Lenga - grassland interaction (1)

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Introduction & Methodology
Some interesting results & conclusions have already arose and they will be uploaded in Slideshare as long as there is an interest -so please let me know (email) me if you're interested. Thanx.

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  • Síntesis discrepancia de usos Conectar intereses forestales, agrónomos: Conceal interests from forestry and agriculture Desarrollo y conservación
  • In Chile’s Aysén region, grazing in remnant forests is common practice but there is little empirical evidence of tree-grass interactions therein. Aimed at establishing the scientific basis for silvopastoral implementation, we examined the relationship between lenga cover and production and natural values.
  • Notlzofagus pun~ilio is one of the most widely distributed tree species in the temperate forests of South America and is found from 35"35' to 55'30's (Rodriguez et al. 1983; Donoso 1993), generally close to the Andean mountain range but also on the C ~ oastal ~ rang , e of ~ Chi f l e (D ~ onos ~ o 19 ~ 8 1, 1 l 993). Throughout most of this distribution, it constitutes the upper limit of the tree vegetation, together with N. antarctica (G. Forster) Oerst. (Donoso 1993; Wardle 1998). The altitudinal distribution is from 1300 to 2000m a.s.1. at 36's in mainland Chile (Donoso 1993), and from 0 to 700m in Tierra del Fuego (54"s) (Arroyo et al. 1996).
  • FROM Cuevas 2000. The most severe bottlenecks for tree recruitment within the forest appeared to be seedling emergence and seed production. Lenga is a winter deciduous species, monoecious, wind pollinated and wind dispersed (Rodriguez et al. 1983; Dollenz 1995). The species exhibits mast fruiting with peaks separated by 6-8 years (Mascarefio 1987; Schmidt et al. 1997). In Tierra del Fuego the fruits (triquetrous nuts) rarely containing more than one seed, are dispersed mainly between February and April, and lie dormant over winter before germinating by October (Cuevas & Arroyo 1999). suggest that seedlings only grow to reach the canopy when gaps are formed. There is no persistent seed bank in the soil (Cuevas & Arroyo 1999), although the seedling bank (Schmidt & Urzua 1982; Rebertus & Veblen 1993; Arroyo 1995) can persist for up to 25 years (Henriquez et al. 1997).
  • Major economic activity
  • Initiatives <<In Patagonia, where strong winds are a constraint to agricultural production, live windbreaks are often planted in agricultural fields to protect crops, livestock, and soils from wind hazards. (from Peri & Bloomberg 2002)>> SILVOCULTURE with pines
  • Eventually design
  • Satélite, terreno (unidad básica de estudio)
  • En cada frontera seleccionada se delimitará un transecto de 80x40 metros (40 m a cada lado de la línea de contacto entre ambos subsistemas) donde se realizarán todos los muestreos de campo. Esta área se considera suficientemente representativa de la expresión espacial de los procesos de transferencia de agua, materiales y semillas existentes entre ambos tipos de manchas . La parte del transecto correspondiente a la mancha de pradera (40x40 metros), será subdividida en 4 ‘parcelas de manejo’ de 40 m de largo y 10 m de ancho , orientadas desde el bosque hacia la pradera
  • *constituye mi trabajo de Tesis *está financiado por.. *implica dos años de experiencias de campo *se desarrolla en… campo propiedad de… **participan ingenieros… es el primero que impulsa el CIEP  un nuevo centro de investigación en la región de Aysén, que inicia sus actividades a partir del 2005. Está financiado por la Comisión Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conicyt) de Chile y el gobierno regional de Aysén. Participan en este Consorcio instituciones chilenas públicas (Universidad de Concepción, Universidad Austral de Chile e Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias-INIA) y privadas, así como instituciones extranjeras (Universidad de Montana-EEUU y Universidad de Siena-Italia)
  • Lenga - grassland interaction (1)

    1. 1. Lenga - grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction and Methodology Laura Sánchez Jardón Biologist, PhD candidate in Ecology Dpto. Ecología, Fac. Biología, Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain) Ph # +34 91 394 50 56, e-mail: [email_address]
    2. 2. Tree-grass interactions <ul><li>Savanna-like ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Trees in agriculture: AGROFORESTRY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest farming & cropping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windbreaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ripparian buffer strips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silvopastures: seminatural grasslands </li></ul></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (1/20) Scholes & Archer (1997) Ann. Rev. Ec. System .
    3. 3. Patagonia <ul><li>Argentina vs. Chile </li></ul><ul><li>Geology : Andes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic soils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENSO, SAM, PDO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation W – E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>steppe, forests </li></ul></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (2/20)
    4. 4. Western Patagonia (Chile) <ul><li>XI Aysén (44 - 47º S), XII Magallanes (47 - 56º S) </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation gradient W – E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 bioclimates : </li></ul></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (3/20) Western : Humid (evergreen forests) Transitional : Cold-temperate (shrublands, temp. forests) Eastern : Cold-semiarid (steppe) IREN-CORFO 1979; Quintanilla 1989; Amigo & Ramírez 1998
    5. 5. Western Patagonia (Chile): Evergreen forests (humid) Camino a Puerto Aysén , Comuna de Aysén Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (4/20)
    6. 6. Western Patagonia (Chile): Temperate forests and shrublands (cold-temperate) Ñirehuao , Comuna de Coyhaique Calafate ( Berberis buxifolia Lam.) Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (5/20)
    7. 7. Western Patagonia (Chile): Steppe (cold-semiard) Coirón ( Festuca gracillina ) Entrada a Chile desde Argentina, por Balmaceda Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (6/20)
    8. 8. Fires in Western Patagonia <ul><li>Extensive areas of primary forests have been transformed into grasslands in the early 1900s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XI Aysén: 1.9 to 3 M ha were burnt (1936-1956) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate forests in transitional zone: severely affected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loss of natural resources: soil, water, landscape </li></ul>Reserva Nacional Cerro Castillo , Comuna de Cerro Castillo Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (7/20)
    9. 9. Western Patagonia (Chile): Temperate forests <ul><li>Nothofagus pumilio </li></ul><ul><li>(Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser –“lenga” </li></ul><ul><li>Most diverse climate & soil conditions (35º to 56º S) </li></ul><ul><li>Most abundant in Patagonia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure stands at lower altitudes in the trasitional zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure stands at the treeline </li></ul></ul>Veblen & Schlegel 1982; Donoso 1993; Arroyo et al. 1996; Wardle 1998 Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (8/20)
    10. 10. Nothofagus pumilio “lenga” <ul><li>Fam. Nothofagaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>Wind pollinated, dispersed </li></ul><ul><li>Mast fruiting 6-8 years </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps: seedling bank </li></ul><ul><li>Low undercanopy vegetation </li></ul>Schmidt & Urzua, 1982; Arroyo, 1995; Cuevas 2000 Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (9/20)
    11. 11. Western Patagonia (Chile): Socio-economic frame <ul><li>Farming and Forestry Antagonism </li></ul><ul><li>Extotic tree plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Actual silvopastoralism </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions </li></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (10/20)
    12. 12. Western Patagonia (Chile): Actual silvopastoralism Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (11/20)
    13. 13. Western Patagonia (Chile): Trees in agriculture <ul><li>Exotic species (widbreaks, agroforestry) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinus spp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Populus spp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salix spp. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Native species (agroforestry) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ñirre ( Nothofagus antactica ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenga? </li></ul></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (12/20)
    14. 14. Objectives <ul><li>Tree-grass interactions between remnant lenga forests and seminatural grasslands [ Scientific ] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edge effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy & matter flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silvopastoral management system [ Application ] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concealing Farming & Forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development & Conservation goals </li></ul></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (13/20)
    15. 15. Measures outline <ul><li>Tree cover effects on physical env. & herb. biomass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassland productivity & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassland diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed bank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Side measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… New projects </li></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (15/20)
    16. 16. Methodology <ul><li>What? – Aboveground herbaceous biomass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(productivity, species composition, diversity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where? – experimental field INIA Tamel Aike </li></ul><ul><li>When? – Growing seasons 2006-07, 2007-08 </li></ul><ul><li>How? – Environmental gradients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree cover gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance to the forest gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… and controlled stocking rate </li></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (16/20)
    17. 17. Experimental field INIA Tamel Aike <ul><li>Valle Simpson, Coyhaique County </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional bioclimatic zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation: 590 m.a.s.l. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temperature: 8º C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual precipitation: 994 mm </li></ul></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (17/20)
    18. 18. Tree cover gradient (a) 15 plots ranging in tree cover Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (18/20) 0% 1-30% 30-70% 70-85% >85% 20 m 20 m Beneath and beyond tree crowns
    19. 19. Distance to the forest <ul><li>Permanent exclusion (d) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilized (s) </li></ul><ul><li>Control (n) </li></ul>(b) 4 blocks across the forest edge Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (19/20) - 40 - 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 n s d 40m 40m 30m
    20. 20. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complutense University of Madrid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundación Biodiversidad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universidad de Talca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centro Investigación de los Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP) </li></ul></ul>Lenga-grassland ecotone: (I) Introduction & Methodology –by Laura Sánchez Jardón, July 2009 (20/20)

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