BACKGROUND <ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1887 , the Indochina peninsula was a French colony . Today it is formed by Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (former Burma) and Thailand . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1940 – France was under Nazi dominance and allowed Japan to access North Vietnam, facilitating also China’s entry into that territory. </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – Japan occupied Indochina progressively until this year, when it lost its control after the defeat in the WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>End of WWII – France controlled again Indochina’s territory. </li></ul><ul><li>1950 – Viet Minh, a communist organization from North Vietnam that fought for the independence, established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam under the governance of the communist leader Ho Chi Minh. </li></ul><ul><li>1954 – France was defeated at Dien Bien Phu battle. Victory for Viet Minh. </li></ul>
BACKGROUND <ul><li>Geneva Conference (1954) – Division of Vietnam: NORTH – Communism supported by the USSR; its first President was Ho Chi Minh. SOUTH - Republic of Vietnam supported by the USA; its first President was Ngo Dinh Diem. The war between both is about to begin. </li></ul>
Desire of reunification from North Vietnam Refusal to the reunification from the South side. The Vietcong was the military arm of the National Liberation Front (NLF), created by the North Vietnamese communists to escalate the armed struggle in South Vietnam. War breakout 1956 Referendum for reunification was cancelled. CAUSE OF THE WAR
The USA’s purpose Stop the expansion of communism NATO Marshall Plan Truman Doctrine INTERVENTION OF THE USA The USA got involved in the war.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WAR Characteristics It is the first and only defeat of the US army. A long war: aprox. 20 years. Usage of massive bombs on the civil. Chemical war (orange agent). Cruelty with the prisoners from the other side. American Helicopters during the war There was no front line -> Guerrilla warfare
PHASES OF THE WAR <ul><li>1st phase – Guerrilla Phase (1957-1964). </li></ul><ul><li>US’s President Eisenhower began giving economic and military assistance to the South Vietnamese to stop elections for reunification. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1960 , the NFL was created -> Vietcong. It received men and supplies from North Vietnam through the Ho Chi Minh Trail. </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-guerrilla efforts (allied forces) were far to defeat the guerrillas. </li></ul><ul><li>The south side lost lands year by year </li></ul><ul><li>1961-63 , There’s no direct intervention from the USA, whose president was John F. Kennedy. Only advisors were sent. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1963 , Diem was overthrown in a military coup. </li></ul><ul><li>1964 : Gulf of Tonkin Incident </li></ul>
PHASES OF THE WAR <ul><li>2nd phase – Gradual escalation (1965-1967). </li></ul><ul><li>The war took a new dimension. The USA assumes a new role. President Johnson raised American strength in 125,000 men. Troops were also sent by South Korea, Australia and New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>The communists responded too, they increased their forces. China and the Soviet Union supplied equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Intense fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>1967-68 : Tet offensive . </li></ul>
PHASES OF THE WAR <ul><li>3rd phase – Final phase (1968-1975). </li></ul><ul><li>Peace talks. Until communists launched another offensive in Tet holidays (1969) </li></ul><ul><li>1969 : “Vietnamization” from R. Nixon. </li></ul><ul><li>1970 : US troops began leaving Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>1971 : Extended war in Indochina: South Vietnamese forces invaded Laos to cut off Communists infiltration. </li></ul><ul><li>1972 : North Vietnamese launched a large-scale offensive into the south, and occupied much territory. </li></ul><ul><li>1973 : US troops are totally retired. Paris Peace Agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>1975 : North Vietnam’s victory. Unconditional surrender from the south side. Formal unification occurred in 1976. </li></ul>
Political consequences Unfavorable image internationally and within its own country, because of the intervention in a foreign conflict and the cruelty of the tactics. Its defeat damages “ The Manifest Destiny ”, a theory that was used to designate the belief that the USA was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. EFFECTS IN THE USA
Economical consequences Factories that would have been producing consumer goods were being used to make items for the war. EFFECTS IN THE USA Military expenditures, combined with domestic social spending, created budget deficits which fueled inflation. Interest rates rose, restricting the amount of capital available for businesses and consumers. Funds were not returning to the country -> Weak dollar. No consumer confidence
Social consequences Hippie Movement Internal opposition Violent crashes between students and the police. Addiction to drugs. American soldiers were affected by the orange agent. Vietnam Syndrome 58.209 dead 303.635 wounded 1948 missed EFFECTS IN THE USA Universities as stages.
Political consequences. Country reunification by the communist regime. EFFECTS IN VIETNAM
Social, economical and environmental consequences. 70 % of the Infrastructure was shattered Forests were destroyed Deeply damaged crops Mass exodus to cities Orange Agent Premature abortions Sterility Malformations 830.000 dead 900.000 wounded EFFECTS IN VIETNAM
Consequences A cruel image of the USA was adopted Guerrilla warfare was the protagonist Laos and Cambodia came under communist rule. EFFECTS IN THE WORLD
VIETNAM TODAY <ul><li>“ Doi Moi " (renovation) policy in 1986 : economic liberalization and structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam's exports to the US increased 900% from 2001 to 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>2007: Vietnam joined the WTO. </li></ul><ul><li>2008 , Vietnam assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008-09 term. </li></ul><ul><li>GDP - Composition by sector: Agriculture : 22% (paddy rice, coffee, rubber, cotton, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; seafood ). Industry : 39.9% ( food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, paper) . Services : 38.1% (2008 est.) </li></ul>
“ Mankind must put an end to war , or war will put an end to mankind.” “ El hombre tiene que establecer un final para la guerra. Si no, la guerra establecerá un final para la humanidad.” John Fitzgerald Kennedy