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Heart Healthy- It\'s Your Heart


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Heart Healthy- It\'s Your Heart

  1. 1. Heart Healthy: It’s Your Heart!Western New England College Health Services Presents Lauren Dansereau ANP Michelle McGrath ANP
  2. 2. What Is Cardiovascular Disease? #1 Cause of death in the United States Affects 13 million Americans each year Heart and blood vessel diseases affecting the circulatory system
  3. 3. Cardiovascular Diseases• Coronary Heart Disease (Heart Attack)• Cerebrovascular Disease (Stroke and TIA)• High Blood Pressure• Congestive Heart Failure• Congenital Cardiovascular Defects• Peripheral Vascular Disease
  4. 4. Risk Factors• High Blood Pressure • Poor Diet• Smoking • Obesity• Diabetes • Physical Inactivity• Arrythmia, Heart Condition • Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy• Dyslipidemia• Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis• Sickle Cell Disease
  5. 5. Controllable Risk Factors• Smoking• High Blood Pressure• Physical Inactivity/ Exercise• Obesity/Diet• Cholesterol• Diabetes
  6. 6. Cardiovascular Disease And Women• Heart Disease- #1 cause of death in women• Stroke- #2 cause of death in women
  7. 7. High Blood Pressure• The greatest risk factor for heart disease.• Uncontrolled, can injure or kill you.• The “Silent Killer" because it often has no symptoms.• 1:3 Adults has HBP AND 21% don’t know they have it.• Of those with HBP, 69% are receiving treatment, --and only 45% have blood pressure under control.
  8. 8. High Blood Pressure Effects On Arteries• Blood running through arteries flowing with too much force.• Pressure on the arteries may cause stretching past their healthy limit and cause microscopic tears.• The artery then must kick into injury-healing mode and repair these tears with scar tissue.• Scar tissue traps plaque and white blood cells which can form into blockages, blood clots, and hardened, weakened arteries.
  9. 9. High Blood Pressure Greater Effects... Blockages and blood clots mean less blood to vital organs.Without blood-->tissue dies.*That’s why high blood pressure canlead to: stroke,heart attack, kidneyfailure, heart failure.
  10. 10. Blood Pressure Reading• Target Blood Pressure <120 systoloic pressure <80 diastolic pressure
  11. 11. Risk Factors HBP Age Family History Race ObesitySedentary Lifestyle TobaccoIncreased Alcohol High Salt Diet Low Potassium Stress Diabetes Kidney Disease Cholesterol Sleep Apnea
  12. 12. Cholesterol• Cholesterol - a soft, fat-like, waxy substance found in the bloodstream and in all your bodys cells.• It is made in your body from your liver and cells -75% and the other 25% ingested in food.• Its normal and healthy to have cholesterol.• Produces cell membranes and some hormones, and serves other needed bodily functions.• Excess in the blood is a major risk for coronary heart disease and stroke.
  13. 13. What is Cholesterol Level?• All adults age 20 or older should have a fasting lipoprotein profile once every 5 years.• This test is done fasting. It gives information about total cholesterol, LDL (bad) cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides.• To determine how your cholesterol levels affect your risk of heart disease, your health provider will also take into account other risk factors: age, family history, smoking and high blood pressure
  14. 14. What Are HDL & LDL?• HDL is known as the "good cholesterol", because it removes excess cholesterol from circulation• High density lipoproteins, also known as . HDL, are molecules consisting of cholesterol and protein that carry cholesterol back from tissues or organs to the liver, where cholesterol will be degraded or recycled.• LDL cholesterol is the “bad” cholesterol. When too much of it circulates in the blood, it can clog arteries, increasing risk of heart attack and stroke.• LDL cholesterol is produced naturally by the body, many people inherit genes that cause them to make too much. Eating saturated fat, trans fats and dietary cholesterol also increases how much you have.
  15. 15. Cholesterol Levels
  16. 16. Cholesterol Levels
  17. 17. What are Triglycerides?• A type of lipid found in your blood. • Normal — Less than 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or less than 1.7 millimoles per L (mmol/L)• When you eat, your body converts any calories it doesnt need to use • High triglycerides may contribute to right away into triglycerides. atherosclerosis, increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and heart disease.• Stored in your fat cells. • Treat with Niacin, Fibrates, Statins, Omega-3 Fatty acid supplements• Later, hormones release triglycerides for energy between meals.• If you regularly eat more calories than you burn, particularly "easy" calories like carbohydrates and fats, you may have high triglycerides .
  18. 18. Cholesterol Medications• Statins-(Lipitor)This class of drugs works in the liver to prevent the formation of • Fibrates(Gemfibrozil)Fibrates are best at lowering triglycerides and in some cases increasing HDL (good cholesterol) cholesterol. Statins are most effective at levels. These drugs are not very effective in lowering the LDL (bad) cholesterol, but also lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol. Thats why have modest effects on lowering fibrates are generally used in people whose triglycerides (blood fats) and raising HDL triglycerides are high or whose HDL is low, (good) cholesterol. after reaching LDL goal. Fibrates are most effective at lowering triglycerides (blood• Selective Cholesterol Absorption fats). Additionally, they act to raise the levels of HDL (good) cholesterol. Fibrates may be Inhibitors (Questran)This relatively used in combination therapy with the statins. new class of cholesterol-lowering medications works by preventing the absorption of cholesterol from the intestine. Selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors • Niacin This drug works in the liver by affecting the production of blood fats. Niacin are most effective at lowering the LDL (bad) is prescribed to lower triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, but may also have modest cholesterol and raise HDL ("good") effects on lowering triglycerides (blood fats) cholesterol.Niacin side effects may include and raising HDL (good) cholesterol. flushing, itching and stomach upset. Your liver functions may be closely monitored, as niacin can cause toxicity.
  19. 19. Alcohol• Drinking too much alcohol can raise triglycerides• Excess can lead to high blood pressure, heart failure and an increased calorie intake- obesity, diabetes.• Excessive drinking and binge drinking can lead to stroke, fetal alcohol syndrome, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death.• If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation.• Up to 1 drink a day for women and up to 2 drinks for men.• 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits count as a drink.• *Alcoholic beverages have calories but are low in nutritional value.
  20. 20. Smoking• Many studies show that cigarette smoking is a major cause of coronary heart disease, • Cigarette smoking combined with a family history of heart disease also seems to which leads to heart attack. greatly increase the risk.• Cigarette smoking is the most important risk • Increases risk of coronary heart disease. factor for young men and women.• It produces a greater relative risk in persons • Increases blood pressure. under age 50 than in those over 50. • Decreases exercise tolerance.• Women who smoke and use oral contraceptives greatly increase their risk of coronary heart disease and stroke • Increases blood clotting. compared with nonsmoking women who use oral contraceptives. • Increases risk of recurrent coronary heart disease after bypass surgery.• Smoking decreases HDL (good) cholesterol. • Smoking also creates a higher risk for peripheral arterial disease and aortic aneurysm.
  21. 21. Diabetes • Diabetics are at greater risk for HBP, high cholesterol and• Heart disease and stroke are the triglycerides, obesity making them No. 1 causes of death and at higher risk for cardiac disability among people with type diseases. 2 diabetes.• 65 percent of people with diabetes die from some form of heart disease or stroke.• Adults with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to have heart disease or a stroke than adults without diabetes.
  22. 22. What is the Link BetweenStress and Heart Disease?
  23. 23. • Stress sets off a chain of events.• The body reacts to it by releasing a hormone, adrenaline, -->causes your breathing and heart rate to speed up and your blood pressure to rise.• These physical reactions prepare you to deal with the situation by confronting it or by running away from it — the "fight or flight" response. When stress is constant (chronic), your body remains in high gear off and on for days or weeks at a time.• The link between stress and heart disease is not clear. However, chronic stress that causes an increase in heart rate and blood pressure may damage the artery walls.
  24. 24. pain or discomfort in one or both arms,,back, neck, jaw or stomach. with or without chest discomfort.may include breaking out in a coldsweat, nausea or lightheadedness.
  25. 25. Healthy DietVegetables and fruits- high in vitamins, mineralsand fiber — and they’re low in calories, help controlweight and lower blood pressure.Unrefined whole-grain foods contain fiber helplower your blood cholesterol and help you feel full,which may help you manage your weight.Fish at least twice a week. Recent research showsthat eating oily fish containing omega-3 fatty acids(salmon, trout, and herring) may help lower yourrisk of death from coronary artery disease.Lean meats and poultry without skin and preparethem without added saturated and trans fat.Dairy-Select fat-free, 1 percent fat, and low-fatdairy products.Reduce Trans Fats-Decrease foods containingpartially hydrogenated vegetable oils to reducetrans fat in your diet.Low Cholesterol-Aim to eat less than 300milligrams of cholesterol each day.Low Sodium-Choose and prepare foods with littleor no salt, less than 1500mg/day.
  26. 26. Exercise!• Among Americans age 20 and older, 145 million are overweight or obese (BMI of 25.0 kg/m2 and higher).• 76.9 million men and 68.1 million women.• Increased body fat — especially if a lot of it is at your waist — increases risk of health problems including high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes.• Those overweight/obese can significantly reduce risk for heart disease by weight loss.• When coming up with a fitness and nutrition plan to lose weight, one must understand calorie intake and amount of energy calories you’re burning off with different levels of physical activity.• It’s a matter of balancing healthy eating (caloric energy) with the (molecular) energy that leaves your body through a healthy level of exercise.
  27. 27. Why Exercise? 30 minutes each day reduce your risk of heart disease, lower BP, increase HDL, control blood sugar by improving use of insulin, reduce stress, control body weight, improve well being.American Heart Association Guidelines:At least 150 minutes per week of moderateexercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorousexercise.Or a combination of moderate and vigorous.Physical activity is anything that makes youmove your body and burns calories,Strength and stretching exercises are best foroverall stamina and flexibility.No regular physical activity-body slowly loses itsstrength and ability to function well. Physicalactivity = living a longer, healthier life!
  28. 28. Healthy Heart! The Simple Seven..• Get Active• Manage Blood Pressure• Control Cholesterol• Manage Weight• Monitor Blood Sugar• Don’t Smoke• Eat Healthy