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  1. 1. Do you believe that gender impacts greatly or not at all on the notions of students success and achievement in schools? The Human Continuum
  2. 2. Ashman & Elkin (2009) recognise gender to be “ the socialformation of roles that societyimposes on males and females”.
  3. 3. Kitchenham, (2002).
  4. 4. “What can we do within our classroom to avoid creating genderlimitations in regards to student educational success, and ensure an equitable learning environment for all”.
  5. 5. The Problem Solving ModelPossible Model1. What am I trying to accomplish? What is my goal?2. What are the limits or barriers that are in the way?3. What are some solutions for overcoming the limits or barriers?4. Which solution will I try?5. Try out the solution that appears to be the best.6. How well did it work? Should I try another solution.
  6. 6. Step One of the Problem Solving Model.What are we trying to accomplish?What is our goal?• To break down the barriers that gender stereotypes create to ensure an equitable learning environment for all learners
  7. 7. Step Two of the Problem Solving Model. Neurological Makeup Biological Factors Behaviour Nature and Nurture Teacher/Peer relationships What are the School Teacher limits/barriers Factors ideals/expectationsstanding in the way? Assessment techniques Traditionalist perspectives on Gender gender roles Stereotypes Socio-cultural Childhood perspectives Socialisation
  8. 8. “ There is almost nothing we do with our brains that is hard wired. Every skill, attribute and personality trait is moulded by experience” (McKie, 2010).
  9. 9. GENDER STEREOTYPESTHE SOCIALISATION OF CHILDREN INTO GENDER“Research confirms that children do not learn how to be female and male in passive ways rather individuals actively develop a sense of themselves as gendered people by interacting with the myriad of messages and practices which they encounter”. “As girls and boys develop a sense of self as gender beings they may come to actively desire ways of being that can be potentially limiting rather than liberating”. Clark & Page (1997)
  10. 10. Teacher: “Now I need somebig strong boys to comeand help me lift this desk.”
  11. 11. Text Assessment techniques Teacher/Peer relationships Teacher expectations
  12. 12. GENDER DIFFERENCES The following graph shows that in Spelling, Writing and Grammar and Punctuation the girls’ results were better than the boys’ with the girls generally performing at the national average except at theYear 3 level. The gap in reading is not nearly as significant, while the boys have a slight edge innumeracy overall and are close to the national average at Year 9(NAPLAN Performance Report, 2008).
  13. 13. Do you believe that gender impacts upon learning, and student success? If so elaborate.• “Yes especially in the early years. Girls are often able to concentrate and focus on text. Boys can be more active and hands on.” Teacher A• “Yes it can in the area of behaviour management, where sometimes a make teacher can have better control of a class and therefore enhanced learning; particularly with boys in education. Conversely, girls may have problems relating to a ale teacher which could lead to learning problems. Teacher B• “No.” Teacher C• “I believe gender has a limited impact upon earning and student success. As an effective learning manager you need to take into account individual differences and preferences among learners. Whilst gender sometimes effects this {eg. Boys may need more outside time) it is not the rule. Teacher D
  14. 14. “In school you are taught things that you will supposedly use later in life, but you have no understanding of how they are going to be useful” (Stated by a male student).
  15. 15. Step Three What are some solutions for overcoming the limits or barriers Authentic PD to develop Assessment to an awareness Differentiated make learning assessment of gender relevant to students stereotypes Single sex and Genderco-ed schooling inclusive SOLUTIONS curriculum and content Development Critical via biology / audits experience
  16. 16. As identified by Davis & Dargusch (2010) “the research found around authentic assessment indicatesthat students are more likely to learn when they need to use theirknowledge and skills in meaningful ways”.
  17. 17. • “Adjustments are always made at the individual level”. Teacher A• “I think that besides being male or female, there are so many individual needs providing assessment that allows choice and freedom, brings out the best in students”. Teacher B
  18. 18. Ryan & Cooper (2010) discuss how “the messages of the hidden curriculum areusually conveyed indirectly and deal with attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviour. These messages can eithersupport or undermine the formal curriculum”.
  19. 19. What kind of valuesand masculinity and femininity do you think this kind of teacher response could be giving students?
  20. 20. The Inclusive Education Statement (2005) believes that an inclusive education in Queensland is one that,• “Maximises the educational and social outcomes of all students through the identification and reduction of barriers to learning, especially for those who are vulnerable to marginalisation and exclusion.”The Inclusive Education Statement (2005) suggests the following indicators can be used initially as guidelines to review current practices, promote dialogue, plan for change and implement reform. Later, they can also be used to help evaluate outcomes.• Professional learning opportunities are provided to enhance understanding of the recognition of difference and the factors that contribute to educational disadvantage, especially an appreciation of factors such as: poverty; gender; disability; cultural and linguistic diversity; and sexuality.• Plans reflect an ethos, organisation, culture and values underpinned by principles of social justice and by democratic processes.
  21. 21. “Unless teachers engage in critical reflection and ongoing discovery they staytrapped in unexaminedjudgments, interpretati ons, assumptions and expectations” (Larrivee, 2000).
  22. 22. The Boys Literacy and Schooling Report (2002) refers to the “explicit considerations of how both popular and curricular texts may, whatever else they may do, reinforce the already heavily patrolled gender borders of daily social justice”.
  23. 23. “Transformative remedies would focus on recognising diversity and difference, through promoting multiple ways of being masculine and feminine but within an affirmative and discerning critical framework that seeks to promblematise and transform rather than reinscribe the gendered ways of being, practises and structure that limit and constrain students life-worlds and future pathways”(Keddie, 2005 from a framework for gender justice).
  24. 24. BIBLIOGRAPHYArmstrong, A., & Spandagou, (2010). Communicating Inclusively. In Ewing, R., Lowrie, T., & Higgs, J. (Eds.), Teaching and communicating: Rethinking professional experiences. South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press.Australian College of Educators (ACER). (2007). A trickle from the pipeline: Why girls under-participate in maths. Professional Educator.Boys Forward Institute. (2011). Classroom success. Retrieved from file:///Users/ianchaseling/Desktop/ESS/Classroom%20Success%20-%20Boys%20Forward%20Institute.webarchiveBooker, G., Bond, D., Sparrow, L., & Swan, P. (2009). Teaching primary mathematics (2nd ed). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson EducationClarke, M., & Page, C. (1997). Understanding the process of gender construction. In Gender equity: a framework for Australian schools. Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs [MCEETYA]. Retrieved from, M., & Iles, L. (2010). Gender and diversity in the classroom. In M. Hyde, L. Carpenter, & R. Conway (Eds.), Diversity and inclusion in Australian schools (pp. 88-111). South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press.Cortis, N., & Newmarch, E. (2000). Boys in schools: what’s happening. Retrieved from of Education, Science and Training [DEST]. (2002). Boys, literacy and schooling: Expanding the repertoires of practice. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from of Education, Science and Training [DEST]. (n.d). Motivation and engagement of boys: Evidence-based teaching practices. Retrieved from Queensland. (2005). Inclusive education statement. Retrieved from, Z., (2004,September).’Boys’ (and ‘girls’?) In the policy document boys: getting it right. Paper presented at the Australasian Political Studies Association Conference, Adelaide, SA.Hyde, M., Carpenter, L., & Conway, R. (2010). Diversity and inclusion in Australian schools. South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press.Keddie, A. (2005). A framework for gender justice: Evaluating the transformative capacities of three key Australian schooling initiatives. In The Australian Educational Researcher, 32(3), 105-184. Retrieved from, A. (2002). Viva la difference: gender, motivation and achievement. School libraries in Canada, 22(2), 34. Retrieved from,+motivation+and+achievement&title=School+libraries+in +Canada&volume=22&issue=2&date=2002&spage=34&issn=0227-3780Larrivee, B. (2000). Transforming teaching practice: becoming the critically reflective teacher. Reflective Practice, 293-307.Limbrick, L., Wheldall, K., & Madetaine, A. (2010). Estimating gender ratios of poor reading using large-scale assessments. Australian Journal of Education, 54(2), 190-222. Retrieved from, A. J. (2002). Improving the educational outcomes of boys. Canberra, ACT. Retrieved from, R.(2010, September 9).The gender myth. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from, M. C. (2006). Boys stir us: working with the hidden nature of boys. Heatherton, VIC: Hawker Brownlow Education.Queensland Studies Authority (QSA). (2008). 3579 analysis of Queensland students’ NAPLAN performance. Retrieved from, K., & Cooper, J. (2010). Those who can, teach. Boston, USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Retrieved from ed=0CFAQ6AEwBzge#v=onepage&q=%22hidden%20curriculum%22&f=false CHAPTER 5 12th EDITION p124-162Snowman, J., Dobozy, E., Scevak, J., Bryer, F., Bartlett, B., & Biehler, D. (2009). Psychology applied to teaching (1st ed.). Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.