EASST 2010
                                                            3 September 2010




             The Meaning of Ob...
Looking for
We are looking what STS theories could learn
us:
– About the composition and position of objects in
  an Inter...
Internet-of-Things, Web of Things,         Physical Web,   Ubiquitous computing

                 Many names for one pheno...
Internet-of-Things (IoT)


The term, ‘Internet of things’, refers to the technical and cultural shift that
is anticipated ...
ITU vision on IoT
• Origins from “Challenges to the network”
• “From anytime, any place connectivity for
  anyone, we will...
IoT objects,                Smart objects, Things that talk,
                       Virtual Objects, Spimes,   blogjects

...
The Evolution in the usage of IoT
              objects


IoT objects can   IoT objects   IoT objects
be identified     ca...
IoT Objects can be identified
        and tracked
IoT Objects can be identified
  and tracked by endusers
IoT objects can sense




     sensing tracked products
                                                  sensing car




...
Where is the sensor?




  The human is the sensor
Personal informatics




Ian Li
(http://www.personalinformatics.org)



Personal informatics is a class of tools that help...
IoT objects can act
IoT object definition in our work

“An IoT object is every artifact that can be found
with a search engine
(is connected t...
Some unanswered questions we
          are struggeling with
 • The way users could define their own IoT objects
  and appl...
First integration




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMVZIc_MWh8
IoT model example
                                                                                The number of
          ...
The context model we work with
The model of the IoT world


                       a sensor


 a person


             mobile
            internet




  ...
LC1


      What we can learn about objects
                    What is the composition and position
                     ...
Slide 20

LC1        die vraag in het kader moet geherformuleerd worden
           Laurence Claeys; 25/08/2010
What we can learn about objects




          Graham Harman (1968)
         Object-Oriented Philosophy
Objects in the work of Heidegger
• Hermeneutic philosophy
• dasein (being-in-the-world) - entschlossene (things)
• Die Tec...
Objects in the work of Heidegger




Entities only gain significance from their full context, since a knife is not the sam...
How we ‘translated’ what we learned
   from Heidegger in our model
• Entities do not have fixed properties
• People can at...
Objects in the work of Don Ihde
• Original discipline: phenomenology
• Later: postphenomology / phenomenological
  pragmat...
The role of technology
                       in the work of Don Idhe
                                                    ...
How we ‘translated’ what we
  learned from Ihde in our model
• People can also be IoT objects
• Every augmentation of a ‘d...
Objects in the work of Bruno Latour

• The world is a field of objects or actants locked in trials of strength
• Everythin...
What can we learn from Latour?
• Does every entity only exists as an event?
  how can we implement this?
 “Entities are ev...
Some unanswered questions we
          are struggeling with
 • The way users could define their own IoT objects
  and appl...
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  1. 1. EASST 2010 3 September 2010 The Meaning of Objects in an Internet-of-Things World Johan Criel (Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs - Intec, University of Ghent, Belgium) Laurence Claeys (Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs - MICT, University of Ghent, Belgium)
  2. 2. Looking for We are looking what STS theories could learn us: – About the composition and position of objects in an Internet-of-Things World and – How we should implement objects in Internet-of- Things applications
  3. 3. Internet-of-Things, Web of Things, Physical Web, Ubiquitous computing Many names for one phenomena memory objects connected objects and devices smart homes media objects
  4. 4. Internet-of-Things (IoT) The term, ‘Internet of things’, refers to the technical and cultural shift that is anticipated as society moves towards a ubiquitous form of computing in which every device is ‘on’, and every device is connected in some way to the Internet. The specific reference to ‘things’ refers to the concept that every new object manufactured will also be able to part of this extended Internet, because they will have been tagged and indexed by the manufacturer during production. It is also envisaged that consumers will have the ability to ‘read’ the tags through the use of mobile ‘readers’ and use the information connected to the object, to inform their purchase, use and disposal of an object.
  5. 5. ITU vision on IoT • Origins from “Challenges to the network” • “From anytime, any place connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything” Minaturisation towards the Internet of Things (ITU, 2005)
  6. 6. IoT objects, Smart objects, Things that talk, Virtual Objects, Spimes, blogjects “Blogjects are objects that blog” (Julian Bleeker) “Spimes are manufactured objects whose informational support is so overwhelmingly extensive and rich that they are regarded as material instantiations of an immaterial system. Spimes begin and end as data. They’re virtual objects first and actual objects second.” Bruce Sterling, Shaping Things, (2005).
  7. 7. The Evolution in the usage of IoT objects IoT objects can IoT objects IoT objects be identified can sense can act and tracked
  8. 8. IoT Objects can be identified and tracked
  9. 9. IoT Objects can be identified and tracked by endusers
  10. 10. IoT objects can sense sensing tracked products sensing car sensing shoe sensing clothing twittering plant
  11. 11. Where is the sensor? The human is the sensor
  12. 12. Personal informatics Ian Li (http://www.personalinformatics.org) Personal informatics is a class of tools that help people collect personally relevant information for the purpose of self-reflection and self-monitoring. These tools help people gain self-knowledge about one's behaviors, habits, and thoughts.
  13. 13. IoT objects can act
  14. 14. IoT object definition in our work “An IoT object is every artifact that can be found with a search engine (is connected to the internet)”
  15. 15. Some unanswered questions we are struggeling with • The way users could define their own IoT objects and applications? • The way of sharing IoT objects and applications between users? and their re-use (for different applications)? • The searching of the IoT environment using IoT objects? www.dyse.org
  16. 16. First integration http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMVZIc_MWh8
  17. 17. IoT model example The number of chickens inside The number of breaders inside hen house The number of eggs inside Fox attack (event) Egg laid (event) 10 8 • What is the average time between two 6 M y e ggs laid eggs? 4 M y ne ighbo urs e ggs 2 • Alert me when I have more then two 0 Mo We dn F ri Su breeders and when there is a fox attack
  18. 18. The context model we work with
  19. 19. The model of the IoT world a sensor a person mobile internet an object a space
  20. 20. LC1 What we can learn about objects What is the composition and position of an object in the world? What is the composition and position of an IoT object in the world? Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) Don Ihde (1934) Bruno Latour (1947)
  21. 21. Slide 20 LC1 die vraag in het kader moet geherformuleerd worden Laurence Claeys; 25/08/2010
  22. 22. What we can learn about objects Graham Harman (1968) Object-Oriented Philosophy
  23. 23. Objects in the work of Heidegger • Hermeneutic philosophy • dasein (being-in-the-world) - entschlossene (things) • Die Technik und die Kehre (1953) & Being und Zeit (tool analysis) (1927) • Objects are reduced to how they are manifested in human consciousness • objects can be present-at-hand (vorhandenheit) or ready-to-hand (zuhandenheit) • objects and things "The essence of Dasein lies in its existence. Accordingly those characteristics which can be exhibited in this entity are not 'properties' present-at-hand of some entity which 'looks' so and so and is itself present-at-hand; there are in each case possible ways for it to be, and no more than that...So when we designate this entity with the term 'Dasein', we are expressing not it's 'what' (as if it were a table, house, or tree) but its Being." (translated by: Inwood, 1997: 23).
  24. 24. Objects in the work of Heidegger Entities only gain significance from their full context, since a knife is not the same thing in a kitchen, a theatrical drama or the hand of a criminal. ‘Equipment—in accordance with its equipmentality—always is in terms of its belonging to other equipment: ink-stand, pen, ink, paper, blotting pad, table, lamp, furniture, windows, doors, room’ (Heidegger, 1962).
  25. 25. How we ‘translated’ what we learned from Heidegger in our model • Entities do not have fixed properties • People can attach meaning to properties of an object depending on what they want to use it for • People know every moment (or can ask every moment) what smart behavior is active (final control)
  26. 26. Objects in the work of Don Ihde • Original discipline: phenomenology • Later: postphenomology / phenomenological pragmatism • Central emphasis on relations and on extended embodiment • Sliding scale of symmetry between humans and objects • Interrelations between humans and environments are central • Technology and the Lifeworld. From Garden to Earth (1990) "the various ways in which I-as-body interact with my environment by means of technologies" (Ihde, 1990: 72)
  27. 27. The role of technology in the work of Don Idhe Technological mediation creation technology  reduction world  amplification human ( - )   ( - ) (- / )  - ( ) Embodiment Hermeneutic Background Alterity relation relation relation relation
  28. 28. How we ‘translated’ what we learned from Ihde in our model • People can also be IoT objects • Every augmentation of a ‘dumb artifact’ to become an IoT object brings transformation (reduction and amplification)
  29. 29. Objects in the work of Bruno Latour • The world is a field of objects or actants locked in trials of strength • Everything is immanent in the world • Nothing exist but actants, and all of them are utterly concrete • For Latour an actant is always an event, and events are always completely specific: “everything happens only once, and at one place” • An actant is its relations • Quasi-objects (hybrids) are ontological primair to objects and subjects • The link between actors always requires translation What can we learn from Latour for our work?
  30. 30. What can we learn from Latour? • Does every entity only exists as an event? how can we implement this? “Entities are events, inconceivable in isolation from networks” “They are not isolated points of essense that endure through space and time, but more like trajectories” (We have never been Modern, pg. 81-87) • Are IoT objects hybrids (quasi-objects) that are a nightmare for any attempt to slice the world cleanly into purified districts? or just not, are virtual objects and physical objects two different districts?
  31. 31. Some unanswered questions we are struggeling with • The way users could define their own IoT objects and applications? • The way of sharing IoT objects and applications between users? and their re-use (for different applications)? • The searching of the IoT environment using IoT objects? www.dyse.org

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