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  1. 1. Universidad central del ecuadorFacultad de filosofía letras y ciencia de la educación Carrera de idiomas Viviana Socasi 5to Semestre Francés
  2. 2. linguistics is a science that implies a serious and deep study of language. Lots of concepts on Linguistics haveit aims to demostrate how peoples have been given through time by linguists used, deal with and develop a lenguage PRELIMINAR according to their points of view, backgrounds, realities, scenarios, andday by day in order to face and overcome defferents socio_linguistic obstacles Y NOTIONS linguistic environments where they live in and are from Iinguistic is the scientific study of a language in general and of languages in particular dealing with their history, rreapProache5, grammar-rules. structure— syntax, sounds -phonology1 meaning systems —Semantics,
  3. 3. The word Linguistics was initially used in the middle ofthe 19th century to emphasize the difference between a Philology is a branch of Linguistics that studiesnewer approach to the study of language that was then language change and language relationshipdeveloping and the more traditional approach ofphilology. The differences were and are largely mattersof attitude ,emphasis, purpose, and approaches LINGUSTICS BACKGROUND Franz Boas (1858-Scholars such as Jacob Grimm (1 785-1 863), Franz Bopp 1942), in addition to being a sociocultural pioneer (1791-1867). and August Schleicher (1821-1868) had anthropologist, was also reconstructed what appeared to be the among the first to apply the comparative method to the Proto_IndO_Eur0pean language. study of Native American languages.
  4. 4. Other disciplines It studies how dialects differ between groups separated Sociolinguistics by certain socialvariables, such as: asethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age It’s a disciplinePsycholinguistics characteristics of indíviduals who select and interpret them It is also known as natural language processing. is a branch of artificial intelligence that deals with analyzing, understanding and generatíng the languages Computational that humans use naturally in order to interface with Linguistics computers in both written and spoken contexts using natural human languages intead of computer languages.
  5. 5. Anthropological Linguistics lt deals with the relation ship between language and culture lt focuses on the functions of language in our societies, especially : characterized by the deep Socio—Ethnic differences of class, ethnicity, gender and Linguistics generation in order to promote research into multilingual and muticultural wealth that allows us to advance in the building of intercultural citizenship It provides the theoretical and descriptiveApplied Linguistics foundations for the investigation and solution of (AL) language-related problems, especially those of language educations
  6. 6. CONTRASTIVE or COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS? Some terminological remark are neededCOMPARATIVE Originally Know as comparative LINGUISTICS philogy is a branch of historical or diachronic linguistics Certainly studies , analyzes, and compares two or moreCONTRASTIVE languages descriptively in order INGUISTICS to find out similarities and differences among them during the language learning process
  7. 7. FUNDAMENTALS FOR TEACHING CL Carl James states that CL is a relevant and rewarding study area for certain types of student CONTRASTIVE LLNGULSTICS SYLLABUS The exposition of CL proceeds level—by-level, and the traditional three levels :Lexis: (language, terminology: terms, expressions.)Sound: (utterances)Syntax: (grammar, sentence structure. language rules)
  8. 8. CONTRASTIVE PRAGMATICSit is “the study of the ability of natural language speakers tocommunicate more than that which is explicitly stated.The ability to understand another speaker’s intended meaningis called pragmatic competence METHODOLOGY OF CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICSThe fundamental technique of contrastive linguistics is tomatch up tolanguages by using a technique known as thecontrastive method. In principle, every difference or similaritybetween two or more related languages should be explicable interms of isolation or context analysis THE ROLE OF CORPORA It supplies references to descriptions of linguistic phenomenain the students’ mother tongueIt recognizesand usesthe IPA conventional registerIt develops listening decoding and transcription notation.It does transfer analysis among languages to bring into playcorrective phonology
  9. 9. LANGUAGE Languageis an arbitrary,’ structured system of utterances—sounds, gestures, signs, and movements, written symbols, morphemes, words and sentences used for human communication LANGUAGE LANGUAGE Languages Speakers 5 Important languages in theWorld area Persent Percent word:Asia 32.8% 61.0& 1 MandarinAfrica 30.3% 11.8% 2 hindiPacific 19.0% 0.1& 3 EnglishAmericas 14.5& 0.8% 4 ArebeEuropea 3.5& 23.3% 5 Spanish 100% 100%
  10. 10. BRIEF CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES VERBAL LANGUAGE Language family: It is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the proto –language of that family. Individual languages : It is a language as a whole from the same family . Extinct languages : They are the language that are no longer living. A language is listed as extinct if it has gone extinct in recen times . Dialect: Particular way of using a language regional and social. Indialect : It is individual as expressed by the way a person speak, voice quiality, Jargon: Use by people who work in a particular area or who have a particular interes . Eg. lawyer. Colloquialism: It is informal expression Slang: It is an informal use of the language is rude is non standar
  11. 11. BRIEF CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES NON VERBAL LANGUAGEIdeographic written Alphabetic written Syllabic written Use Sound Use symbols ideographip pronunciation, but syllable simbol use alphabetical by syllable Eg. Chinese symbol eg. Spanish and english letters
  12. 12. ARTICULATE LANGUAGE Writing systems Based on alphabets Foneting alphabets designed Utterances
  13. 13. English languageConsidered thid or fourth largest native language in the world It is spoken as a first language in the United States, India, Nigeria, United Kinddom ,Philippines,Canada,Australia,India,Ireland, new Zealand, south Africa
  14. 14. SPANISH LANGUAGE It is spoken as aSpanish belongs first language by about 352 million to the romance earliest people or branch of the by 417 million Spanish is the indo-european including second official language oflanguage family lamguage speakers. 22 countries
  15. 15. LANGUAGE INCONSISTENCIESIt is hte incompatibility, it is the quelity or state of being inconsistent lack ofconcordance with a structural patten, these inconsistences happen due to 1,2,3,. 1 The same letter or letter combination can refer to different sounds Spanish English FrançeCine [ sine ] GymnasiumCama [ káma ] [dʒɪmneɪzɪəm] Gynecology [gainəkalədʒɪ]
  16. 16. The same sounds can be written with diffrent 2 letters or letters combinationsSPANISH ENGLISH FRANÇEBonito Gypsy [ dʒɪpsɪ] Risquer [riske][ bo ni to ] Canjugate [ kandʒ ə get ] Kenya [kenja]Vacaciones[ ba ka θjo nes ]
  17. 17. Diffrent dialects pronounce the same worl 3 differently SPANISH ENGLISH FRANÇEMismo [mísmo] s.e- Milk [mɪlk ] britanico Crime [kRim]Mismo [míhmo] c.e Mik [məlk] ingles Crime [krim]
  18. 18. VOWEL CLUSTERS ORTHOGRAPHIES PHONEMICSPANISH <piedad> /pye’dad/ENGLISH <eat> /Iyt/FRANÇE <boat> /bowt/
  20. 20. INITIAL CLUSTERS /r/CCV a) /p,b,k,g,f,/ + /l/ b) /p,t,k,b,d,g,f/ + R sound E S FRccv SI SI SIcccv SI X SI
  21. 21. MEDIAL CLUSTERS S E FR VCCV SI SI SI VCCCV SI SI SI VCCCCV SI SI SI VCCCCCV X SI SIINTRASYLLABIC MEDIAL CLUSTER: INTRASYLLABIC MEDIAL CLUSTER: It isWhen it belongs to the second of the when once consonant of the cluster belongs totwo syllable pèaks between which they the first syllable and the other(s) to theappear as medial second, so syllable division occurs between the members
  23. 23. More specificallyand widely known as phonemics is the study of the system of phonemes of a language , although some conceptualize phonology as encompassing far more than sound segments PHONEMICS PHONETICS It studies the relevan, distinctive It is the study and description and significant elements in a of the speech sounds made bylanguage which are use to establich the human voicedifferebce in meaninig. The unit of Phonemics is thephoneme
  24. 24. THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABETH(IPA)This alphabet was proposed (IPA)and mainlyaccepted by Linguists, Phonetitians,LanguageTeachers and currently dictionary makers. Thisalpahbet was created by the InternationalPhonetic Association (Whose originalmembers were language teachers in France in1886. This association published officially thefirstVersion in 188. It has the acronym IPA
  25. 25. TRANSCRIPTION: It is a systems of notation that represents utterances or partial utterrances of a language pronounced by people in generalBROAD TRANSCRIPTION: Also PE DAGOGICAL HINTS: Marking stress in boothidentified as Phonemic Trascription, its monosyllabic and multisyllabic words issomethe notation that represent utterances of didactic advice for students to be able to use andlanguage by indicating only the significat pronounce properly thestressed syllables in words.and underlying sounds (phonemes) thatmake up a word NARROW TRANSCRIPTION: It is written between square brackets (phonetic bracket): []
  26. 26. SYMBOLS USED FOR TRASCRIPTIONStress mark It shows the following syllable is stressed. ´Angle brackets They are used to enclose the spelling of the orthographic < > notation.Slant brackets Phonemic trascriptionuses them. //Square brackets They are used arounddetailed phonetic trascription. []Vertical line It shows a pause in phonetic trascription.Division marker . It shows the boundaries between syllables.Diacritics It shows the variation in the vowel or consonant quality. Nasal or dark quality.