Ten Little Chocolate Factories


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LEARN MORE HERE: http://laurenbaier.com/tenlittlechocolatefactories.html


This two-part project came about after I began to informally ask people about their favorite chocolate. This led to research about chocolate and chocolate making, which led to my discovery of the Bean-to-Bar process of chocolate production. Bean-to-Bar refers to when a chocolate manufacturer starts with the cacao beans rather than simply buying production-ready chocolate from a wholesaler or other provider. At the time of this project, this method was used by less than one hundred chocolate manufacturers worldwide. I worked with Bean-to-Bar chocolate makers from ten different factories around the world and asked them each the same set of questions:

- How did you get into your profession?
- What is it about your job that you enjoy the most?
- Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? (bean-to-bar process)
- Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think you are offering to society?

I compiled the interviews into a book, along with background information and a glossary of terms on chocolate-making and Bean-to-Bar process specifics. Although it's not the same as reading the book in real life, you can view a PDF of the book here.

The second part of this project was an exhibition design, which displayed the information I gathered from interviewing the chocolate makers and also included an interactive experience. I wanted to capture the excitement I had observed when asking my friends about their favorite chocolate, so I designed a "live-action ethnographic study." I set up a computer station with a jar of hand-wrapped chocolates, each with a question/prompt inside the wrapper. Users were to draw a question from the jar and answer it on camera, recording a video onto the computer. The prompts varied from "what do you love about chocolate?" to "if you could design your own chocolate, what would it be like?" and more. Previously recorded responses were able to be viewed by other users. Over 200 videos were recorded over the course of the study. See some of the responses in the video here: http://youtu.be/BQ7j_MXwC_A


Special thanks to the interview participants from the following chocolate factories: Ah Cacao Real Chocolate, Chocolates Fénix, Grenada Chocolate Company, Malmö Chokladfabrik, Original Hawaiian Chocolate Company, Pacari Chocolate, Red Star Chocolate, SOMA Chocolatemaker, TCHO, and Theo Chocolate

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Ten Little Chocolate Factories

  1. 1. TEN LITTLE CHOCOLATE FACTORIES A Study of the Passion Behind Chocolate Making and Chocolate EatingTEN LITTLE CHOCOLATE FACTORIESCopyright © 2010 by Lauren BaierFirst Edition printed 2010.Printed in the United States of AmericaMinneapolis College of Art & Design2501 Stevens AvenueMinneapolis, Minnesota 55404Designed by Lauren BaierContent by Lauren Baier and www.ChocolateSource.com
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction 3 Bean-to-Bar Process 5 Interviews27 Glossary of Chocolate Terminology31 Index of Chocolate Makers
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONI have a fascination with candy stores. The cheerful tinkle of the bell whenyou walk in, the shelves lined with jars filled with brightly colored sugarybaubles, the sound of metal scoops plunging into jellybeans, and the thicksmell of homemade fudge in the air. But it is not only my personal fondnessfor these details that attracts me to the notion of candy stores. It is the joythat others experience that keeps me interested. I have a theory that anyperson can be going through any situation, but still crack a smile while in acandy store. It just can’t be helped.As someone who is interested in studying and designing human experiences,it makes sense why this would be interesting to me. I am on a continualquest to find the perfect candy store and visit as many as I can. The funnything is, I’m not even that big of a candy fan. Sure I like it, and I have myfavorites, but I definitely like candy stores more than I like candy itself.The idea for this project stemmed from this idea about certain experiencesaffecting people in emotional ways. Chocolate affects people in a similarmanner to the way candy shops do, perhaps on an even more personal level.Everyone has an opinion on chocolate. Whether they hate it, love it, or can’tfunction without it, everyone feels something about it. I was curious aboutthis deep-running passion, so I began asking people about their favoritechocolate. It got me thinking about the many different types of chocolatethat exist. Aside from the many different flavor combinations that exist,there are also several classes of chocolate. Beyond the standard Hersheybar, there are also more high-quality choices. Local, Fair-Trade, Organic, etc.There are a multitude of options. 1
  4. 4. BEAN-TO-BAR PROCCESS Through my investigation, I learned about a particular process of chocolate making that I had never heard of before. This process is called “Bean to Bar.” What this means is that the chocolate maker starts with the original ingre- dient, cacao beans, and turns them into finished chocolate products like bars, drinking chocolate, confections, and other tasty treats. Although this may be the way you imagine all chocolate making to be done, sadly that is not the case. At the time of publication, there are around one hundred chocolate manufacturers who use this process. The majority fall into two categories; those who are multi-million dollar corporations, and those who have been bought out by multi-million dollar corporations. The remaining few are those I have chosen to focus on. Some of these chocolate makers are based in countries where cacao is grown. They harvest the beans themselves and are thus actually known as “Tree to Bar” versus “Bean to Bar.” Surprisingly, although the Unites States is not necessarily regarded for its chocolate production, it is the country with the highest number of Bean to Bar chocolate manufacturers. At this time there are around twenty in operation.2 3
  5. 5. INTERVIEWS I wanted to find a way to capture the passion behind the people who make chocolate, these “experience designers” of sorts. Bean-to-bar chocolate makers seem to be even more emotionally invested in their chosen art form than the standard producer of chocolate. There may be a personal tie, a social belief, a political agenda, or a multitude of other hidden facets to their reasoning. I decided the only way to learn about how people feel about creating this object of desire would be to simply ask them about it. The following interviews were conducted over a three month period with bean-to-bar chocoalte makers from around the world. Over twenty were contacted, spanning twelve different countries. The special group that chose to participate became my ten little chocolate factories. I asked each chocolate maker to answer the same set of four questions in writing, through email. Although the questions were the same, the answers differed widely.4 5
  6. 6. AH CACAO REAL CHOCOLATE - MEXICO NAME: MÓNICA TELLO JOB TITLE: DIRECTOR OF GUEST EXPERIENCE 1) How did you get into your profession? A combination of things all came together at the same time that myself and my husband to initiate a Mexican chocolate company: A serious love of chocolate A desire to introduce more people to the joys of REAL chocolate made with fine tasting cacao 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think A desire to share the story of chocolate and cacao: you are offering to society? where it comes from, who grows it, its prehispanic his- tory, etc. and establish a deeper connection between We started this proyect with a dream of helping conserve nature the people who sweat in the cacao plantations and by creating value from it, in this case by cultivating high quality those who enjoy the exquisite taste of fine cacao cacao which grows below the forest canopy. By expanding the demand for high quality cacao products we increase the forested 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? areas in Mexico while simultaneously improving the quality of life of the cacao producers. That I have the opportunity to serve people from all over the world and most of them leave with a chocolate or coffee in their We also create jobs in Mexico along the entire value chain, which hands and a smile on their face. includes our own Ah Cacao Chocolate Café stores. The consumers of our products receive the health benefits of cacao with none of 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? the undesireable ingredients added by most mass market choco- late producers (some of our products have no sugar, for example In our case it’s because we wanted a fine tasting 100% Mexican and are sweetened only by natural fruits), in fact we consider product and producing ourselves from carefully selected beans was that the real “product”(or benefit) we offer our consumers is the only way to achieve the quality and type of product we desired. “natural well-being”.6 7
  7. 7. CHOCOLATES FÉNIX - ARGENTINA NAME: JOSE RODRIGO SALGADO JOB TITLE: MANAGING DIRECTOR 1) How did you get into your profession? My family started making chocolate in 1889 when my great- grandfather built his first cocoa mill in the Spanish Galicia back in 1889. Since then the family continued with this profession. Our houses are located just beside and above the factory so even origins. When the production area does not have a standard es- when being a child you start to appreciate the flavors, smells tablished then you must travel personally to the place and make and rythms of the business. Naturally, I grew up knowing and sure their fermentation and drying processes are done correctly. yearning to become part of this tradition. But the family’s policy is to make members as prepared as possible before receiving any Secondly, buying the bean allows you to explore different flavor responsibility. I therefore studied my Engineering degree and profiles, varieties, etc when bringing beans from different places afterwards took an MBA in Finance abroad before getting into or origins. This can get as specific as buying beans only from a the decission making team. single farm or plantation. Only small and medium manufacturers can do this. Bigger ones find this small volumes not interesting for their scale. 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? Processing a natural food which is healthy and gives people joy Thirdly, buying the bean can give you a social and peaceful ex- when consuming is definitively a “child’s dream”. Besides, the perience since you get to know the people you are buying from, need to supply the main ingredient from such places as Bolivian the producers. In this way you can avoid buying cocoa that could amazonia, Brazilian Bahia or Ecuador’s Esmeraldas, gives me the be obtained from child-labor activity, unfair trading practices opportunity to learn cultures, create human relationships, etc or even slavery. We make sure to know exactly from where our that not every job offers. cocoa comes. Lastly, chosing to buy the bean can give you the possibility to buy 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? as natural production as possible, knowing which fertilization and It is not actually really a choice. We have been doing it that way pesticides policy are used, etc. for more than 120 years, so why change? If a morning I woke up and the cocoa bean roasting smell does not reach my bed , then I 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think will feel half the thing is missing. you are offering to society? Choosing to start from bean gives you many advantages: As I told you before I really enjoy what I am doing. People smile Firstly you can control the quality. It is not the same to buy an at you when your profession is in discussion. People feel happy ASE (Arriba Summer Epoca) to an ASSS (Arriba Summer Superior to talk about it, People feel interested to know more about your Selected) arriba bean from Ecuador. Industrial liquor you may chocolate and how it is made. So why look into another job? We buy from multinationals is most probably made from the first. are offering to society a historical food, healthy, an experience But if you want to really assure a good flavor profile you have to to develop our own tastes, the possibility to create an inmense get at least an ASSS bean classification. This applies to almost all range of other products with it . . .8 9
  8. 8. GRENADA CHOCOLATE COMPANY - GRENADA NAME: MOTT GREEN JOB TITLE: DIRECTOR AND FOUNDER 1) How did you get into your profession? I lived in the woods here in Grenada in a bamboo house I built to grow food and live self sufficiently. Fell in love with cocoa trees and kitchen-style processing of hot chocolate. Developed dream of making fine eating dark chocolate with a cooperative or organic cocoa farmers. Been pursuing that for the past 10 years. 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? I enjoy making a delicious food that people enjoy so much and at the same time enjoy tinkering/designing the machinery and bits and pieces. Also a thrill to be on our cocoa farms a lot and direct the agricultural part of the project. 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? I wanted to make a chocolate that was farmer-made at the farm because I believe this is the only true way to make sure the value of fine chocolate is shared with everyone who produces it includ- ing all the farmers. 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think you are offering to society? I am helping Grenadian society by helping to encourage bringing back farming, this time with a sense of pride and in a more lucra- tive way. I am offering the whole world the chance to eat the most delicious dark chocolate with the purest ethics behind its production. Also, our project seems to inspire people in general.10 11
  9. 9. MALMÖ CHOKLADFABRIK - SWEDEN NAME: PETER HANSSON JOB TITLE: MANAGING DIRECTOR 1) How did you get into your profession? I worked in the mobile telephone industry for many years and traveled a lot in cocoa producing countries. The last few years we lived in France, Belgium and the Netherlands where my wife learned how to make pralines. My family bought an old property which happened to be a chocolate factory and we felt it was time to move back home to Sweden and start a chocolate business after 11 years abroad. 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? “ IT WOULD BE MUCH WERE NOT MAKE MONEY IF WE EASIER TO Taste, flavors, sounds, texture, colors. Also the fact that almost every person likes chocolate or at least has an opinion about it helps. 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? MAKING OUR OWN CHOCOLATE. ” Crazy idea, which we regretted many times. In Sweden, we are the only bean-to-bar maker and we understand now why. It is really hard work! Still, we think it is funny to be bean-to-bar. It would be much easier to make money, if we were not making our own chocolate. 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think you are offering to society? Our main challenge is education. We are running chocolate tasting event almost every day, where we educate people on the topic of chocolate nad have a tasting afterwards. There is so much rubbish products in Sweden which people think is choco- late. Our mission is to educate as many people as possible.12 13
  10. 10. ORIGINAL HAWAIIAN CHOCOLATE COMPANY - USA NAME: PAM & BOB COOPER JOB TITLE: OWNERS 1) How did you get into your profession? 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? In 1997 we accomplished our dream to live where the mountains It has truly been an adventure from the beginning and no two meet the sea, by purchasing a “Cocoa Plantation” on the Big days are ever the same. We love having people visit and do tours Island of Hawaii. There were no plans to farm as we had a won- by appointment. It would be irresponsible for us not to share our derful caretaker that took care of the six acres we’d purchased knowledge and experience and offering viewing of the process here for our semi-retirement. The cacao trees had just come from tree to bar. This is the only place in our country where to fruition and they surely had a “life of their own”. As this is a cacao trees will grow. We have people come from all over the very new crop for the State of Hawaii, we decided to encourage world to see the cacao trees and our factory. others to grow cacao, but it would be necessary for us to create a market for the niche signature chocolate that would have to 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? be produced to sustain such an industry here. Sugarcane and pineapple have run their course here and small family farmers Our process is actually tree to bar and everything is done right needed a new crop to diversity their farms. Thus, we set about here on the farm. We do buy wet cocoa beans from a number of hiring a consultant, had beans tested, transformed our ag-shed growers (who we encouraged to plant) whose trees are coming into the smallest chocolate factory ever and so began America’s to fruition now that completes a vertically integrated industry first homegrown and produced single origin chocolate. right here! 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think you are offering to society? We offer and are giving back by supporting: local farmers, local retailers (we have approx. 60 and growing), Hawaii Regional Cui- sine Chefs, educational tours for senior citizens, school children, college students) and now the agritourism industry. We are also proud to be part of the American “Can Do!” mentality.14 15
  11. 11. PACARI CHOCOLATE - ECUADOR NAME: SANTIAGO PERALTA JOB TITLE: FOUNDER/OWNER “ EVERYDAY I COME TO WORK EXCITED ABOUT WHAT WE ARE DOING. ” 1) How did you get into your profession? Growing up with parents who appreciated the natural world, I decided that it would be wonderful to build a company based on some aspect of natural products. Being from Ecuador, which is blessed with one of the best cacao beans in the world, I thought this would be an interesting path. For several years, my wife Carla and I began selling bulk cacao 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? products in Europe and the US, and then developed a range of As Ecuadorians, we are able to source the best of the best beans couverture for some European chocolate companies. It was very that grow in our country, and. This enables us to work directly well-regarded, and so we decided to make finished product under with the cacao growers, providing training and capacity building our own brand, Pacari Chocolate. We wanted to create a high in how to achieve organic cacao of high quality. We get the qual- quality, organic chocolate that was made in our country, and ity of beans we need, and the growers get a higher price for their show that Ecuador not only has the arriba nacional bean, but that superior cacao. we can produce an exceptional product ourselves. This not only is a matter of pride for our country, but also helps to keep more of the jobs and profits where it counts. 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think you are offering to society? 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? I got my degree in law, thinking that I would work to promote justice. After a while I was disillusioned, realizing that law was Making a quality product that we all can be proud of, and experi- not the same thing as justice. I decided I could have a direct im- menting with new ways to work with the cacao are the best parts pact by creating a socially responsible company, which supports of making artisanal chocolate. We are a small, creative group local communities and the environment, as well as the health of dedicated to quality and innovation, and of course promoting our final customers. Every day I come to work excited about what organic agriculture. we are doing and have yet to do.16 17
  12. 12. RED STAR CHOCOLATE - ENGLAND NAME: DUFFY SHEARDOWN JOB TITLE: CHOCOLATE MAKER 1) How did you get into your profession? After 25 years making racing cars I needed a change. I heard a radio programme stating that “Only Cadburys” make chocolate in the UK from beans - everyone else makes confections using couverture that they buy in. My background and arrogance led me to say “how hard can it be” and when yet another race team collapsed beneath me I decided to find out. I spent a year finding equipment and testing suppliers and recipes and then opened my own factory producing bars of chocolate made from beans. 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? I have total control over all aspects of the process and if anything goes wrong it is down to me. I also get to test a lot of chocolate and hope to make the best chocolate in the world - one day. 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? If you want to control the taste of the final chocolate it makes sense to have control of as many of the processes as you can. I’m not a farmer so I can’t grow the beans and I can’t dry and ferment them either. Everything else I can and do control. 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think you are offering to society? I chose to start this business because I can’t see myself in a “regular” job. I don’t respect authority particularly and I’m used to operating with a huge degree of autonomy that I wasn’t prepared to give up. I don’t think I am offering society anything other than good choc- olate. My web-site will have some information about the farm- ers and how they live and I will tithe my profits to return some money to the farming communities. I also pay extra for Fairtrade and good quality beans. Maybe I can help the cacau-growing farmers in some small way to have a less meagre existence.18 19
  13. 13. SOMA CHOCOLATEMAKER - CANADA NAME: DAVID CASTELLAN JOB TITLE: CHOCOLATE MAKER “ IT’S MORE LIKE LAB. AN ” 1) How did you get into your profession? I got into chocolate from the pastry / baking end. My mother had EXPERIMENTAL a bakery and I grew up baking. In the mid eighties I worked with a few European pastry chefs that really taught me how to make a proper ganache, temper etc. I did a stage in Cortina D’ampezzo where we often used a two roll granite refiner and a small coat- ing pan. The machines added another dimension to the work, using them required another set of skills but there was an artistry too, especially using the coating pan. I continued with chocolate after a long stint as a pastry chef in various restaurants. 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? It is a magical and yet technical process that is appealing in that 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? there is so much to learn and yet it is so simple. In essence is it There is a huge amount of freedom especially because we sell just roasting, grinding and creating an emulsion of cocoa beans most of our chocolate in our store. It is more like an experimen- and sugar. but in that there are a million variables. Exploring the tal lab. I can work on any crazy chocolate idea and because we variables is the job! have a steady clientele, it is on the shelf and purchased possibly on the same day. In the wholesale chocolate scenario, an idea 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think would have to be worked out with sales in mind as well as a lot of you are offering to society? money spent on packaging bar code etc. It takes the fun out of it. I have the pleasure of working with Cynthia my wife and partner. We hope to offer an interesting new way to appreciate on ancient We work well together and as she does thedesign/packaging, we substance. As far as our place in society, any way to do this in a small, can come up with products on the fly. artesan, community oriented and non-corporate way is beneficial...20 21
  14. 14. TCHO - USA NAME: GRACE ERICKSON JOB TITLE: PRODUCTION MANAGER 1) How did you get into your profession? I graduated college with a degree in Business Operations Man- agement and had my heart set on candy manufacturing. The Bay Area had numerous chocolate companies at that time - See’s, Schmidt, Scharffenberger, Guittard, Ghirardelli, Blommer, et al. I applied to all and ended up with a job in Production Planning at Ghirardelli Chocolate Company. 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? I enjoy the continuous movement and problem-solving aspects of my job. Manufacturing is exciting and ever-changing — it’s where the life of a product begins. 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? TCHO chooses the bean-to-bar process because it enables a com- pany to control quality at the highest level. We choose the beans we want and we fly out out of the country to roast our beans to our desired specifications and ship the milled liquor to our factory to finish the rest of the process. If we did not control the entire process from bean-to-bar then our options would be limited to the couverture that is available on the open market, which is not customized to our specifications. 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think you are offering to society? I choose this job because I love working with chocolate and building those products for the marketplace.22 23
  15. 15. THEO CHOCOLATE - USA NAME: NATHAN ROYSTON JOB TITLE: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 1) How did you get into your profession? I always loved chocolate ever since I was a little kid and that was It also means we have control over driving innovation and a love that never left me. When I moved to Seattle about four maintaining our own quality, because we are actually doing the years ago and found out there was an actual chocolate factory in manufacturing, each step of the way. It is a source of great pride the city, I went to check it out. I was really inspired after getting for me and all the employees here that we get to have a hand in a tour of the facility and asked if there were opportunities to vol- making something truly unique. unteer for a few hours a week. I was offered a job a couple days later and it felt like an opportunity that was too good to pass up. 4) Why do you do this job versus something else? What do you think I have been working here ever since. you are offering to society? At this point, even though chocolate manufacturing is not what 2) What is it about your job that you enjoy the most? I intended to do in my life, the excitement I receive from work- At this point Theo is only about 50 employees, which means that ing for a small, growing company is more than enough to keep you really get to feel the impact of your work. This can be both me at this job. I have seen huge changes here over the past few positive or negative but is always a great motivator. It is easy to years and can’t wait to see what happens next. Even jobs that see when you make mistakes but also easy to see the effects of may offer more pay, or fewer hours, could not offer the environ- your successes. Also, the small number of employees means that ment that Theo offers right now. I feel like I am a large part of you can be involved in anything that you put your energy into something that is growing and has the potential to be successful. whether it be developing new products, participating in events As far as social contribution, working for a company that have outside of work, or improving internal processes. social and environmental sustainability components in their mis- sion statement, helps keep me motivated to do a good job. What Theo is trying to do by empowering consumers with chocolate 3) Why do you choose to do your craft the way you do? knowledge, and helping farmers at origin is very rare in an industry that is traditionally not transparent on any level and not One of the interesting things about chocolate manufacturing in concerned with social and environmental issues. general is how few people are actually making chocolate from bean to bar. There are a small handful of manufactures that “ CHOCOLATE MANUFACTURING supply chocolate to the world. Being able to produce chocolate from bean to bar gives us so much more control over the type of chocolate we’d like to make. IS NOT WHAT I INTENDED TO ” For Theo in particular, we get the option of sourcing Organic and Fair Trade cocoa beans, something no other American chocolate maker is currently doing. DO WITH MY LIFE.24 25
  16. 16. GLOSSARY OF CHOCOLATE TERMINOLOGY A list of terms related to chocolate making and chocolate eating. Bittersweet Bittersweet chocolate, not to be confused with unsweetened or semisweet chocolate, is primarily used for baking. A slightly sweetened dark chocolate, it has many uses such as making shiny chocolate curls as garnishes or rich, dense chocolate cakes. Both it and semisweet chocolate are required by the U.S. FDA to contain at least 35% chocolate liquor. Cacao A term used for a cacao plant but also for the unprocessed product (pods) of the cacao plant. Chocolate Liquor Chocolate liquor is made up of the finely ground nib of the cocoa bean. This is technically not yet chocolate. This type of chocolate is also known as un- sweetened chocolate and is also referred to cocoa mass or cocoa liquor. Cocoa Beans Source of all chocolate and cocoa, cocoa beans are found in the pods (fruit) of the cocoa tree, an evergreen cultivated mainly within twenty degrees north or south of the equator. Cocoa Butter Cocoa butter is a complex, hard fat made up mostly of triglycerides, it re- mains firm at room temperature, then it contracts as it cools and solidifies. It is ideal for molding. Cocoa Pods Between the blossoms of the permanently flowering cocoa tree we can see fruit at various stages of development. The egg-shaped cocoa pods measure between 6 and 12 inches and hang from the trunk and the largest branches. Each fruit contains between 30 and 40 beans of about 1 cm (about 0.5 inch) in length.26 27
  17. 17. Cocoa Powder Nibs The result of extracting cocoa butter from cocoa paste. Cocoa powder is The kernels of coc0a beans are usually called ‘nibs’ and are the basic ingredi- used to prepare chocolate drinks or to sprinkle truffles and chocolate tarts. ent of which chocolate is made. Sometimes, nibs are used to add texture to chocolate bars or chocolate deserts. Conching Organic The processing step called ‘conching’ reduces the moistness of the cocoa The word ‘organic’ refers to how these food products are produced. Organic mass and removes the volatile acids. At the same time, this step allows for production is based on a system of farming that maintains and replen- specific aromas and smoothness to be associated with chocolate. Conching ishes the fertility of the soil. Organic foods are produced without the use is the process where the chocolate is “plowed” back and forth through the of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. They are processed without artificial liquid chocolate which smoothes the chocolate and rounds out the flavor, ingredients, preservatives or irradiation. Organic chocolate contains a mini- essential for the flavor, the texture and the overall quality of the chocolate. mum of 95% naturally grown and certified raw materials. Couverture Semisweet and Sweet Chocolate Couverture is a term used to describe professional-quality coating chocolate Prepared by blending chocolate liquid with varying amounts of sweetening with a high percentage of cocoa butter, at least 32%, and as high as 39% and added cocoa butter. Flavorings may be included. After processing, the for good quality couverture. The extra cocoa butter allows the chocolate to chocolate is cooled. Sweet chocolate is usually molded into bars. Semisweet form a thinner coating shell than non-couverture chocolate. chocolate is also available in bar form, but most popularly as pieces. This is the generic term. Different manufacturers use different names such as blocs, Dark Chocolate squares, bits, etc. Chocolate is also granulated and known as “shot,” used for decoration by candy makers and confectioners. Dark chocolate must contain a minimum of 43% cocoa to be called “dark” according to European norms. A “70% cocoa chocolate” is considered quite dark while 85% and even 88% cocoa dark chocolates have become quite Tempering popular for dark chocolate lovers. Tempering is the process of bringing the chocolate to a certain temperature whereby the cocoa butter reaches its most stable crystal form. There are several forms in which the butter can crystallize, only one of which ensures Lecithin the hardness, shrinking force and gloss of the finished product after it has A natural product extracted from the soy bean that is used as a thinner in cooled. If the chocolate is melted in the normal way (between 40 and 45°C) chocolate. During the manufacturing of chocolate, lecithin controls flow and then left to cool to working temperature, the finished product will not properties through the reduction of viscocity. be gloss. Proper tempering, followed by proper cooling produces a nice shine and good eating properties Milk Chocolate The best known kind of eating chocolate. Milk chocolate is made by combin- White Chocolate ing the chocolate liquid, extra cocoa butter, milk or cream, sweetening, and White chocolate is not considered real chocolate, because although it has flavorings. cocoa butter (at least 32% to be considered of good quality), it does not have chocolate liquor. White chocolate is made from cocoa butter, milk, sugar and vanilla. “ChocolateSource.com About Chocolate - Glossary.” The premier source for gourmet chocolate. Order Gourmet Chocolate on-line: Belgian, American and French, baking chocolate, truffles, gift box of Nirvana Chocolates, bars from Callebaut, Cote D’Or, Valrhona, Scharffen Berger, chocolate spread and many other items. <http://www. chocolatesource.com/glossary/>.28 29
  18. 18. INDEX OF CHOCOLATE MAKERS Ah Cacao Real Chocolate www.ahcacao.com Chocolates Fénix www.chocolatesfenix.com Grenada Chocolate Company www.grenadachocolate.com Malmö Chokladfabrik www.malmochokladfabrik.se Original Hawaiian Chocolate Company www.ohcf.us Pacari Chocolate www.pacarichocolate.com Red Star Chocolate www.redstarchocolate.co.uk SOMA Chocolatemaker www.somachocolate.com TCHO www.tcho.com Theo Chocolate www.theochocolate.com30 31