1. What is hacking?
2. Types of Hackers
3. Difference between Hackers and
4. Criminological theories
5. Academic Studies
• Definition: A hacker or hackers are commonly known as
someone who seeks to exploit weaknesses within
a computer system or network. Hackers can be
associated as a community that works together to
attack a computer or network.
Short Definition: To gain access to (a computer file or network)
illegally or without authorization. (The Free
Look at the word cloud below and see if you can identify any meanings
towards the words.
Towards the end of topic 1 the words cloud will help you to associate meanings and
theories to these words.
• The definition of a hacker has been in a long
strand of controversy about what a true hacker
definitions really is and why an individual or
community decide to attack specific
“Despite, decades of computer security
research, billions spent on secure operations, and
growing training requirements, we seem incapable
of operating computer securely.” („The
Cybersecurity Risk‟, 2012).
A hacker has to understand computers to an advanced
level. However, it is important to note that there are two
types of hackers ethical and unethical: • A ethical hacker is paid by an organisation to identify a
weaknesses within their computer network.
• A unethical hacker hacks into a system to steal or view
information on purpose.
To understand more about
Hackers and the various types
Please watch the go animate
“Groups of Hackers”.
Go Animate material provided on Moodle „Groups of Hackers‟: Hackers Hat (Black) – GoAnimate Scene 1
Hackers Hat (White) – GoAnimate Scene 2
Hackers Hat (Grey) – GoAnimate Scene 3
The title hacker is given to anyone breaking into a
computer. However, professional in the industry argue that
there should be two terms hackers and crackers.
Computer criminals are often seen as committing a
cybercrime through breaking into someone's computer or
computer network known as committing a criminal offence
commonly known as – „Black Hat‟. These types of people
should be called CRACKERS!
Instead of someone known as a computer security expert –
„White Hat‟. These types of people should be called
Below is some criminological theories presented in hackers research. Please take
note of some of these theories and in your own time research them in more depth.
Zhengchaun, QIing and Chenghong (2013, p66) 'Why Computer Talents Become
Below is some academic studies presented on hackers research. Please take note
of some of these studies and in your own time research them in more depth.
Zhengchaun, QIing and Chenghong (2013, p67) 'Why Computer Talents Become Computer
When each section of the material has been read please take
time out and go back onto the Moodle course and locate the
link called „Topic 1 – Hackers Journal‟ .
Direct Link: - http://moodle2.newman.ac.uk/1314/mod/journal/view.php?id=109778
Please write down what you have learnt from this PowerPoint
and continue to reflect back on your journal every time a
material has been read in Moodle. This will ultimately help
you to complete your assessment at the end of the course.
Akers, R.L. (1947) Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Gibbs, J.P. (1975) Crime, Punishment, and Deterrence. New York: Elsevier.
GoAnimate (2013) „GoAnimate‟. Available at: http://goanimate.com/ (Accessed: 27 November 2013).
Gottfredson, M. and Hirschi, T. A. (1990) General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford university Press.
Green, D.P. and Shapiro, I. (1994) Pathologies of rational Choice theory: a Critique of applications in Political
science. London: Yale university Press.
Moore, R (2005). Cybercrime: Investigating High Technology Computer Crime.. Oxford: Elsevier
No Author (2012) 'The Cybersecurity Risk„ , Communications Of The ACM, 55 (6), pp. 29-32, Business Source
Elite, EBSCOhost. Available at:
http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=851bf209-3d2b-49e5-b7e571823223d0b1%40sessionmgr198&vid=7&hid=126 (Accessed: 27 November 2013).
Sykes, G.M. and Matza, D. (1957) Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. American Sociological
Review 22 (6), pp. 664–670, JSTOR. Available at:
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2089195?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103007919401 (Accessed: 27 November
The Free Dictionary (2013) Hacking. Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/hacking (Accessed: 27
Zhengchuan, X, Qing, H, & Chenghong, Z. (2013) 'Why Computer Talents Become Computer
Hackers', Communications Of The ACM, 56 (4), pp. 64-74, Business Source Elite, EBSCOhost. Available at:
497819 (Accessed: 27 November 2013).