Sci method student

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Sci method student

  1. 1. The Scientific Method Chemistry Honors
  2. 2. What is Science? “Science” derived from Latin ‘to know’ Way of asking and answering questions Seeking answers to questions about natural phenomena (we are therefore limited to what kinds of questions we ask) Scientific thinking reduces emotional reactions
  3. 3. Forms of Scientific Inquiry Discovery or Descriptive Science – Observation – Qualitative vs. Quantitative data
  4. 4. Types of Logic Inductive Reasoning – Derive generalizations based on specific observations
  5. 5. Types of Logic Inductive Reasoning – Derive generalizations based on specific observations Deductive Reasoning - Specific predictions follow from general premise
  6. 6. Forms of Scientific Inquiry Discovery or Descriptive Science – Observation – Qualitative vs. Quantitative data Hypothesis-Based Science
  7. 7. Scientific Design Scientific knowledge begins with an observation and a proposed explanation. Explanation called a hypothesis A hypothesis is testable and falsifiable In science hypotheses are tested by using them to make predictions about how a particular system will behave
  8. 8. Theories and Natural Laws Theory: a description of the world that covers a relatively large number of phenomena and has met many observational and experimental tests Law of Nature: theory (or group of theories) that has been tested extensively and seems to apply everywhere in the universe-they become part of the conceptual framework of a particular field
  9. 9. Scientific Method in Action We use the scientific method in everyday life Example: You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but the car wouldn’t start (observation)
  10. 10. Scientific Method in Action Example: You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but the car wouldn’t start (observation)Hypothesis: There is something wrong with the car
  11. 11. Scientific Method in Action Example: You got in your car to drive up here and turned the key but the car wouldn’t start (observation)Hypothesis: There is something wrong with the carPredictions: battery dead, ignition problem, out of gas
  12. 12. Scientific Method in Action Testpredictions: turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank
  13. 13. Scientific Method in Action Test predictions: turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank Analyze results: headlights work, strong ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas gauge reads half full
  14. 14. Scientific Method in Action Test predictions: turn on headlights, check spark plug wires, dip stick in gas tank Analyze results: headlights work, strong ignition spark, no gas on dip stick-gas gauge reads half full Draw conclusion: gauge inaccurate, out of gas
  15. 15. Important terms:Independent (manipulated) variable: condition or event under study (choose 1) .Graphing-x axisDependent (responding) variable: condition that could change under the influence of the independent variable (measure this). Y-axisControlled variables: conditions which could effect the outcome of the experiment so they must be held constant between groups.
  16. 16. experimental group: group(s) subjected to the independent variablecontrol group: group not subjected to the independent variable, used as measuring stickreproducibility: producing the same result consistently to verify result. It is therefore important to describe your experimental design in enough detail for others to perform the same experiment.
  17. 17. Example Hyp: King’s collar repels fleas Pred: Dogs wearing King’s collar will have fewer fleas than those without collarIV:DV:CV’s:

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