfort of past, a risk of losing authority
  • Kohli [Kohli 90] constructed a definition of “market orientation” based on three pillars: Customer focus, coordinated marketing and profitability. They proposed a model that links antecedents of market orientation (senor management factors, interdepartmental dynamics and organisational systems, market orientation, moderators and consequences on fundamental parameters: customer responses, business performance and employee responses. This point view is a behavioral approach. To become customer focused means to create more knowledge about customers by developing intensively more activities (communication, production,…). An over point of view is the cultural approach where the customer is at the center of all the business processes and the organization [Webster 89].
  • A CRM that works doesn’t means a CRM that helps company to earn more money May be to introduce one part in a company could help them to adopt a whole software
  • Ifkad10 Lb

    1. 1. CRM Implementation Strategy in a Public Research Centre Laurent Bravetti Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor [email_address] IFKAD 2010 - Matera
    2. 2. Summary <ul><li>CRM – definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes </li></ul><ul><li>CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations and further research </li></ul>
    3. 3. CRM- Definitions IFKAD 2010 - Matera
    4. 4. CRM-Definitions <ul><li>Many authors try to define CRM. </li></ul><ul><li>CRM is defined as : </li></ul><ul><li>a « management approach that enables organizations to identify, attract and increase retention of profitable customers by managing the relationships with them » [Hobby99] </li></ul><ul><li>a « comprehensive strategy and process of acquiring, retaining and partnering with selective customers to create superior value for company and customers » [Parvatyiar01] </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    5. 5. Litterature review <ul><li>Two litterature’s rewiews : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[Ngai05] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A classification in fifth general category : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- General and managerial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- IT </li></ul></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    6. 6. Litterature review <ul><li>Two litterature’s rewiews : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[Romano 07] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A classification based on the different phases of CRM lifecycle : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Maintenance </li></ul></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    7. 7. A concept CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research CRM Strategy Organisation IT
    8. 8. Why failures? <ul><li>If failures arrive : </li></ul><ul><li>Could key success factors be generic? </li></ul><ul><li>What are key success factors? </li></ul><ul><li>Is-it possible to define a model that guarantee a maximum success? </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research 70% of the implementation projects failed. (Gartner 03)
    9. 9. Key success factors for CRM schemes IFKAD 2010 - Matera
    10. 10. Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes <ul><li>We made a litterature review based on 25 journals of reference in marketing and IT areas. </li></ul><ul><li>We made an exploration of the summaries since 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>We selected papers in reference of CRM implementation to illustrate our classification. </li></ul><ul><li>4 major factors emerged. </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    11. 11. The 4 key success factors <ul><li>Resistance to change : one of the barrier of organisational or IT new project </li></ul><ul><li>Co-alignment : impact of external and internal variables on CRM success </li></ul><ul><li>Market orientation approach : necessary but not sufficient condition </li></ul><ul><li>Technological maturity : the complex one which mixes human and IT aspects </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    12. 12. Resistance to change <ul><li>Change arise due to disruption of habit, feelings of insecurity, fear of economic penalties or fear of unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>With CRM implementation, many things change in a company : </li></ul><ul><li>- new strategy </li></ul><ul><li>- new organisation </li></ul><ul><li>- new IT </li></ul><ul><li>CRM is considered as a new way of life, it’s a paradigm change for a company. </li></ul><ul><li>CRM implementations needs that people shares data on customers. Thats means should share knowledge about customers, that means a risk to lose power or authority. </li></ul><ul><li>A resistance to change could come with the fear of disconnection with the rest of the company. </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Lewin 47 Lawrence 54 Van de ven 95
    13. 13. Resistance to change <ul><li>[Zahrnt 02] : « a failure is linked with the classic change management problems » </li></ul><ul><li>[Payne 06] : « companies need a substantial organisational and cultural change. A critical dimension of any large CRM, therefore, is an effective change management programme » </li></ul><ul><li>[Wikström 04] : « in a case study, implementation of a new CRM system had been a major change event » </li></ul><ul><li>[Hewson 99] [Corner02]: « Two risks are directly linked with resistance to change : system user resists to change and the speed of change is high » </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    14. 14. Resistance to change <ul><li>[Xu02] : « employee’s resistance to change is one of the major risks associated with CRM implementation » </li></ul><ul><li>[Pries 04] : « two major problems : employee’s unwillingness to co-operate and senior’s management unwillingness to co-operate » </li></ul><ul><li>[Kale 05][Chen 03] : « successful change management programs prepare the organisation to accept correctly and implement CRM » </li></ul><ul><li>[Bohling 06] : « resistance to change at various level of the organisation is hurdles in CRM implementation » </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    15. 15. Co-alignment <ul><li>How and why context and structure of an organisation must fit together if it performed well? </li></ul><ul><li>Environnement has a clear impact on CRM implementations : in a growing or stable markets, companies are more focused on products, innovation. In an unpredictable market, companies should be more reactive. </li></ul><ul><li>In CRM implementation, organisations should use those external factors and align them with their strategy, organisation and IT. </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Burn 61 Venkatraman 84 Venkatraman 90
    16. 16. Co-alignment <ul><li>[Liu07] : «in a bank case study, business environnement, customer-oriented view and IT infrastructure must fit to embrace a CRM » </li></ul><ul><li>[O’Malley 02] : « a CRM implementation required a fit between managerial and cultural aspects and external factors» </li></ul><ul><li>[Reinartz 04] : « a significant interaction between the CRM-compatible organisational alignment and the CRM implementation successful. » </li></ul><ul><li>[Roberts 05][Nakata 06] : « alignement between 3 variables (Strategy, organisation and IT) is essential in achieving successful CRM deployment » </li></ul><ul><li>[Hart 06] : «a key factor for CRM implementation’s failure is the lake of alignment between business objectives and CRM software» </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    17. 17. Market Orientation Approach <ul><li>behavioral approach – cultural approach </li></ul><ul><li>Through a CRM system, a company can create a picture of the costumers by managing all the data. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a strong link between organisation and customers through CRM system that means the more the CRM is well used by collecting data end experiences with customer the more the organization is able to have the best interaction with customers. </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Levitt 60 Levitt 69 Narver 90 Webster 89 Kohli 90
    18. 18. Market orientation approach <ul><li>[Xu 02] : «CRM implementation only works when it’s supported by teh corporate culture that embraces customer-focused aims » </li></ul><ul><li>[O’Malley 02] : « a key success factor is the implementation of customer-centric organisation where the philosophy is mutual benefit, trust, commitment, and dialogue with customers» </li></ul><ul><li>[Chalmeta 06] : « CRM refers to a customer-focused business strategy » </li></ul><ul><li>[Raman 06] : « customer-centric orientation will enable CRM implementation success» </li></ul><ul><li>[Jain 05] : «true success of a CRM program is related to buliding a customer-centric organisation» </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    19. 19. Market orientation approach <ul><li>[Croteau 03] : « organizations have realised the importance of having a customer-oriented strategy that including a customer knowledge base » </li></ul><ul><li>[Chen 03] : « CRM is an entreprise-wide customer-centric business model » </li></ul><ul><li>[Plakoyiannaki 02] [Van Bentum 05]: « For a CRM implementation success, a cultural focus on customers is essential » </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    20. 20. IT maturity <ul><li>A human aspect : the capacity of the human resources to accept and use a new technology (TAM) </li></ul><ul><li>A technicological aspect : the capacity of the whole organisation to define, implement, measure, control and improve a new IS (IT project management) </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Davis 89 Davis 92 Venkatesh 00 Humphrey 00
    21. 21. IT maturity <ul><li>[O’ Malley 02] : « CRM implementation directly depends on the IT maturity of company» </li></ul><ul><li>[Ko 08] : « IS maturity is one of the key factor influencing CRM adoption » </li></ul><ul><li>[Landry 05]: « some companies may be more accepting technology than others because of theirs preexisting reliance upon technologies, in fact due to their technological maturity» </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    22. 22. IT maturity <ul><li>[Avlonitis 05] : « TAM model is tested on 240 sales persons » </li></ul><ul><li>[Sundaram 07] : « managing the acceptance for CRM systems encourages the use of system » </li></ul><ul><li>[Wu 05]: « extended Tam model is a factor to explain the success of CRM implementation but it seems to be incomplete » </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    23. 23. CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor IFKAD 2010 - Matera
    24. 24. CRM Scheme Implementation CRP Henri Tudor <ul><li>Why implement CRM in a non-profit organization? </li></ul><ul><li>- to enhance the quality of service rendered </li></ul><ul><li>- to modernize </li></ul><ul><li>- to adapt to new technology </li></ul><ul><li>- to understand how to deal with increased competition </li></ul><ul><li>- to be innovative with their services </li></ul><ul><li>- to be more attentive to their customers’ expectations and demands </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Primer 08 Hemsley-Brown06 Daradoumis 08 Pollard 08 Jayachandran 05
    25. 25. CRM Scheme Implementation CRP Henri Tudor <ul><li>Since 1987, CRP Henri Tudor contributes to the improvement and strengthening of the innovation capacity of enterprises and public organisations. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff at the end of 2008: 346 </li></ul><ul><li>Income 2008: 32.28 M Euro </li></ul><ul><li>Budget 2009: 35.1 M Euro </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied and experimental research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctoral research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of tools, methods, labels, certifications and standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological assistance, consulting and watch services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and competences transfer, as well as incubation of high-tech companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and high-level qualification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of RDI projects: 132 </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    26. 26. CRM Scheme Implementation CRP Henri Tudor CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Scientific and Technological Domains: Information and communication technologies Materials technologies Business organisation and management Environmental technologies Health care technologies Targeted Sectors: Services Finance Production Construction Health care and social security Public Sector A particular attention is given to SME.
    27. 27. CRM Strategy CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Implentation’s Strategy Key factors 1 – Define New Strategy for Customer Relations Management Customer Relationship History Analysis Customer Life Cycle Analysis 2 – Define New Customer Relations Organization 2 – Change Management – Customer Culture Management 3 – Establish CRM System Specifications 4 – Roll out CRM System – User Training Breakdowns/Improvements classified in the 4 categories Fit/Coalignement Fit/Coalignement/Market orientation/Resistance to change Fit/Coalignement/IT Maturity/Resistance to change Fit/Coalignement/IT Maturity/Resistance to change
    28. 28. Customer Relationship History CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    29. 29. Customer Life Cycle CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research Adaptation of Cutler’s Model 1- Reach 2- Acquisition 3- Conversion 4- Retention 5- Loyalty 1- Prospecting 1- Preliminary Approach 2- Listen-Present-Demonstrate 3- Conclusion 3- Realization 4- Follow-up 5- Loyalty
    30. 30. Limitation and further research IFKAD 2010 - Matera
    31. 31. Limitation and further research <ul><li>We try to adopt a global approach based on the strategical, organisational and IT aspects of CRM </li></ul><ul><li>We are focused on the implementation not on the ROI </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t explore the different parts of CRM software (SFA, EMA, CC) and the different functions </li></ul><ul><li>It’s just an initial approach which need to be deeply investigated. </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    32. 32. Limitation and further research <ul><li>Our goal is to define a multi-variables model based on this approach and test it in an implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>This model should combine the differents factors because they are interdependant. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to define the variable and a metric scale to validate the success/failure of CRM implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>We have to define what is a success or a failure. We should demonstrate an impact on the bottom-line to validate if the implementation is a success or not. </li></ul>CRM – definitions Key Success Factors for CRM Schemes CRM Scheme Implementation Strategy in CRP Henri Tudor Limitations and further research
    33. 33. Questions??? IFKAD 2010 - Matera

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