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Mobile Multi-hop Data Gathering Mechanisms in WSN Networks...
In some existing work, the transmission range of an omnidi–rectional antenna was simply assumed to be a disk–shaped area around the transceiver.
Based on this assumption, given a point in the plane, the neighbor set of this point consists of all sensors within the disk–shaped area around this point.
However, due to the uncertainties of a wireless environment, such as signal fading, reflection from walls and obstacles, and interference, it is hard to
estimate the boundary of the transmission range without real measurement [42], [43]. Therefore, in practice, it is almost impossible to obtain the
neighbor set of an unknown point, unless the M–collector has moved to this point and tested wireless links between it and its one–hop neighbors, or...
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Thus, all wireless links between sensors and the M–collector at the candidate polling points are bidirectionally tested. In addition, each sensor can also
discover its one–hop neighbors by broadcasting the "Hello" messages during the neighbor discovering phase. After the sensor reports the IDs of its
one–hop neighbors to the M–collector by including the information into the "ACK" message, the position of the sensor can also become a candidate
polling point. In Fig. 1, we illustrate the definition of polling points, neighbor set, and candidate polling point set by an example, where there are four
sensors s1, s2, s3, and s4 deployed at positions l1, l2, l3, and l4, respectively. During the exploration phase, the M–collector discovers the neighbor sets
of l5 and l6 by broadcasting "Hello" messages at these points. Thus, l5 and l6 can be added into the candidate polling point set. Since sensors s1, s2, s3,
and s4 also report their one–hop neighbors to the M–collector by sending "ACK" to the M–collector, l1, l2, l3, and l4 also become candi–date polling
points. In Fig. 1, if there is a wireless link between sensor si and position lj , we say that si belongs to the neighbor set of lj , where si в€€ {s1, s2, s3,
s4} and lj в€€ {l1, l2, . . . , l6}. Thus, candidate polling point set L = {l1, l2, . . . , l6}; neighbor sets of
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Circuit Switching Essay
1.a)The Circuit switched network has its advantages that would be more appropriate to use in this situation. Circuit switching allows the use of a
Transmission link to be pre–determined. this would allow the long session to be reserved as opposed to packet switching which does not reserve
resources which can result in waiting for access for a communication link. Packet switching also takes apart the packets one by one which would take
more time to arrive at its destination as unforeseen delays may occur. 1.b) In the worst case, all the applications simultaneously transmit over one or
more network links. However, since each link has sufficient bandwidth to handle the sum of all of the applications' data rates, no congestion (very little
queuing) will occur. Given such generous link capacities, the... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
They are set up in different ways which both has its advantages and disadvantages. In the client server model, the clients tend to be computers or
devices that connect to the server which refers to machines that stores resources that can be used by clients. It must be noted that the clients are
dependent on the server as it is the central location where the data is shared and in terms of security, there is one user account and password that is
needed to access the shared resources. In terms of performance, upgrades can be made to the server to cope with high demand. Backups are done on
the main server. In the peer to peer model, data is shared amongst all the computers connected within the network as there is no central server. Due to
the lack of central control, security and the network itself is left vulnerable. The computers within the network are dependent on one another, thus if
the machines are slow for some reason, a domino effect will occur. Due to the lack of a central server, each computer has to be backed up
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Malicious Detection And Detection System
MALICIOUS DETECTION IN MANET USING ENHANCED ADAPTIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT C.VINODHINI Mr.S.Sakthivel Dept.name of
org:ME(AE),dept of ECE Dept.name of org:AP,dept of ECE Vivekanandha College Of Vivekanandha College Of Engineering For Women Engineering
For Women City,Country:Elayampalayam,India City,Country:namakkal,India vinoblossom@gmail.com sakthiece@gmail.com ABSTRACT: Wireless
communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. Node works as both
transmitter and a receiver and in which MANET does not require a fixed network infrastructure.Within the communication range,the nodes can
communicate with each other.MANET made popular in military use and emergency recovery.In this paper a new approach for intrusion and detection
system named EEACK is proposed. Both of the TWOACK and Watchdog methods are considered as the first line of defense and it is not sufficient to
protect MANETs from packet dropping attacks. EAACK provide higher malicious–behaviordetection rates in certain circumstances while does not
greatly affect the network performances. This paper proposes a mechanism for a novel IDS named EAACK protocol specially designed for MANETs
and compared it against other popular mechanisms in different scenarios through simulations and migration
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Improving HTTP Performance Using Stateless TCP
Improving HTTP Performance Using "Stateless" TCP In this paper a server side approach is made which can reduce processing load per
connection. The advantages of running web servers over a basic transport protocol that is similar to TCP are studied here. The stateless TCP for
HTTP decreases the kernel resources required per TCP connection. So it increases the number of client initiated HTTP connections per second.
Stateless TCP modifications decreases the server's CPU usage and other TCP memory requirements. This helps to serve small webpages under
overloaded situations. Two Algorithms (David A Hayes, Improving http performance using stateless tcp, 2011) are mentioned that show the basic
operation of stateless TCP, one for incoming packets and one for outgoing packets from server. These include few rules to react to incoming control
packets and also information to deal with application data. Algorithm 1: incoming Every TCP packet is captured which arrives at port 80 and
following operations are performed, 1.If it's a TCP SYN packet, send back a TCP SYN/ACK 2.If TCP DATA packet a)Store ack number and start
timer b)Send TCP ACK packet back to sender, correct sequence and ack number c)Send TCP payload to server via UDP socket 3.If a TCP FIN
packet,send back TCP FIN/RST/ACK and delete data and timer stored at 2a 4.If none of above drop the packet Algorithm 2: outgoing Event 1: On a
local UDP socket send a request on port 80 and perform these 1.Check if source and
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Traffic Control And Congestion Control Essay
1. Increasing the router memory to infinite cannot control the congestion. Agree or disagree? Elaborate briefly (60–100 words) Why is it true that route
with infinite memory does try to minimize congestion, this can simply get out of control and get worse if the rate of incoming packets is far more than
the outgoing packet and especially if more incoming packet from multiple input line arriving at any given router need the same output channel. This
build up a queue and before other packet reach the beginning of the queue they have already timeout prompting re–submission of duplicates building up
the queue again leading to more congestion. A lot of other factors are in play here, among these include router CPU and bandwidth. 2. Compare the
following: Flow Control vs Congestion Control Congestion control basically states that a network device can transmit only a certain number of
packets and can not add more packets to a network until an acknowledgement is received. Congestion control prevents too much data from being
injected into the network, causing links and switches to be overloaded Flow control works by refusing new connections until congestion is resolved.
In serial transmissions, Xon/Xoff is used for flow control. It is a handshaking mechanism that will keep a sender from sending data faster than a
receiver can receive it. flow control prevents senders from overrunning the capacity of the receivers Open loop congestion control methods vs Closed
Loop congestion
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Willem Van Aelst
After reading my peers' interpretation of the still life by Willem Van Aelst, I came to the decision that most of the student's responses weren't what the
artist envisioned the viewer's to see. We all acknowledged similar features, but we were all shown how incorrect we were in Thursday's class discussion.
Each of us observed similar aspects in the painting. The central features that were pointed out were the objects of the blue, velvet bag, the ivory horn,
and the various birds. The blue bag was where I concentrated on when I observed the painting as a whole. I feel that its color really stood out
compared to the rest of the painting. The bag formed a contrast with the background as well as the prominent, white, bird in the center of the ... Show
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The carving then became apparent as I focused intensively towards the outer regions of the painting. It represented three naked women, viewed from
behind, in the outside world. In between the straps, of the hunting bag, lies a tree which contributes to the wilderness scene. This then poses the
questions as to who are these women and why are they here? In class, it was then added that the woman looked like Greek women based off of the
common known statues of Greek individuals. That being suggested, the class then made the assumption that the women in the carving of the marble
table could be Artemis, the goddess of the wilderness and hunt. This is very likely as Artemis pertains to the entire scene being portrayed: the aftermath
of a hunt. Another way that the carving can be tied to Artemis, is through the story of Artemis and Acateon. In this myth, Acateon is a hunter and is
wandering in to the forest when he sees Artemis bathing. In retaliation, she transforms Acateon into a deer and his hunting dogs rip him apart. This
painting would be an accurate display to have in a house where someone hunts. For the piece represents the activity that whomever loves to do so
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Assignment 1.2 Explain The CIA Triad
Homework 1 CS 696 2. Explain the CIA triad. For each part of the triad, outline attacks on a database and possible protections The CIA triad lists the
security requirements for preserving and communicating information over networks. According to Leon–Garcia and Widjaia (2014), these requirement
include: Confidentiality and Privacy of information, which indicate that the information is only readable and reachable by the intended recipient.
Integrity which insures that the information has not been altered during transmission. Availability which aim to guarantee the accessibility of
information to authorized users and/or applications only. There are several attacks that target databases as a sensitive source of data. According to
Schulman's article (2015) "Top 10 Database Attacks", some of these attacks uses existing vulnerability in the underlying platform, database... Show
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All of which can be used to determine the host original MAC. 8– Identify a VoIP application that uses SIP "Skype Connect" uses SIP username for
authentication, authorization and accounting "Linphone" also uses SIP protocol 9– Identify a VoIP application that does not use SIP. Skype uses
peer–to–peer authentication not the client–server model used in SIP 10– What is the TCP triple–handshake and how can it be used in attack? Which
leg of the CIA triad would this attach fall under? The TCP triple handshake is a method used by the TCP to establish a connection between the
communicating pair. In more details, the client sends a SYN segment as a request to establish the connection. Then, the server replies with a SYN
/ACK segment acknowledging and approving the client request. Finally, the client acknowledge the server's approval with an ACK segment before
they start exchanging
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Long Walk To Water Theme
"A Long Walk to Water" by Linda Sue Park. I think in this book the theme is survival. I know this because in Salva's story he is just trying to stay
alive in the war. This is also the theme in Nya's story because she fetches water every day just so she and her family doesn't die both characters
exemplify the theme of survival as they fight through the story. Nya South Sudan 2006–2009 conflicts water, food and war. On page 33 it says "Her
mother was afraid that the men in her tribe would run into Dinka tribesmen," this mean that they would die if that happened this supports the theme
because they could end up dead to. On page one it it tells us that Nya has to fetch water every day they might die and that is not surviving. On page 33
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Hackers: Transmission Control Protocol and Protocol...
Week 4 Lab Part 1: Network Traffic Analysis and Baseline Definition & Secure WLAN Solution Part A Assignment Requirements Watch the
Demo Lab in Learning Space Unit 7 and then answer questions 1–10 below. 1. Which tool is better at performing protocol captures and which tool is
better at performing protocol analysis? The best tool for protocol captures is Wireshark. The best tool for protocol analysis is Netwitness. 2. What is
promiscuous mode and how does this allow tcpdump, Wireshark, and Netwitness Investigator to perform protocol capture off a live network?... Show
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They would want to see both internal and external LAN segments because they have to be able to implement solid security practices, perform in
depth risk analysis, configure proper access rights and permissions, secure data, and recognize methods used to attack resources, perform security
audits, and develop a BCP. Part B Assignment Requirements Answer the following questions based on the packet capture that precedes them. You
may research any of these on the Internet if you need to do so. 15:40:19.571032 IP 192.168.2.62.44389 > 192.168.2.104.22: S
1273007928:1273007928(0) win 5840 <mss 1460, sackOK, timestamp 885 0, nop, wscale 6> 15:40:19.571720 IP 192.168.2.104.22 >
192.168.2.62.44389: S 1312754191:1312754191(0) ack 1273007929 win 5792 <mss 1460, sackOK, timestamp 107351 885, nop, wscale 6>
15:40:19.571812 IP 192.168.2.62.44389 > 192.168.2.104.22: . ack 1 win 92 <nop, nop,timestamp 886 107351> 15:40:19.604635 IP
192.168.2.104.22 > 192.168.2.62.44389: P 1:40(39) ack 1 win 91 <nop, nop, timestamp 107361 886> 15:40:19.611687 IP
192.168.2.62.44389 > 192.168.2.104.22: . ack 40 win 92 <nop,nop,timestamp 898 107361> 15:40:19.612844 IP 192.168.2.62.44389 >
192.168.2.104.22: P 1:40(39) ack 40 win 92 <nop, nop, timestamp 898
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Detecting and Responding to Malicious Misbehavior in...
INTRODUCTION Owing to the developed technology and cheap prices, wireless networks have increased more preferences over wired networks in
the previous few decades.Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is agroup of mobile nodes armed with both a wirelesstransmitter and a receiver that
connect with each othervia bidirectional wireless links either directly or indirectly.One of themajor benefits of wireless networks is it allows data to be
communicated between different parties and still maintaintheir movement. The main factor in this type of communication is range of transmitters.That
is the node which is outside the range of one node cannot communicate with the other node which is outside its range.This difficulty in MANET is
resolved by letting... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In areas where wired infrastructure is not possible MANETS can be easily deployed. Theyare free from any fixed infrastructureor base stations.Base
stations are absent and each and every node in the MANET network co–operate in forwarding packets in the network. II EXISTING SYSTEM IDS in
MANETs Each node in MANETs accept that other nodescontinuouslywork together with each other to transmit data.If MANET can detectthe
attackers immediately as they enter the network, we will beable to completely eradicate the possiblecompensationsproduced bycompromised nodes
at the first time. In this section, we mainly describe three existing Approaches namely, 1) Watchdog, 2) TWOACK, and3) Adaptive
ACKnowledgment (AACK) A)WATCHDOG Watchdog is a technique used for intrusion detection in Mobile ad hoc networks.There is no any
fixed infrastructure for MANETs.Each node in multihop MANET forwards the packets to the next node and so the battery power, CPU time and
memory are used up. From a pool of nodes in MANET some nodes are unwilling to forward the nodes to the next node. Such kinds of nodes are
called the Selfish Nodes. Selfish nodes are unwilling to forward the packets in order to save their battery power, memory and CPU time.As, a selfish
node will not cooperate in the transmission of packets which affects the network performance very badly. Watchdog detects this kind of selfish nodes in
the mobile adhoc networks. Collaborative watchdog
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A Long Walk To Water By Linda Sue Park
The book A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park gives a fascinating story of a real life personal journey. Slava, the main character, was born and
for 11 years raised in Sudan in 1985 during the civil war. Slava was a member of a successful family, Slava's father was the village judge and
owned many cattle. Slava was able to go to school, that was not common in Sudan. Slava was at school , his village was under attack and he
needed to leave to get safety behind a bush so he would not be hurt , Slava ran to a bush get safety. That dash was the call to Slava's personal
journey. Slava would have venture through three (Sudan,Ethiopia,Kenya) countries , without his family and on foot . The character Slava in a
Long walk to water was changed by his personal journey, he had to be independent, not having his family disrupted his daily life style, and was
compelled to help the people of Sudan Slava was disrupted from his daily life and his journey began. Slava in his village was a privileged boy. Slava
father is the village Judge and owned many head of cattle. "He owned many head of cattle and worked as their village judge an–honored, respected
position (Page 2 A Long walk to water) ." Slava was able to go to school that was not very common in Sudan. This book takes place during the
Sudanese Civil War in 1985. The war... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Slava had to go through many hardship without his family. Slava had his daily life changed and the call to the personal journey was what the
book was about and what his journey was . Slava had to become more independent without his family. Slava went to America and his life was
changed. Slava in a A Long Walk to Water was changed by his personal journey. The journey would ultimately lead Slava back to meet with family
in South Sudan. A journey as we learned with Slava will be hard a times and will lead to a reward. For Slava it was to find his family. Slava did change
and impacted by his
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Five Key Individuals Who Assisted Essay
"The Intervention"
Five key individuals who assisted in the intervention:
1. Mary the superior of Jan.
Mary appeared to be on board with the intervention. Jan called Mary as her husband requested, for the day off, by Jan's spouse. Mary provided Jan the
day off and continued to be very secretive about the intervention.
The preparation intervention Mary was asked to speak first, at the real intervention. Jan sat next to Mary on arrivals. Mary held Jan's hand and a very
calm, soft soothing way. Spoke of the specific events that made Mary worried, falling asleep at her desk, the birthday, and a day in July. Jan listened
and did not leave the room.
2. Jeff the son–in–law
Jeff Clarified to Jan how Kim felt at home. He gave specifics Kim was angry and has a huge amount of sorrow about the alcohol, and Kim has many
tears fall. Jeff also, went on to rational thoughts about bringing the baby over to the house. He explained in a very compassionate manner that Kim and
I both did not want it to be the same as the birthday. Jan looked surprised at what Jeff had believed. The thoughts that he spoke about Kim, appeared to
impact Jan. Jan stayed and continued to listen.
3. Sue and Jim, the neighbors
Sue held it together when Jan confronted her drinking. Sue agreed she may have a problem too, however Sue brings it back to Jan in a very tranquil
manner. The husband Jim did not speak, but was supportive and perhaps thought of his own drinking.
4. Kim the daughter At first she
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My Serving Society Project : Dr. Dunn
So for my Serving Society project I got the wonderful chance to be a part of the Sanare Ministry, which goes around to some of the local old folks
homes and puts on a mini concert for the residents. I truly enjoyed the experience in more ways than one! I think one of my absolute favorite things
was seeing their faces light up watching the performances. In Dr. Dunn's article she spoke about how it is a hard thing for many people to truly SEE
others and for feeling guilty when we can't do anything to help their suffering. I can definitely understand how not being able to physically do
anything to help can feel like you are failing them as a fellow human being. Every time I drive by someone who is begging for money or food, I
always feel devastated when I am unable to do something to help them. Whether it's the fact that I don't have any cash on me or that the cash I do have
is for something else and is technically my mother's money.
I always try to help when I can, but it is still not as often as I would like. However, I have learned that sometimes even if you can't help them by
giving them money of food, if you just stop to talk with them and acknowledge their presence and existence it makes them so happy. Just like in Dunn's
lecture when she tells about how they attended a Sunday worship service during their time in Gutuletu and the guest speaker asked everyone to turn
and to see the people standing near them, and everyone looked at the students, making them feel seen! To
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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hadoop Distributed File...
Chapter 7
IMPLEMENTATION
The implementation phase of the project is where the detailed design is actually transformed into working code. Aim of the phase is to translate the
design into a best possible solution in a suitable programming language. This chapter covers the implementation aspects of the project, giving details of
the programming language and development environment used. It also gives an overview of the core modules of the project with their step by step flow.
The implementation stage requires the following tasks.
Planning has to be done carefully.
Examination of system and the constraints.
Design of methods.
Evaluation of the method.
Correct decisions regarding selection of the platform.
Appropriate language selection ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The file system that manages the storage across network of machines is called distributed file systems. Hadoop mainly comes with the distributed file
system called HDFS (Hadoop distributed file system).
HDFS Design: The HDFS file system is designed for storing files which are very large means files that are hundreds of megabytes, gigabytes and
terabytes in size, with streaming data access patterns, running on commodity hardware clusters. HDFS has a idea of write once read many times
pattern. A dataset is typically generated or copied from the source and various analyses are performed on that dataset. And hadoop does not need
expensive hardware. It is designed to run on commodity hardware.
7.1.1 Basic Architecture of HDFS
Figure 7.1.1 shows the basic architecture of NS2. NS2 provides users with executable command ns which take on input argument, the name of a Tcl
simulation scripting file. Users are feeding the name of a Tcl simulation script (which sets up a simulation) as an input argument of an NS2 executable
command ns. In most cases, a simulation trace file is created, and is used to plot graph and/or to create animation. Fig 7.1.1: Basic Architecture of
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Persuasive Essay On Climate Change
Climate change has been gaining momentum for some time now and it has become popular enough to start mass debates. Climate scientists are
pushing as hard as they can to spread awareness and it has become a topic of interest because of the way it can affect all of us. In this introduction of
the book, Climate Change: What It Means For Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren, Joseph F. C. DiMento and Pamela Doughman try to convince
the general public that understanding climate change is crucial and although climate change may seem challenging to grasp, it is understandable with
some effort. As a hook, the authors begin with subclaims supporting the two main parts of the main claim, climate change is important to understand
and it is understandable, to allow the reader to know what content will be shared by the book. The subclaims are supported effectively by evidences
referring to factual data and alluding to popular culture relevant to the audience. Even the conflicting viewpoints are acknowledged and analyzed to
show why the author's perspective is more logical.
Subclaims are effectively used to explain and support the two parts of the main claim, one of which states climate change is important to understand
and the other stating climate change is difficult to understand but it can be understood. The authors justified their claims by stating climate change will
affect us and the future generations (1), climate change is more than often not taken seriously and is not
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NETW202 W3 Lab Report Template 1
Your Name NETW202, Professor's Name Current Date Lab #3 Lab Report Section I: Watch the videos on the UTP cabling, read your course
material and answer the questions below. Add in graphics from the internet to enhance your answers and be sure to cite your references. (Each
question is worth 1 point each) 1.What is meant by the term "pinout"? 2.What are the following cable types used for and how are they made? How
are they different? Crossover cable Rollover cable Straight through cable 3. What are the 568A and 568B termination color code standards? What are
the 568A and 568B pinout standards? This is confusing terminology so how are they different? 4. How many conductors or wires are there in a UTP
cable? How many pairs? 5.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
11. Examine the stream of frames are there any significant differences in the times during the back and forth between the client and the server?
12. How many duplicate ACKs are there for stream index 0? What filter did you use to search for the dup acks? Show a screen shot of your filter
and results for full credit. Add in your screen shot here. 13. How many of these are between the client and the server? 14. Does this indicate a
problem in the network? Yes or no? How do you justify your answer? SECTION IV: ( 2 points) Using the 100 Tips for Wireshark document from
Laura Chappell, outline your favorite 2 tips and outline when and how you would use them to troubleshoot a network problem. Write at least 3
sentences on each tip you select to profile. Each outline is worth1 points each. 1. TIP 1 2. TIP 2 SECTION V: Looking at security with wireshark. (3
points) After looking at information regarding capturing packets with wireshark. Write a short paragraph about what you see in this example. What
does this tell you about password security in general? How does this profile what an unauthorized person using wireshark could
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Paper
This paper addresses the question: can unnatural amino acids be successfully incorporated into the mouse genome in a temporally and spatially
specific manner? Han and his associates claim that (1) they have developed a system for incorporation of unnatural amino acid incorporation, (2) the
acetylation they induce is spatially and temporally specific, and (3) that this technology will allow researchers to develop better in vivo studies of
how cellular proteins affect physiology and disease. In this review, I will contest all three claims. Specifically, I will show that claims 1 and 2 are only
qualitatively true: there is no proof that these things happen on a quantitative scale which is relevant for modeling disease, and that there are... Show
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The work minimally advances the field. Briefly, it shows that unnatural amino acid incorporation is possible in mice. However, it does not do this in a
model system which is interesting to study. The introduction mildly alludes to the fact that aberrant or unconventional amino acid acetylation can lead
to cancer, but there is no follow up to see if the epigenetic changes which they induce are prevalent enough to cause a change in phenotype. If the
purpose of this technology is to model diseases related to epigenetic changes and to see how we might counteract these changes, then that should be
part of the proof–of–concept work included in the article. To demonstrate the feasibility of unnatural amino acid incorporation in a mammalian system,
the researchers first perform work in cultured cells. Basically, they inserted a vector with the modified tRNA synthetase into first human (HEK293T)
cells, and then mouse cells (NIH3T3). The expression of the plasmid vector is dependent on human elongation factor 1, an endogenous protein. Another
vector was transformed into the cells containing the sequence for a recombinant GFP protein with the unnatural, acetylated amino acid at position 39.
The GFPuv, as it's called, will only be expressed if the tRNA synthetase recognizes the amber codon (codon which usually causes a stop in
transcription) in the protein and appropriately adds
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Seven Layers in the OSI Model
1. This class made me learn quite a lot. Though it was a course I have done in my under graduate, this class helped me to learn more about the
networking. The class was interactive and fun, the lab sessions were very helpful. The project was one of the best parts of the whole course. It
made me look into and study about various new protocols in networking and finally I could get an idea on how I could design a protocol by
myself. The most important thing I learnt in this class is the detailed functions and uses of every later in the OSI model, and I also realized that
TCP is the most important protocol of all that I learnt. It is very reliable and provides acknowledgement, and is a full duplex process. It provides
congestion control and flow control and is also a connection oriented service. On an overall this class made me learn a lot that would always be
very helpful to me. 2. The seven Layers in the OSI model are Physical Layer, Link Layer, Network Layer, Transport Layer, Session Layer,
Application Layer and the presentation Layer. Each layer has a specific function to perform and consist of different protocols. Physical layer is the
lowest one and handles transmission and reception of messages over the medium. Then comes the link layer , it allows error free transmission of the
data frames in the physical layer. The network layer takes care of processes like routing, traffic control and fragmentation of the data. The next one is
the transport layer, it takes care of the
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What Are The Potential Barriers To Equality And Inclusion
1.2 – Analyse the potential effects of barriers to equality and inclusion in own area of responsibility
Due to the amount of practices that can be sourced to implement into the working environment there are a number of barriers that can occur, these can
be put into categories:
Personal
These barriers relate to individuals having differing personalities, if someone has lack of self–esteem or poor interpersonal interactions and
communication it can affect the way they treat others. They may be unaware of how to support someone with needs that are new to them or struggle to
identify resources needed to support a client. If staff are unable to provide information to the residents or carry out tasks they may need additional
training to gather greater knowledge on equality, diversity and inclusion; when staff are unable to acknowledge differences it can mean that individuals
are discriminated against unintentionally. This would then have an impact on relationships and rapport built between staff and clients and discourage
the residents to work with the staff if they believe they are not being understood or their needs are not being met, this can have further impact on their
mental health and wellbeing, therefore it is crucial that staff and management work alongside residents and their families or friends to ensure that their
voice is heard especially when considering person centred care, as many vulnerable adults may not have the capacity to challenge discrimination.
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Types of Computer Networks
Networks can be broadly classified into two types: 1. Wired networks 2. Wireless networks Some of the drawbacks of the wired networks had brought
the "wireless networks" into the picture. Wireless operations permit services, such as long–range communications, that are impossible or impractical to
implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio
transmitters and receivers, remote controls etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. waves, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the
use of wires.[1] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Increased uses of laptop computers within the
enterprise, and increase in worker mobility have fuelled the demand for wireless networks. Up until recently, wireless technology was a patchwork
of incompatible systems from a variety of vendors. The technology was slow, expensive and reserved for mobile situations or hostile environments
where cabling was impractical or impossible. With the maturing of industry standards and the deployment of lightweight wireless networking
hardware across a broad market section, wireless technology has come of age. Wireless networks consist of network nodes which makes use of radio
communication for the wireless data transmissions. This execution is carried out at the physical layer of the OSI model. The wireless networks have a
wide range of advantages:
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Nt1310 Unit 7 Study Guide
Voice and video chat, written chat, file sharing and remote control. 1. Broadcast applications where numerous people want to download the same
already existing file. 2. Streaming video applications where numerous people want to see the same show at same time, the information is being
newly generated in real time 3. Applications where a function to be performed can be broken into simultaneous tasks, such as calculating prime
numbers 4. Applications where various of machines can be doled out for each to do a task e.g every processing a single file Consider an e–business
site that needs to keep a buy record for each of its clients. Depict how this can be done with cookies. a) File Distribution b) Instant Messaging c) Video
Streaming d) Distributed... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Suppose this station suddenly wants to transmit 1,000 bytes of data, and all other stations are idle at this time. As a function of SIFS and DIFS, and
ignoring propagation delay and assuming no bit errors, calculate the time required to transmit the frame and receive the acknowledgment. A frame
without data is 32 bytes long. Assuming a transmission rate of 11 Mbps, the time to transmit a control frame (such as RTS frame, a CTS frame, or an
ACK frame) is (256 bits)/(11 Mbps) = 23 Вµsec. The time required to transmit the data frame is (8256 bits)/(11 Mbps) = 751 Вµsec. DIFS + RTS +
SIFS + CTS + SIFS + FRAME + SIFS + ACK = DIFS + 3 SIFS + (3 В· 23 + 751) Вµsec = DIFS + 3 SIFS + 820 Вµsec. OR A frame without data is 32
bytes long. Transmission rate of 11 Mbps, the time to transmit a control frame (such as an RTS frame, a CTS frame, or an ACK frame) is (256 bits)/(11
Mbps) = 23
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What Is The Importance Of A Network?
4.3Motivation
Energy dissipation reduction:In WSNs, energy efficiency is a key design issue that needs to beenhanced in order to improve the life span of the
network. The proposed protocol (EEHCBF)is able to route data efficiently in terms of energy.
Load balance and node distribution: Most of the routing protocols that opts Cluster head architecture, don't consider even distribution of nodes under
cluster. For example, one clusterhead have 10 nodes and other cluster head have only two nodes. The energy of the cluster head with 10 nodes, will
drained fastly as compared to the cluster head with two nodes only. The design of EEHCBF protocol considersthe feature of evenly distribution of the
nodes under cluster head.
Base Station ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
More precisely, as it is explained later on, the choice of the cluster heads in EEHCBF protocol is based on the residual energy as well as the
maximum number of neighbors of the nodes. That is to say, the member of each cluster having the highest residual energy and maximum no of
neibhbors is the one selected as the cluster head. The cluster heads which are close enough to the base station have the ability to communicate directly
with the base station with reasonable power consumption. These cluster heads are considered to be the highest level cluster heads. Similarly, cluster
heads which are located far away from the base station are considered to be lower level cluster heads.
4.4Terminology Used
The terminology used to explain the routing protocol and the elements implemented on it are described here to make easy to follow the detailed
description provided in the following sections.
START is the message used by base station. Initially the Base station will broadcast this message to allsensor nodes present in field to indicate that all
nodes present should start the task.
HELLO is message which gets broadcast by all nodes after receiving START message, in order to find their neighbors. This HELLO message will
reach to those nodes only that are within range of that node.
REPLY is the message send by a node when it receives HELLO message. This message contain the node id. After receving the REPLY message, each
node makes it
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Essay on Love Can Blossom in Unlikely Places
Love can blossom in unlikely places... After a tragic day years ago, Enya Harper was left to pick up the pieces and move on with her life – but she has
not, she shut herself from the world and vowed never to love again. A couple of miles away, Matt Sawyer is looking only for work, nothing more.
His life is already complicated, with a past that won't go away. Enya is a top of the notch doctor – everyone wants to be her and if lucky work with her.
She has everything; the career she longed for since she was a teen, loving parents and friends. Like a flower in spring, she blossomed,throughout the
years – earning good grades in her exams and earning a residency in the most acclaimed hospital in the area. During her practise, she met the one...
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This threw Matt back. He ended up in prison for breaking and entering. After serving his time – he realized that he was throwing away his life. He
started seeing a counsellor who helped him deal with all his issues growing up as a child up until his recent brush with the law. He was trying to be a
new person. After Matt got on his feet, he found a job opening as a hospital receptionist – the same hospital Enya worked at. Despite his appalling past,
he got the position. At first, they did not even acknowledge each other – a hospital is not the kind of place to meet new people. Matt sees how empty
Enya appears. He decides to talk to her. Following her on her way to surgery made him look like a stalker. Enya is now aware of Matt's presence. He,
too seems faint. It looks like that even by looking at one another, they find refuge. Like it is meant to be, they started talking to each other, without any
hesitation. They are both misfits – she – a woman who could not find her way back after being left alone and ran away from her problems by
dissolving in her work, and him– hitting rock bottom, thinking substance use was a solution to deal with abandonment issues. Their friendship started
with just a smile at work as they passed each other. Then, they started to eat together during their break. They decided to take their meetings outside of
their work place. Each day they met, they were drawn more closer to each other. Their love was pure, but it
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Why Does Morrie Agree With His Family
How is Morrie's family important to him? Morrie believes that without the love and support from his family, he wouldn't have much importance in his
life, "Love each other or perish," said Morrie. He thinks that without his family, he may not be able to keep fighting through this rough time in his life.
Morrie's family is important to him because they're always there for him, provide him with love and they watch over him. He states that family
provides him with such an important that can't find found elsewhere. Also, Morrie believes that having children provided him with a unique
experience. He mentions that having kids made him learn how to bond and love in the deepest way possible. 2. According to Morrie, why is family
important.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Firstly, one thing I noticed was that he was trying to get the message across about how all it takes sometimes to make another person's life better is
to simply acknowledge them and to show them that you care. This was shown by him talking about the woman in the mental hospital who would
go and lay on the floor all day while everyone walked past her; not even bothering to acknowledge her existence. When Morrie acknowledged her,
she stopped doing this. Also, Morrie mentions how he befriended patients at the mental hospital. This shows that when making friends, people who
appear to be different should never be pushed aside as someone who doesn't have the capability of being befriended. Everyone around the world has
the same capability of caring for one another and for being friends with each other, no matter what difference may appear to set them aside from what
is declared as normal within our society. In addition, Morrie states that humans just want to feel like they matter when talking about a situation he dealt
with in the past with protesting students. This is a very true statement that we can learn from because a lot of the time, people take pride in doing
things that they feel like have made an impact in some sort of
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Reflective Essay On Anne Frank
The holocaust took place from January 30, 1933 – May 8, 1945. This event changed American history forever. Thousands of people died, including the
Frank family. Anne Frank once said, "In spite of everything, I still believe people are really good at heart." Anne and her family had to go through a
lot of tough times during the holocaust, but I agree with Anne, people are still good at heart. Reading this book, I noticed that there are a lot of kind
hearted actions in this book. I am agreeing with Anne and her actions are what prove this quote right. However, I could see where some may
disagree. People like Mr. Van Daan and Mr. Dussel, have actions or ways they speak, that are very rude.
There are many actions that I could use as proof of Anne ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Van Daan. On page 96 and 97 there is an example of Mr. Van Daans cruel behavior:
Mrs. V. Daan: No! No! No! Don't you dare take that. You hear? It's mine. My father gave me that. You didn't give it to me. You have no right. Let go
of it – you hear? Mr. V. Daan: Just a little– discussion over the advisability of selling this coat. As I have often reminded Mrs. Van Daan, it's very
selfish of her to keep it when people outside are in such desperate need of clothing. So if you will please sell it for us? It should fetch a good price.
And, by the way, will you get me cigarettes? I don't care what kind they are – get all you can.
To me this is very rude, he is selling one of Mrs. Van Daan's most prized possessions. This coat means alot to Mrs. Van Daan, and he is selling it,
for what, cigarettes. He does not think of anyone other than himself, and is very selfish. He is getting something for himself, that he doesn't even
need. Mrs.Van Daan is crushed that he is doing this, and he doesn't even bother to acknowledge her sadness. As I just acknowledged Mr. Van Daan's
terrible and insensitive behavior, I still side with Anne. Everyone makes mistakes, and everyone messes up, but people will always be good at heart.
No matter what, people can bounce back and prove their kindness, that is why I still side with
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Tribute Table Convention Analysis
Tribute Table Convention 2018 ACK Letter updates
First time donors opening line: Thank you for being part of our Kappa family! We welcome you and are extremely thankful for your first–time gift to
the Kappa Kappa Gamma Foundation.
Paragraph 1: for official family only Tribute Table Convention 2018 gifts
In Kappa, we are family and we're giving love. We are thankful for amazing Kappa volunteers like you who share their time and treasure to support
Kappa Kappa Gamma. We are grateful for your recent gift (–– removed HTML ––) to the [title that matches distribution code] to pay tribute to the
amazing experiences you've had in Kappa and to elevate your sisters. Your gift will enable the Foundation to enrich the lives of collegians and alumnae
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Project Paper On Datagrams
First of all, in the project, I cannot use any transport protocol libraries, such as TCP. Therefore, I construct the packets and acknowledgements, and
interpret the incoming packets by myself. A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet–switched network. Datagrams are typically
structured in header and payload sections. Datagrams provide a connectionless communication service across a packet–switched network. The delivery,
arrival time, and order of arrival of datagrams need not be guaranteed by the network. subsection{Design the packet format} Like in Project 1 I need
to design fields for packet type, ACK number, window size, data etc. Each byte of data sent as in a TCP connection has an associated sequence number.
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if send is called twice with data sizes 1000 and 2000 then two packets will be sent of sizes 1000 and 2000 (assuming the MTU size for the network is
large enough). If send is called with a data size larger than the MTU value, the packet will be fragmented. When the remote host calls receive twice
with sizes 100 and 150, the first call will return the first 100 bytes of the 1000 byte packet and throw away the last 900 bytes. The second call will
return the first 150 bytes of the 2000 byte packet and throw away the last 1850 bytes. The client on either side of a TCP session maintains a 32–bit
sequence number it uses to keep track of how much data it has sent. This sequence number is included on each transmitted packet, and acknowledged
by the opposite host as an acknowledgement number to inform the sending host that the transmitted data was received successfully. When a host
initiates a TCP session, its initial sequence number is effectively random; it may be any value between 0 and 4,294,967,295, inclusive. However,
protocol analyzers like Wireshark will typically display relative sequence and acknowledgement numbers in place of the actual values. These numbers
are relative to the initial sequence number of that stream. This is handy, as it is much easier to keep track of relatively small, predictable numbers
rather than the actual numbers sent on the wire. section{ different configurations of netem} Network emulation
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Essay on assessment 3
1. Name two signs you would look for to let you know Vara is ready to end counselling.
During the session Vara says that she has spoken to Alec about her feelings and has agreed to have a three month trail separation, and that they are
considering an option of seeing a marriage counsellor are the two sighs that would indicate her expectations and goals are met and I would consider
that Vara is ready to end the counselling process.
2. Briefly describe how you would support Vara's sense of autonomy.
By focussing on her strengths and her past achievements to give her the confidence and motivation and by summarising to Vara and by acknowledging
to her that she as achieved her set goal I would support Vara's sense of autonomy.
3. Briefly ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
6. Provide an example of one of your session client notes.
Client Record Form
Name : – Vara
DOB:–
Date of Session:–
28/08/2014
Session No:– 8
Session Duration:– 45 minutes
Summary of issues: – came to Australia 25 years ago, fulltime mother now children grown up and left house, husband Alec in control of finances and
has ferocious temper, feeling unhappy and trapped in marriage, fed up and wants to end marriage, secretly working part time for the past year as
translator, wants to live her own life, and visit her children/grandchildren when she wants to, but clings to familiar routine and security of current
married life, fearful of Alec's reaction and worried if she can manage on her own, but still loves Alec.
Experiments or Task:–
Session Notes: – Vara has spoken to Alec and they have decided to have a three month trail separation, Alec was moved and said he loved her and
had no idea that she was not happy, possibility of seeing a marriage counsellor, Vara is moving with her friend Julie for the three months, looking to
increase working hours as translator.
Approaches and/or Interventions Used: Provided Vara with a list of marriage counsellors around the area, and requested
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Attitudes About Their Metacognitive And Emotional...
Previously prepared interview questions were designed to investigate in greater depth students' beliefs about their metacognitive and emotional
regulatory abilities. These were now augmented with further questions suggested by questionnaire responses at the 'extreme' ends of their scales.
Students selected for interview were 'extreme' responders in this sense. Discourse analysis was used to qualitatively analyse the interviews.
Immediately, the first theme that occurred was that those who responded extremely strongly agree (SA), tended to refer to internal regulation,
identifying their level of control over thoughts, feelings and behaviours whilst those who extremely strongly disagree (SD) referred to external
regulation; mainly the... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
However, those extreme SA focussed much more on the content and subject of the class Question three: All participants stated that they were
better behaved in classes that they enjoyed but extreme SA where much more detailed in their explanations stating "behaved as expected", "be
polite and kind" and "focus much more" as opposed to extreme SD who tended to give one word answered "good" and "focused" Question four:
There was a clear divide within this question across participants, extreme SD stated that they didn 't feel they could express themselves; however
this was said to be due to "certain teachers" or "being ignored". On the other hand, two extreme SA said they felt they could express themselves
whilst one said sometimes. However, the main difference was that extreme SA acknowledge that it was not a clear cut yes or no, but in fact it
depended on the context. More importantly they acknowledged that when they did feel as if they could not express themselves it was due to internal
factors such as "pressure". KJ stated that if they did feel as if they could not express themselves they would find the appropriate time to do so whilst
JF stated that they may feel like that if
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Team Member Duties : Neeraj Kumar ( Team Leader )
Team Member Duties
Neeraj Kumar (Team Leader)
пѓ Selecting and understanding the concept based on the past research experience on sensor database networks and distributed programming.
пѓ Strategic plan design on weekly basis helped in completion of project.
пѓ Implementation of leader election algorithm.
пѓ Dividing and assigning the task based on the team members interest area and capabilities.
пѓ Managing the whole project with full cooperation with all team members with good team communication.
Satish Ekambaram
пѓ Drafting the whole paper with APA format.
пѓ Deep research on the value and need of the leader election algorithm in mobile ad hoc network.
пѓ Finding out the real applications implementing the leader election algorithm.
Srikanth Bommana
пѓ Good research on the history related topic with the whole project.
пѓ Research on what the mobile ad hoc network and its need and evolution.
пѓ Finding out the very brief and good conclusion of the whole project. Abstract
Technology advancement is growing very rapidly one example we can see surrounding us is wireless networks and its related very complex
applications such as sensor database network, robotics military and so on. At the starting point following paper represents about the mobile ad hoc
network and related basic history. After that research paper explores the problems related with the current technology and major drawbacks. Later paper
shows the need of the leader election algorithm and its implementation. At the end it
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Analysis Of Linda Sue Park's A Long Walk To Water
Imagine living in a world of poverty, not having much water, and food being scarce. Along with that your government is being attacked and you
are separated from your family. A Long Walk to Water is a true story, Written by Linda Sue Park. Linda is an American author that writes mostly
teen fiction. She has written a total of 9 books including Long Walk to Water. The events that occurred in A Long Walk to Water would be
horrifying for anyone. Living in a country during war can be hard for anyone,, it can change your future in a big way. Salva's childhood was a
normal life, any other eleven year old's life in south Sudan would be composed of mostly the same events. Salva worked for his mother most of his
day. Travelling many miles to the closest pond of water they had. Salva would make two trips there a day. He went to school unlike most of the kids
because his dad was an important person and he made a lot of money allowing... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Into the bush, not home. Unfortunately Salva couldn't find his parents. He thought, "Where are we going? Where is my family" (Park 7). He ran until
he couldn't run anymore, then he walked. Salva was walking with other people. He walked until the sun went down. After they stopped walking and it
was night time. Everybody decided they would group each other with their villages. Eventually Salva heard his village name, "The village of
Loun–Ariik, here!" (Park 9). He found his village! Once he visually found them there were about twelve people in his group. Salva looked at
everyone from his village, none of them were his family. They spent the night at a road. Once morning came they started walking again. While they
were walking the Rebels saw them, came up to them and forced all of the men to come with them. All that was left were women and children. That
night they slept in a barn they found. Salva woke up in the morning and everybody was gone, he thought, "Nobody else was in the barn...Nobody,
nothing"(Park
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Problems With Optimization Of Tcp Protocol
ABSTRACT This paper is concerned with optimization of TCP since 2.5G and 3G services are available to public users and mobile clients
accessing the Internet using TCP/IP is increasing. It highlights the features of 2.5G and 3G networks and its deployment. It also offers
recommendations on appropriate TCP algorithms for nodes known to be starting or ending on such paths.However TCP was originally designed for
use in wired networks which differ a lot from the wireless networks.The technical mechanisms recommended in this document are available in
modern TCP stacks, and considered safe for use by a growing community of users. 1.0INTRODUCTION 2g systems are commonly refered to as
second generation networks and have initiated exponential growth in the number of wireless network from 1990s when digital voice encoding
replaced analog systems (1G). Second Generation 2G circuit switched systems are based on various radio technologies including frequency, code and
time division multiple access. Examples are 2G systems GSM (Europe), PDC (Japan), and IS–95 (USA). The data links provided by 2G systems are
mostly circuit–switched and have transmission speeds of 10–20 kbps uplink and downlink. An overwhelming demand for higher data rates resulted in
the introduction of 2.5g which incresed availability and curtailed some challenges such as lack of radio spectrum allocated for 2G. 3G systems provide
both packet–switched and circuit–switched connectivity in order to address the
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Rikki Tavi From The Jungle Book
The children's story, Rikki Tikki Tavi is from the Jungle Books, Volume 2, by Rudyard Kipling. The story is about a mongoose that got washed up
and was found by a little boy named Teddy. The little boy and his family had a garden where two cobras lived. Throughout the story Rikki Tikki Tavi
tries to fight the cobras to keep them from hurting the people that live there. At certain times Rikki Tikki behaved in a manner toward other animals
that was disrespectful and not like his normal character. During the nights Rikki Tikki would do a walk around the house. One night he found a
muskrat named Chuchundra. The both of them talked and at one point Chuchundra started to say something but stopped in fear that the cobra Nag was
listening. Rikki Tikki
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Essay On Pcb
IEEE 802.1Qbb (PFC) is a Ethernet flow control mechanism proposed in 2008 cite{barrass2008proposal}. PFC employs eight virtual channels with
eight different priorities. For each priority, PFC uses IEEE 802.3 PAUSE frame cite{barrass2007definition} to prevent packets loss, and the PAUSE
action in a VC does not affect the flows with other priorities. As shown in Fig. ref{PFC}, in the VC with priority–1, queue length exceeds the
threshold, and the switch sends back a pause frame to the upstream switch. When receives a PAUSE frame, the P1 timer specifies how long the traffic
should be paused, and the switch pauses the transmission of the flow of corresponding priority. there are eight timers controlling the pausing time for
eight priority... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
When receives the RM sell, the source starts to throttle the injection rate. b)BECN The Backward explicit congestion notification (BECN)
cite{newman1993backward}cite{newman1994traffic} is different from FECN. Instead of returning RM cell by the destination–end, the congestion
information is directly sent back to the source by the congested point (switch). As shown in Fig. ref{BECN}, when the queue of a virtual channel
exceeds a fixed threshold, the switch will directly send BECN cells to the source that contribute to the congestion. On each receiving of a BECN cell,
the source reduces the sending rate of the specific virtual channel. If no BECN cell arrives on the throttled virtual channel for a time period, the
sending rate will be gradually regained. c)TCP–ECN The ECN mechanism for TCP/IP protocol cite{floyd1994tcp}cite{ramakrishnan1998proposal},
TCP–ECN for short, is an end–to–end congestion control scheme deployed on layer 3 and layer 4. TCP–ECN employs Random Early Detection
(RED) mechanism to mark the congested packet with textit{Congestion Experienced} (CE) bit, which is carried in packet's IP header. And the
end–host enables ECN–Capable TCP (ECT) bit in the packet header to support the ECN mechanism. Fig. ref{TCP–ECN} illustrates the working
process of TCP–ECN. When the queue length exceeds a fixed threshold, the router will use RED to set the CE bit in the packet header instead of
dropping the packet, and
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Advantages And Disadvantages Of MPTCP
Abstract: Headway of usage of remote advances in tablets and compact terminals, which are outfitted with a couple framework interfaces, has offered
customers to misuse from multi–homing to get the opportunity to network benefits wherever, at a point and from any framework. Advantage with
multi homed host is that a segment of the action from more congested ways can be moved to less congested way. In this paper we consider about
Multipath TCP (MPTCP), which encounters the degradation of good put inside seeing changing framework conditions on the open sub streams due to
out–of–demand got groups. Purpose behind degradation is the considerable assortment of end–to–end defer for various courses over remote channels.
To diminish the assortment of... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
1 shows a multi–home circumstance where a Mobile device is related with both Base Station and Access point through its various interfaces. MPTCP
works commendably for multi–homed phones to in the meantime pass on TCP packages over various ways and pool the open information exchange
limit together. Despite the way that MPTCP has a prevalent available throughput for the upper layer, there is as yet another questionable issue realized
by out–of–solicitations bundles. Throughput addresses the general getting point of confinement of powerful bundle movement over various ways.
Regardless, it is extraordinary put that mirrors the certified application–level throughput, which is the measure of accommodating data available to the
recipient application per time unit. Specifically, all together packages got at the vehicle layer can be sent to the application layer and implied
extraordinary put. Most recent review [7] gave CWA a proactive scheduler for wired correspondence. This review show that MPTCP extraordinary put
is close perfect when the end–to end deferments of two transmission ways are close. However these review exhibit that it requires a significant
measure of venture to reorder packs at getting end. Some later work in 2012 tries to improve incredible put for MPTCP, by using framework coding [2]
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The Drama, The Diary Of Anne Frank
"We used to have heavenly times... we'd finish up with ice cream at the Delphi or Oasis, where Jews were allowed..." The drama, The Diary of
Anne Frank, by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett is about a young girl and her experiences during the Holocaust. It explains both the
occurrences happening inside and outside of the characters secret Annex. The drama reflects the historical events surrounding the characters in a
different light than what would usually be seen in things including textbooks or pieces of informative writing. Dialogue is one of the pieces
reflecting large events that are happening all over the world in a smaller point of view. One such example, on page 122, is, "His name is Dirk, and
Miep's afraid the Nazis will ship him off... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Simultaneously, they allow readers to comprehend the large effects the events had on small people's lives. For instance, on page 185 it states, "They
realize that what they feared has happened... There is a sound of violent pounding on the door below." These directions show the collection of Jews
wasn't gentle or calm, but violent and terrifying. They gave the opportunity to experience what it might have been like to be going through the same
thing they did. Consequently, it gives life to the dull happenings one would read about in an informative piece of writing. Not to mention another
paradigm on page 136, "In the distance we hear the sound of ack–ack." Ack–ack is 1940's slang for an anti–aircraft gun's fire. This particular stage
direction means many things including the fact that war was a constant in many people's lives and eventually they got used to it. It also signifies the
air raids happening all over Europe from opposing forces. The stage directions in this drama help understand the personal struggles and feelings of
actual people that lived during the time of the Holocaust and suffered its
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DHCP: Highly Implemented Network Protocol
DHCP is one of the most commonly implemented network protocols in the world which is used to assign IP addresses to the clients automatically.
DHCP reduces work of network Administrator from going to each and every workstation in the network to assign IP address. In addition, DHCP
reduces IP addresses conflict issue. DHCP protocol uses 4 different packets that are exchanged between client and server to assign an IP address
automatically. In order to examine DHCP packets, Wireshark will be used.
The conversation between DHCP client and DHCP server to get an IP address automatically completes by exchanging four packets. These packets are
DHCP Discover
DHCP DISCOVER – Workstation broadcasts DHCP DISCOVER message on power–up.
1.DHCP DISCOVER ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Request may include: DNS servers, time servers, and boot files. When workstation receives DHCP OFFER, workstation accepts 172.16.225.190 as its
IP address and replies to server with DHCP REQUEST message. This packet tells the DHCP server that his offer of the IP address has been accepted.
Transaction ID value is the same as DHCP DISCOVERY and DHCP OFFER because it identifies DHCP set of packets from each other. Source address
is 0.0.0.0. It means that still IP is not assigned to workstation yet. Destination IP address is 255.255.255.255 which indicates that DHCP REQUEST is
also broadcasted. Requested IP address is 172.16.225.190 which was offered in DHCP OFFER packet by server.
DHCP ACK
DHCP ACK– When workstation receives DHCP REQUEST message requesting for the offered IP address, it looks into the DHCP pool to confirm
that the offered IP address is still available. If IP address is still available in the pool, server replies with DHCP ACK packet to the workstation to
confirm the lease length and other parameters.
Assigned IP address is 172.16.225.190
Renewal time value is 6 hours, after expiration of this period of time lease will be
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Naoto In Detective Prince
From the outside, Naoto seems cool, calm, and collected. At times she can come off as cold or unemotional, but only because, despite her small stature,
she attempts to put on the air of someone much more mature than her age. Through this demeanor (and while masquerading as a male), she earned the
title of "Detective Prince," and was a consultant of the police, although she also often worked on her own. Even with this exterior, however, it's easier
to illicit an emotional reaction out of Naoto than it first appears. This is especially true when dealing with a case, or when someone close to her is
being threatened. Despite her serious appearance, she can act quite childish and narrow–minded at times.
Her work and her job is one of her driving forces; her parents were both detectives, and died during an investigation when she was young. Partly out of
adoration and partly to find her place, she started training soon after the accident to become a detective and continue the Shirogane line. It's no small
matter; Naoto is a workaholic. Although she works as a consultant for the police, she is also often on her own, and will fall just short of doing anything
to solve a case. When it became obvious that the police had arrested the wrong suspect in the Inaba murders, Naoto acts as a decoy (and the next
victim) by readily ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This acceptance that she strives for has two dimensions; she both wants to be accepted and respected in the workplace, and accepted by her peers as a
friend. In the workplace, she was (and still is) very rarely taken seriously because of her age, despite her accomplishments. However, at the end of her
social link, she vows to keep working cases and trying harder so that she'll one day be
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College Vs Highschool Research Paper
What similarities and differences can be identified between college and Highschool? Similarities and differences between the two institutions can be
observed through the amount of class work, interactions between the student and faculty, social interactions, and the amount of time in class. There is a
higher demand for class work in High school than in college. In one class at a college, you may have and average of 6 to 8 assignments the whole
semester whereas a high school course may ask for upwards of thirty assignments or more. These amount effects an individual's GPA significantly.
This is because having multiple assignments ack as a safety net whereas one F on an assignment in college may drop your grade from an A to a C
with little or
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Mobile Multi-Hop Data Gathering Mechanisms In WSN Networks...

  • 1. Mobile Multi-hop Data Gathering Mechanisms in WSN Networks... In some existing work, the transmission range of an omnidi–rectional antenna was simply assumed to be a disk–shaped area around the transceiver. Based on this assumption, given a point in the plane, the neighbor set of this point consists of all sensors within the disk–shaped area around this point. However, due to the uncertainties of a wireless environment, such as signal fading, reflection from walls and obstacles, and interference, it is hard to estimate the boundary of the transmission range without real measurement [42], [43]. Therefore, in practice, it is almost impossible to obtain the neighbor set of an unknown point, unless the M–collector has moved to this point and tested wireless links between it and its one–hop neighbors, or... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Thus, all wireless links between sensors and the M–collector at the candidate polling points are bidirectionally tested. In addition, each sensor can also discover its one–hop neighbors by broadcasting the "Hello" messages during the neighbor discovering phase. After the sensor reports the IDs of its one–hop neighbors to the M–collector by including the information into the "ACK" message, the position of the sensor can also become a candidate polling point. In Fig. 1, we illustrate the definition of polling points, neighbor set, and candidate polling point set by an example, where there are four sensors s1, s2, s3, and s4 deployed at positions l1, l2, l3, and l4, respectively. During the exploration phase, the M–collector discovers the neighbor sets of l5 and l6 by broadcasting "Hello" messages at these points. Thus, l5 and l6 can be added into the candidate polling point set. Since sensors s1, s2, s3, and s4 also report their one–hop neighbors to the M–collector by sending "ACK" to the M–collector, l1, l2, l3, and l4 also become candi–date polling points. In Fig. 1, if there is a wireless link between sensor si and position lj , we say that si belongs to the neighbor set of lj , where si в€€ {s1, s2, s3, s4} and lj в€€ {l1, l2, . . . , l6}. Thus, candidate polling point set L = {l1, l2, . . . , l6}; neighbor sets of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2. Circuit Switching Essay 1.a)The Circuit switched network has its advantages that would be more appropriate to use in this situation. Circuit switching allows the use of a Transmission link to be pre–determined. this would allow the long session to be reserved as opposed to packet switching which does not reserve resources which can result in waiting for access for a communication link. Packet switching also takes apart the packets one by one which would take more time to arrive at its destination as unforeseen delays may occur. 1.b) In the worst case, all the applications simultaneously transmit over one or more network links. However, since each link has sufficient bandwidth to handle the sum of all of the applications' data rates, no congestion (very little queuing) will occur. Given such generous link capacities, the... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They are set up in different ways which both has its advantages and disadvantages. In the client server model, the clients tend to be computers or devices that connect to the server which refers to machines that stores resources that can be used by clients. It must be noted that the clients are dependent on the server as it is the central location where the data is shared and in terms of security, there is one user account and password that is needed to access the shared resources. In terms of performance, upgrades can be made to the server to cope with high demand. Backups are done on the main server. In the peer to peer model, data is shared amongst all the computers connected within the network as there is no central server. Due to the lack of central control, security and the network itself is left vulnerable. The computers within the network are dependent on one another, thus if the machines are slow for some reason, a domino effect will occur. Due to the lack of a central server, each computer has to be backed up ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Malicious Detection And Detection System MALICIOUS DETECTION IN MANET USING ENHANCED ADAPTIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT C.VINODHINI Mr.S.Sakthivel Dept.name of org:ME(AE),dept of ECE Dept.name of org:AP,dept of ECE Vivekanandha College Of Vivekanandha College Of Engineering For Women Engineering For Women City,Country:Elayampalayam,India City,Country:namakkal,India vinoblossom@gmail.com sakthiece@gmail.com ABSTRACT: Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. Node works as both transmitter and a receiver and in which MANET does not require a fixed network infrastructure.Within the communication range,the nodes can communicate with each other.MANET made popular in military use and emergency recovery.In this paper a new approach for intrusion and detection system named EEACK is proposed. Both of the TWOACK and Watchdog methods are considered as the first line of defense and it is not sufficient to protect MANETs from packet dropping attacks. EAACK provide higher malicious–behaviordetection rates in certain circumstances while does not greatly affect the network performances. This paper proposes a mechanism for a novel IDS named EAACK protocol specially designed for MANETs and compared it against other popular mechanisms in different scenarios through simulations and migration ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4. Improving HTTP Performance Using Stateless TCP Improving HTTP Performance Using "Stateless" TCP In this paper a server side approach is made which can reduce processing load per connection. The advantages of running web servers over a basic transport protocol that is similar to TCP are studied here. The stateless TCP for HTTP decreases the kernel resources required per TCP connection. So it increases the number of client initiated HTTP connections per second. Stateless TCP modifications decreases the server's CPU usage and other TCP memory requirements. This helps to serve small webpages under overloaded situations. Two Algorithms (David A Hayes, Improving http performance using stateless tcp, 2011) are mentioned that show the basic operation of stateless TCP, one for incoming packets and one for outgoing packets from server. These include few rules to react to incoming control packets and also information to deal with application data. Algorithm 1: incoming Every TCP packet is captured which arrives at port 80 and following operations are performed, 1.If it's a TCP SYN packet, send back a TCP SYN/ACK 2.If TCP DATA packet a)Store ack number and start timer b)Send TCP ACK packet back to sender, correct sequence and ack number c)Send TCP payload to server via UDP socket 3.If a TCP FIN packet,send back TCP FIN/RST/ACK and delete data and timer stored at 2a 4.If none of above drop the packet Algorithm 2: outgoing Event 1: On a local UDP socket send a request on port 80 and perform these 1.Check if source and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Traffic Control And Congestion Control Essay 1. Increasing the router memory to infinite cannot control the congestion. Agree or disagree? Elaborate briefly (60–100 words) Why is it true that route with infinite memory does try to minimize congestion, this can simply get out of control and get worse if the rate of incoming packets is far more than the outgoing packet and especially if more incoming packet from multiple input line arriving at any given router need the same output channel. This build up a queue and before other packet reach the beginning of the queue they have already timeout prompting re–submission of duplicates building up the queue again leading to more congestion. A lot of other factors are in play here, among these include router CPU and bandwidth. 2. Compare the following: Flow Control vs Congestion Control Congestion control basically states that a network device can transmit only a certain number of packets and can not add more packets to a network until an acknowledgement is received. Congestion control prevents too much data from being injected into the network, causing links and switches to be overloaded Flow control works by refusing new connections until congestion is resolved. In serial transmissions, Xon/Xoff is used for flow control. It is a handshaking mechanism that will keep a sender from sending data faster than a receiver can receive it. flow control prevents senders from overrunning the capacity of the receivers Open loop congestion control methods vs Closed Loop congestion ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6. Willem Van Aelst After reading my peers' interpretation of the still life by Willem Van Aelst, I came to the decision that most of the student's responses weren't what the artist envisioned the viewer's to see. We all acknowledged similar features, but we were all shown how incorrect we were in Thursday's class discussion. Each of us observed similar aspects in the painting. The central features that were pointed out were the objects of the blue, velvet bag, the ivory horn, and the various birds. The blue bag was where I concentrated on when I observed the painting as a whole. I feel that its color really stood out compared to the rest of the painting. The bag formed a contrast with the background as well as the prominent, white, bird in the center of the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The carving then became apparent as I focused intensively towards the outer regions of the painting. It represented three naked women, viewed from behind, in the outside world. In between the straps, of the hunting bag, lies a tree which contributes to the wilderness scene. This then poses the questions as to who are these women and why are they here? In class, it was then added that the woman looked like Greek women based off of the common known statues of Greek individuals. That being suggested, the class then made the assumption that the women in the carving of the marble table could be Artemis, the goddess of the wilderness and hunt. This is very likely as Artemis pertains to the entire scene being portrayed: the aftermath of a hunt. Another way that the carving can be tied to Artemis, is through the story of Artemis and Acateon. In this myth, Acateon is a hunter and is wandering in to the forest when he sees Artemis bathing. In retaliation, she transforms Acateon into a deer and his hunting dogs rip him apart. This painting would be an accurate display to have in a house where someone hunts. For the piece represents the activity that whomever loves to do so ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Assignment 1.2 Explain The CIA Triad Homework 1 CS 696 2. Explain the CIA triad. For each part of the triad, outline attacks on a database and possible protections The CIA triad lists the security requirements for preserving and communicating information over networks. According to Leon–Garcia and Widjaia (2014), these requirement include: Confidentiality and Privacy of information, which indicate that the information is only readable and reachable by the intended recipient. Integrity which insures that the information has not been altered during transmission. Availability which aim to guarantee the accessibility of information to authorized users and/or applications only. There are several attacks that target databases as a sensitive source of data. According to Schulman's article (2015) "Top 10 Database Attacks", some of these attacks uses existing vulnerability in the underlying platform, database... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... All of which can be used to determine the host original MAC. 8– Identify a VoIP application that uses SIP "Skype Connect" uses SIP username for authentication, authorization and accounting "Linphone" also uses SIP protocol 9– Identify a VoIP application that does not use SIP. Skype uses peer–to–peer authentication not the client–server model used in SIP 10– What is the TCP triple–handshake and how can it be used in attack? Which leg of the CIA triad would this attach fall under? The TCP triple handshake is a method used by the TCP to establish a connection between the communicating pair. In more details, the client sends a SYN segment as a request to establish the connection. Then, the server replies with a SYN /ACK segment acknowledging and approving the client request. Finally, the client acknowledge the server's approval with an ACK segment before they start exchanging ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8. Long Walk To Water Theme "A Long Walk to Water" by Linda Sue Park. I think in this book the theme is survival. I know this because in Salva's story he is just trying to stay alive in the war. This is also the theme in Nya's story because she fetches water every day just so she and her family doesn't die both characters exemplify the theme of survival as they fight through the story. Nya South Sudan 2006–2009 conflicts water, food and war. On page 33 it says "Her mother was afraid that the men in her tribe would run into Dinka tribesmen," this mean that they would die if that happened this supports the theme because they could end up dead to. On page one it it tells us that Nya has to fetch water every day they might die and that is not surviving. On page 33 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Hackers: Transmission Control Protocol and Protocol... Week 4 Lab Part 1: Network Traffic Analysis and Baseline Definition & Secure WLAN Solution Part A Assignment Requirements Watch the Demo Lab in Learning Space Unit 7 and then answer questions 1–10 below. 1. Which tool is better at performing protocol captures and which tool is better at performing protocol analysis? The best tool for protocol captures is Wireshark. The best tool for protocol analysis is Netwitness. 2. What is promiscuous mode and how does this allow tcpdump, Wireshark, and Netwitness Investigator to perform protocol capture off a live network?... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They would want to see both internal and external LAN segments because they have to be able to implement solid security practices, perform in depth risk analysis, configure proper access rights and permissions, secure data, and recognize methods used to attack resources, perform security audits, and develop a BCP. Part B Assignment Requirements Answer the following questions based on the packet capture that precedes them. You may research any of these on the Internet if you need to do so. 15:40:19.571032 IP 192.168.2.62.44389 > 192.168.2.104.22: S 1273007928:1273007928(0) win 5840 <mss 1460, sackOK, timestamp 885 0, nop, wscale 6> 15:40:19.571720 IP 192.168.2.104.22 > 192.168.2.62.44389: S 1312754191:1312754191(0) ack 1273007929 win 5792 <mss 1460, sackOK, timestamp 107351 885, nop, wscale 6> 15:40:19.571812 IP 192.168.2.62.44389 > 192.168.2.104.22: . ack 1 win 92 <nop, nop,timestamp 886 107351> 15:40:19.604635 IP 192.168.2.104.22 > 192.168.2.62.44389: P 1:40(39) ack 1 win 91 <nop, nop, timestamp 107361 886> 15:40:19.611687 IP 192.168.2.62.44389 > 192.168.2.104.22: . ack 40 win 92 <nop,nop,timestamp 898 107361> 15:40:19.612844 IP 192.168.2.62.44389 > 192.168.2.104.22: P 1:40(39) ack 40 win 92 <nop, nop, timestamp 898 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10. Detecting and Responding to Malicious Misbehavior in... INTRODUCTION Owing to the developed technology and cheap prices, wireless networks have increased more preferences over wired networks in the previous few decades.Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is agroup of mobile nodes armed with both a wirelesstransmitter and a receiver that connect with each othervia bidirectional wireless links either directly or indirectly.One of themajor benefits of wireless networks is it allows data to be communicated between different parties and still maintaintheir movement. The main factor in this type of communication is range of transmitters.That is the node which is outside the range of one node cannot communicate with the other node which is outside its range.This difficulty in MANET is resolved by letting... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In areas where wired infrastructure is not possible MANETS can be easily deployed. Theyare free from any fixed infrastructureor base stations.Base stations are absent and each and every node in the MANET network co–operate in forwarding packets in the network. II EXISTING SYSTEM IDS in MANETs Each node in MANETs accept that other nodescontinuouslywork together with each other to transmit data.If MANET can detectthe attackers immediately as they enter the network, we will beable to completely eradicate the possiblecompensationsproduced bycompromised nodes at the first time. In this section, we mainly describe three existing Approaches namely, 1) Watchdog, 2) TWOACK, and3) Adaptive ACKnowledgment (AACK) A)WATCHDOG Watchdog is a technique used for intrusion detection in Mobile ad hoc networks.There is no any fixed infrastructure for MANETs.Each node in multihop MANET forwards the packets to the next node and so the battery power, CPU time and memory are used up. From a pool of nodes in MANET some nodes are unwilling to forward the nodes to the next node. Such kinds of nodes are called the Selfish Nodes. Selfish nodes are unwilling to forward the packets in order to save their battery power, memory and CPU time.As, a selfish node will not cooperate in the transmission of packets which affects the network performance very badly. Watchdog detects this kind of selfish nodes in the mobile adhoc networks. Collaborative watchdog ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. A Long Walk To Water By Linda Sue Park The book A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park gives a fascinating story of a real life personal journey. Slava, the main character, was born and for 11 years raised in Sudan in 1985 during the civil war. Slava was a member of a successful family, Slava's father was the village judge and owned many cattle. Slava was able to go to school, that was not common in Sudan. Slava was at school , his village was under attack and he needed to leave to get safety behind a bush so he would not be hurt , Slava ran to a bush get safety. That dash was the call to Slava's personal journey. Slava would have venture through three (Sudan,Ethiopia,Kenya) countries , without his family and on foot . The character Slava in a Long walk to water was changed by his personal journey, he had to be independent, not having his family disrupted his daily life style, and was compelled to help the people of Sudan Slava was disrupted from his daily life and his journey began. Slava in his village was a privileged boy. Slava father is the village Judge and owned many head of cattle. "He owned many head of cattle and worked as their village judge an–honored, respected position (Page 2 A Long walk to water) ." Slava was able to go to school that was not very common in Sudan. This book takes place during the Sudanese Civil War in 1985. The war... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Slava had to go through many hardship without his family. Slava had his daily life changed and the call to the personal journey was what the book was about and what his journey was . Slava had to become more independent without his family. Slava went to America and his life was changed. Slava in a A Long Walk to Water was changed by his personal journey. The journey would ultimately lead Slava back to meet with family in South Sudan. A journey as we learned with Slava will be hard a times and will lead to a reward. For Slava it was to find his family. Slava did change and impacted by his ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12. Five Key Individuals Who Assisted Essay "The Intervention" Five key individuals who assisted in the intervention: 1. Mary the superior of Jan. Mary appeared to be on board with the intervention. Jan called Mary as her husband requested, for the day off, by Jan's spouse. Mary provided Jan the day off and continued to be very secretive about the intervention. The preparation intervention Mary was asked to speak first, at the real intervention. Jan sat next to Mary on arrivals. Mary held Jan's hand and a very calm, soft soothing way. Spoke of the specific events that made Mary worried, falling asleep at her desk, the birthday, and a day in July. Jan listened and did not leave the room. 2. Jeff the son–in–law Jeff Clarified to Jan how Kim felt at home. He gave specifics Kim was angry and has a huge amount of sorrow about the alcohol, and Kim has many tears fall. Jeff also, went on to rational thoughts about bringing the baby over to the house. He explained in a very compassionate manner that Kim and I both did not want it to be the same as the birthday. Jan looked surprised at what Jeff had believed. The thoughts that he spoke about Kim, appeared to impact Jan. Jan stayed and continued to listen. 3. Sue and Jim, the neighbors Sue held it together when Jan confronted her drinking. Sue agreed she may have a problem too, however Sue brings it back to Jan in a very tranquil manner. The husband Jim did not speak, but was supportive and perhaps thought of his own drinking. 4. Kim the daughter At first she ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. My Serving Society Project : Dr. Dunn So for my Serving Society project I got the wonderful chance to be a part of the Sanare Ministry, which goes around to some of the local old folks homes and puts on a mini concert for the residents. I truly enjoyed the experience in more ways than one! I think one of my absolute favorite things was seeing their faces light up watching the performances. In Dr. Dunn's article she spoke about how it is a hard thing for many people to truly SEE others and for feeling guilty when we can't do anything to help their suffering. I can definitely understand how not being able to physically do anything to help can feel like you are failing them as a fellow human being. Every time I drive by someone who is begging for money or food, I always feel devastated when I am unable to do something to help them. Whether it's the fact that I don't have any cash on me or that the cash I do have is for something else and is technically my mother's money. I always try to help when I can, but it is still not as often as I would like. However, I have learned that sometimes even if you can't help them by giving them money of food, if you just stop to talk with them and acknowledge their presence and existence it makes them so happy. Just like in Dunn's lecture when she tells about how they attended a Sunday worship service during their time in Gutuletu and the guest speaker asked everyone to turn and to see the people standing near them, and everyone looked at the students, making them feel seen! To ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hadoop Distributed File... Chapter 7 IMPLEMENTATION The implementation phase of the project is where the detailed design is actually transformed into working code. Aim of the phase is to translate the design into a best possible solution in a suitable programming language. This chapter covers the implementation aspects of the project, giving details of the programming language and development environment used. It also gives an overview of the core modules of the project with their step by step flow. The implementation stage requires the following tasks. Planning has to be done carefully. Examination of system and the constraints. Design of methods. Evaluation of the method. Correct decisions regarding selection of the platform. Appropriate language selection ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The file system that manages the storage across network of machines is called distributed file systems. Hadoop mainly comes with the distributed file system called HDFS (Hadoop distributed file system). HDFS Design: The HDFS file system is designed for storing files which are very large means files that are hundreds of megabytes, gigabytes and terabytes in size, with streaming data access patterns, running on commodity hardware clusters. HDFS has a idea of write once read many times pattern. A dataset is typically generated or copied from the source and various analyses are performed on that dataset. And hadoop does not need expensive hardware. It is designed to run on commodity hardware. 7.1.1 Basic Architecture of HDFS Figure 7.1.1 shows the basic architecture of NS2. NS2 provides users with executable command ns which take on input argument, the name of a Tcl simulation scripting file. Users are feeding the name of a Tcl simulation script (which sets up a simulation) as an input argument of an NS2 executable command ns. In most cases, a simulation trace file is created, and is used to plot graph and/or to create animation. Fig 7.1.1: Basic Architecture of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. Persuasive Essay On Climate Change Climate change has been gaining momentum for some time now and it has become popular enough to start mass debates. Climate scientists are pushing as hard as they can to spread awareness and it has become a topic of interest because of the way it can affect all of us. In this introduction of the book, Climate Change: What It Means For Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren, Joseph F. C. DiMento and Pamela Doughman try to convince the general public that understanding climate change is crucial and although climate change may seem challenging to grasp, it is understandable with some effort. As a hook, the authors begin with subclaims supporting the two main parts of the main claim, climate change is important to understand and it is understandable, to allow the reader to know what content will be shared by the book. The subclaims are supported effectively by evidences referring to factual data and alluding to popular culture relevant to the audience. Even the conflicting viewpoints are acknowledged and analyzed to show why the author's perspective is more logical. Subclaims are effectively used to explain and support the two parts of the main claim, one of which states climate change is important to understand and the other stating climate change is difficult to understand but it can be understood. The authors justified their claims by stating climate change will affect us and the future generations (1), climate change is more than often not taken seriously and is not ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. NETW202 W3 Lab Report Template 1 Your Name NETW202, Professor's Name Current Date Lab #3 Lab Report Section I: Watch the videos on the UTP cabling, read your course material and answer the questions below. Add in graphics from the internet to enhance your answers and be sure to cite your references. (Each question is worth 1 point each) 1.What is meant by the term "pinout"? 2.What are the following cable types used for and how are they made? How are they different? Crossover cable Rollover cable Straight through cable 3. What are the 568A and 568B termination color code standards? What are the 568A and 568B pinout standards? This is confusing terminology so how are they different? 4. How many conductors or wires are there in a UTP cable? How many pairs? 5.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 11. Examine the stream of frames are there any significant differences in the times during the back and forth between the client and the server? 12. How many duplicate ACKs are there for stream index 0? What filter did you use to search for the dup acks? Show a screen shot of your filter and results for full credit. Add in your screen shot here. 13. How many of these are between the client and the server? 14. Does this indicate a problem in the network? Yes or no? How do you justify your answer? SECTION IV: ( 2 points) Using the 100 Tips for Wireshark document from Laura Chappell, outline your favorite 2 tips and outline when and how you would use them to troubleshoot a network problem. Write at least 3 sentences on each tip you select to profile. Each outline is worth1 points each. 1. TIP 1 2. TIP 2 SECTION V: Looking at security with wireshark. (3 points) After looking at information regarding capturing packets with wireshark. Write a short paragraph about what you see in this example. What does this tell you about password security in general? How does this profile what an unauthorized person using wireshark could ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Paper This paper addresses the question: can unnatural amino acids be successfully incorporated into the mouse genome in a temporally and spatially specific manner? Han and his associates claim that (1) they have developed a system for incorporation of unnatural amino acid incorporation, (2) the acetylation they induce is spatially and temporally specific, and (3) that this technology will allow researchers to develop better in vivo studies of how cellular proteins affect physiology and disease. In this review, I will contest all three claims. Specifically, I will show that claims 1 and 2 are only qualitatively true: there is no proof that these things happen on a quantitative scale which is relevant for modeling disease, and that there are... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The work minimally advances the field. Briefly, it shows that unnatural amino acid incorporation is possible in mice. However, it does not do this in a model system which is interesting to study. The introduction mildly alludes to the fact that aberrant or unconventional amino acid acetylation can lead to cancer, but there is no follow up to see if the epigenetic changes which they induce are prevalent enough to cause a change in phenotype. If the purpose of this technology is to model diseases related to epigenetic changes and to see how we might counteract these changes, then that should be part of the proof–of–concept work included in the article. To demonstrate the feasibility of unnatural amino acid incorporation in a mammalian system, the researchers first perform work in cultured cells. Basically, they inserted a vector with the modified tRNA synthetase into first human (HEK293T) cells, and then mouse cells (NIH3T3). The expression of the plasmid vector is dependent on human elongation factor 1, an endogenous protein. Another vector was transformed into the cells containing the sequence for a recombinant GFP protein with the unnatural, acetylated amino acid at position 39. The GFPuv, as it's called, will only be expressed if the tRNA synthetase recognizes the amber codon (codon which usually causes a stop in transcription) in the protein and appropriately adds ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18. Seven Layers in the OSI Model 1. This class made me learn quite a lot. Though it was a course I have done in my under graduate, this class helped me to learn more about the networking. The class was interactive and fun, the lab sessions were very helpful. The project was one of the best parts of the whole course. It made me look into and study about various new protocols in networking and finally I could get an idea on how I could design a protocol by myself. The most important thing I learnt in this class is the detailed functions and uses of every later in the OSI model, and I also realized that TCP is the most important protocol of all that I learnt. It is very reliable and provides acknowledgement, and is a full duplex process. It provides congestion control and flow control and is also a connection oriented service. On an overall this class made me learn a lot that would always be very helpful to me. 2. The seven Layers in the OSI model are Physical Layer, Link Layer, Network Layer, Transport Layer, Session Layer, Application Layer and the presentation Layer. Each layer has a specific function to perform and consist of different protocols. Physical layer is the lowest one and handles transmission and reception of messages over the medium. Then comes the link layer , it allows error free transmission of the data frames in the physical layer. The network layer takes care of processes like routing, traffic control and fragmentation of the data. The next one is the transport layer, it takes care of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. What Are The Potential Barriers To Equality And Inclusion 1.2 – Analyse the potential effects of barriers to equality and inclusion in own area of responsibility Due to the amount of practices that can be sourced to implement into the working environment there are a number of barriers that can occur, these can be put into categories: Personal These barriers relate to individuals having differing personalities, if someone has lack of self–esteem or poor interpersonal interactions and communication it can affect the way they treat others. They may be unaware of how to support someone with needs that are new to them or struggle to identify resources needed to support a client. If staff are unable to provide information to the residents or carry out tasks they may need additional training to gather greater knowledge on equality, diversity and inclusion; when staff are unable to acknowledge differences it can mean that individuals are discriminated against unintentionally. This would then have an impact on relationships and rapport built between staff and clients and discourage the residents to work with the staff if they believe they are not being understood or their needs are not being met, this can have further impact on their mental health and wellbeing, therefore it is crucial that staff and management work alongside residents and their families or friends to ensure that their voice is heard especially when considering person centred care, as many vulnerable adults may not have the capacity to challenge discrimination. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20. Types of Computer Networks Networks can be broadly classified into two types: 1. Wired networks 2. Wireless networks Some of the drawbacks of the wired networks had brought the "wireless networks" into the picture. Wireless operations permit services, such as long–range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. waves, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires.[1] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Increased uses of laptop computers within the enterprise, and increase in worker mobility have fuelled the demand for wireless networks. Up until recently, wireless technology was a patchwork of incompatible systems from a variety of vendors. The technology was slow, expensive and reserved for mobile situations or hostile environments where cabling was impractical or impossible. With the maturing of industry standards and the deployment of lightweight wireless networking hardware across a broad market section, wireless technology has come of age. Wireless networks consist of network nodes which makes use of radio communication for the wireless data transmissions. This execution is carried out at the physical layer of the OSI model. The wireless networks have a wide range of advantages: ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Nt1310 Unit 7 Study Guide Voice and video chat, written chat, file sharing and remote control. 1. Broadcast applications where numerous people want to download the same already existing file. 2. Streaming video applications where numerous people want to see the same show at same time, the information is being newly generated in real time 3. Applications where a function to be performed can be broken into simultaneous tasks, such as calculating prime numbers 4. Applications where various of machines can be doled out for each to do a task e.g every processing a single file Consider an e–business site that needs to keep a buy record for each of its clients. Depict how this can be done with cookies. a) File Distribution b) Instant Messaging c) Video Streaming d) Distributed... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Suppose this station suddenly wants to transmit 1,000 bytes of data, and all other stations are idle at this time. As a function of SIFS and DIFS, and ignoring propagation delay and assuming no bit errors, calculate the time required to transmit the frame and receive the acknowledgment. A frame without data is 32 bytes long. Assuming a transmission rate of 11 Mbps, the time to transmit a control frame (such as RTS frame, a CTS frame, or an ACK frame) is (256 bits)/(11 Mbps) = 23 Вµsec. The time required to transmit the data frame is (8256 bits)/(11 Mbps) = 751 Вµsec. DIFS + RTS + SIFS + CTS + SIFS + FRAME + SIFS + ACK = DIFS + 3 SIFS + (3 В· 23 + 751) Вµsec = DIFS + 3 SIFS + 820 Вµsec. OR A frame without data is 32 bytes long. Transmission rate of 11 Mbps, the time to transmit a control frame (such as an RTS frame, a CTS frame, or an ACK frame) is (256 bits)/(11 Mbps) = 23 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22. What Is The Importance Of A Network? 4.3Motivation Energy dissipation reduction:In WSNs, energy efficiency is a key design issue that needs to beenhanced in order to improve the life span of the network. The proposed protocol (EEHCBF)is able to route data efficiently in terms of energy. Load balance and node distribution: Most of the routing protocols that opts Cluster head architecture, don't consider even distribution of nodes under cluster. For example, one clusterhead have 10 nodes and other cluster head have only two nodes. The energy of the cluster head with 10 nodes, will drained fastly as compared to the cluster head with two nodes only. The design of EEHCBF protocol considersthe feature of evenly distribution of the nodes under cluster head. Base Station ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... More precisely, as it is explained later on, the choice of the cluster heads in EEHCBF protocol is based on the residual energy as well as the maximum number of neighbors of the nodes. That is to say, the member of each cluster having the highest residual energy and maximum no of neibhbors is the one selected as the cluster head. The cluster heads which are close enough to the base station have the ability to communicate directly with the base station with reasonable power consumption. These cluster heads are considered to be the highest level cluster heads. Similarly, cluster heads which are located far away from the base station are considered to be lower level cluster heads. 4.4Terminology Used The terminology used to explain the routing protocol and the elements implemented on it are described here to make easy to follow the detailed description provided in the following sections. START is the message used by base station. Initially the Base station will broadcast this message to allsensor nodes present in field to indicate that all nodes present should start the task. HELLO is message which gets broadcast by all nodes after receiving START message, in order to find their neighbors. This HELLO message will reach to those nodes only that are within range of that node. REPLY is the message send by a node when it receives HELLO message. This message contain the node id. After receving the REPLY message, each node makes it ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Essay on Love Can Blossom in Unlikely Places Love can blossom in unlikely places... After a tragic day years ago, Enya Harper was left to pick up the pieces and move on with her life – but she has not, she shut herself from the world and vowed never to love again. A couple of miles away, Matt Sawyer is looking only for work, nothing more. His life is already complicated, with a past that won't go away. Enya is a top of the notch doctor – everyone wants to be her and if lucky work with her. She has everything; the career she longed for since she was a teen, loving parents and friends. Like a flower in spring, she blossomed,throughout the years – earning good grades in her exams and earning a residency in the most acclaimed hospital in the area. During her practise, she met the one... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This threw Matt back. He ended up in prison for breaking and entering. After serving his time – he realized that he was throwing away his life. He started seeing a counsellor who helped him deal with all his issues growing up as a child up until his recent brush with the law. He was trying to be a new person. After Matt got on his feet, he found a job opening as a hospital receptionist – the same hospital Enya worked at. Despite his appalling past, he got the position. At first, they did not even acknowledge each other – a hospital is not the kind of place to meet new people. Matt sees how empty Enya appears. He decides to talk to her. Following her on her way to surgery made him look like a stalker. Enya is now aware of Matt's presence. He, too seems faint. It looks like that even by looking at one another, they find refuge. Like it is meant to be, they started talking to each other, without any hesitation. They are both misfits – she – a woman who could not find her way back after being left alone and ran away from her problems by dissolving in her work, and him– hitting rock bottom, thinking substance use was a solution to deal with abandonment issues. Their friendship started with just a smile at work as they passed each other. Then, they started to eat together during their break. They decided to take their meetings outside of their work place. Each day they met, they were drawn more closer to each other. Their love was pure, but it ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. Why Does Morrie Agree With His Family How is Morrie's family important to him? Morrie believes that without the love and support from his family, he wouldn't have much importance in his life, "Love each other or perish," said Morrie. He thinks that without his family, he may not be able to keep fighting through this rough time in his life. Morrie's family is important to him because they're always there for him, provide him with love and they watch over him. He states that family provides him with such an important that can't find found elsewhere. Also, Morrie believes that having children provided him with a unique experience. He mentions that having kids made him learn how to bond and love in the deepest way possible. 2. According to Morrie, why is family important.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Firstly, one thing I noticed was that he was trying to get the message across about how all it takes sometimes to make another person's life better is to simply acknowledge them and to show them that you care. This was shown by him talking about the woman in the mental hospital who would go and lay on the floor all day while everyone walked past her; not even bothering to acknowledge her existence. When Morrie acknowledged her, she stopped doing this. Also, Morrie mentions how he befriended patients at the mental hospital. This shows that when making friends, people who appear to be different should never be pushed aside as someone who doesn't have the capability of being befriended. Everyone around the world has the same capability of caring for one another and for being friends with each other, no matter what difference may appear to set them aside from what is declared as normal within our society. In addition, Morrie states that humans just want to feel like they matter when talking about a situation he dealt with in the past with protesting students. This is a very true statement that we can learn from because a lot of the time, people take pride in doing things that they feel like have made an impact in some sort of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. Reflective Essay On Anne Frank The holocaust took place from January 30, 1933 – May 8, 1945. This event changed American history forever. Thousands of people died, including the Frank family. Anne Frank once said, "In spite of everything, I still believe people are really good at heart." Anne and her family had to go through a lot of tough times during the holocaust, but I agree with Anne, people are still good at heart. Reading this book, I noticed that there are a lot of kind hearted actions in this book. I am agreeing with Anne and her actions are what prove this quote right. However, I could see where some may disagree. People like Mr. Van Daan and Mr. Dussel, have actions or ways they speak, that are very rude. There are many actions that I could use as proof of Anne ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Van Daan. On page 96 and 97 there is an example of Mr. Van Daans cruel behavior: Mrs. V. Daan: No! No! No! Don't you dare take that. You hear? It's mine. My father gave me that. You didn't give it to me. You have no right. Let go of it – you hear? Mr. V. Daan: Just a little– discussion over the advisability of selling this coat. As I have often reminded Mrs. Van Daan, it's very selfish of her to keep it when people outside are in such desperate need of clothing. So if you will please sell it for us? It should fetch a good price. And, by the way, will you get me cigarettes? I don't care what kind they are – get all you can. To me this is very rude, he is selling one of Mrs. Van Daan's most prized possessions. This coat means alot to Mrs. Van Daan, and he is selling it, for what, cigarettes. He does not think of anyone other than himself, and is very selfish. He is getting something for himself, that he doesn't even need. Mrs.Van Daan is crushed that he is doing this, and he doesn't even bother to acknowledge her sadness. As I just acknowledged Mr. Van Daan's terrible and insensitive behavior, I still side with Anne. Everyone makes mistakes, and everyone messes up, but people will always be good at heart. No matter what, people can bounce back and prove their kindness, that is why I still side with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26. Tribute Table Convention Analysis Tribute Table Convention 2018 ACK Letter updates First time donors opening line: Thank you for being part of our Kappa family! We welcome you and are extremely thankful for your first–time gift to the Kappa Kappa Gamma Foundation. Paragraph 1: for official family only Tribute Table Convention 2018 gifts In Kappa, we are family and we're giving love. We are thankful for amazing Kappa volunteers like you who share their time and treasure to support Kappa Kappa Gamma. We are grateful for your recent gift (–– removed HTML ––) to the [title that matches distribution code] to pay tribute to the amazing experiences you've had in Kappa and to elevate your sisters. Your gift will enable the Foundation to enrich the lives of collegians and alumnae ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Project Paper On Datagrams First of all, in the project, I cannot use any transport protocol libraries, such as TCP. Therefore, I construct the packets and acknowledgements, and interpret the incoming packets by myself. A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet–switched network. Datagrams are typically structured in header and payload sections. Datagrams provide a connectionless communication service across a packet–switched network. The delivery, arrival time, and order of arrival of datagrams need not be guaranteed by the network. subsection{Design the packet format} Like in Project 1 I need to design fields for packet type, ACK number, window size, data etc. Each byte of data sent as in a TCP connection has an associated sequence number. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... if send is called twice with data sizes 1000 and 2000 then two packets will be sent of sizes 1000 and 2000 (assuming the MTU size for the network is large enough). If send is called with a data size larger than the MTU value, the packet will be fragmented. When the remote host calls receive twice with sizes 100 and 150, the first call will return the first 100 bytes of the 1000 byte packet and throw away the last 900 bytes. The second call will return the first 150 bytes of the 2000 byte packet and throw away the last 1850 bytes. The client on either side of a TCP session maintains a 32–bit sequence number it uses to keep track of how much data it has sent. This sequence number is included on each transmitted packet, and acknowledged by the opposite host as an acknowledgement number to inform the sending host that the transmitted data was received successfully. When a host initiates a TCP session, its initial sequence number is effectively random; it may be any value between 0 and 4,294,967,295, inclusive. However, protocol analyzers like Wireshark will typically display relative sequence and acknowledgement numbers in place of the actual values. These numbers are relative to the initial sequence number of that stream. This is handy, as it is much easier to keep track of relatively small, predictable numbers rather than the actual numbers sent on the wire. section{ different configurations of netem} Network emulation ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. Essay on assessment 3 1. Name two signs you would look for to let you know Vara is ready to end counselling. During the session Vara says that she has spoken to Alec about her feelings and has agreed to have a three month trail separation, and that they are considering an option of seeing a marriage counsellor are the two sighs that would indicate her expectations and goals are met and I would consider that Vara is ready to end the counselling process. 2. Briefly describe how you would support Vara's sense of autonomy. By focussing on her strengths and her past achievements to give her the confidence and motivation and by summarising to Vara and by acknowledging to her that she as achieved her set goal I would support Vara's sense of autonomy. 3. Briefly ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 6. Provide an example of one of your session client notes. Client Record Form Name : – Vara DOB:– Date of Session:– 28/08/2014 Session No:– 8 Session Duration:– 45 minutes Summary of issues: – came to Australia 25 years ago, fulltime mother now children grown up and left house, husband Alec in control of finances and has ferocious temper, feeling unhappy and trapped in marriage, fed up and wants to end marriage, secretly working part time for the past year as translator, wants to live her own life, and visit her children/grandchildren when she wants to, but clings to familiar routine and security of current married life, fearful of Alec's reaction and worried if she can manage on her own, but still loves Alec. Experiments or Task:– Session Notes: – Vara has spoken to Alec and they have decided to have a three month trail separation, Alec was moved and said he loved her and had no idea that she was not happy, possibility of seeing a marriage counsellor, Vara is moving with her friend Julie for the three months, looking to increase working hours as translator. Approaches and/or Interventions Used: Provided Vara with a list of marriage counsellors around the area, and requested
  • 29. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Attitudes About Their Metacognitive And Emotional... Previously prepared interview questions were designed to investigate in greater depth students' beliefs about their metacognitive and emotional regulatory abilities. These were now augmented with further questions suggested by questionnaire responses at the 'extreme' ends of their scales. Students selected for interview were 'extreme' responders in this sense. Discourse analysis was used to qualitatively analyse the interviews. Immediately, the first theme that occurred was that those who responded extremely strongly agree (SA), tended to refer to internal regulation, identifying their level of control over thoughts, feelings and behaviours whilst those who extremely strongly disagree (SD) referred to external regulation; mainly the... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, those extreme SA focussed much more on the content and subject of the class Question three: All participants stated that they were better behaved in classes that they enjoyed but extreme SA where much more detailed in their explanations stating "behaved as expected", "be polite and kind" and "focus much more" as opposed to extreme SD who tended to give one word answered "good" and "focused" Question four: There was a clear divide within this question across participants, extreme SD stated that they didn 't feel they could express themselves; however this was said to be due to "certain teachers" or "being ignored". On the other hand, two extreme SA said they felt they could express themselves whilst one said sometimes. However, the main difference was that extreme SA acknowledge that it was not a clear cut yes or no, but in fact it depended on the context. More importantly they acknowledged that when they did feel as if they could not express themselves it was due to internal factors such as "pressure". KJ stated that if they did feel as if they could not express themselves they would find the appropriate time to do so whilst JF stated that they may feel like that if ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Team Member Duties : Neeraj Kumar ( Team Leader ) Team Member Duties Neeraj Kumar (Team Leader) пѓ Selecting and understanding the concept based on the past research experience on sensor database networks and distributed programming. пѓ Strategic plan design on weekly basis helped in completion of project. пѓ Implementation of leader election algorithm. пѓ Dividing and assigning the task based on the team members interest area and capabilities. пѓ Managing the whole project with full cooperation with all team members with good team communication. Satish Ekambaram пѓ Drafting the whole paper with APA format. пѓ Deep research on the value and need of the leader election algorithm in mobile ad hoc network. пѓ Finding out the real applications implementing the leader election algorithm. Srikanth Bommana пѓ Good research on the history related topic with the whole project. пѓ Research on what the mobile ad hoc network and its need and evolution. пѓ Finding out the very brief and good conclusion of the whole project. Abstract Technology advancement is growing very rapidly one example we can see surrounding us is wireless networks and its related very complex applications such as sensor database network, robotics military and so on. At the starting point following paper represents about the mobile ad hoc network and related basic history. After that research paper explores the problems related with the current technology and major drawbacks. Later paper shows the need of the leader election algorithm and its implementation. At the end it ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. Analysis Of Linda Sue Park's A Long Walk To Water Imagine living in a world of poverty, not having much water, and food being scarce. Along with that your government is being attacked and you are separated from your family. A Long Walk to Water is a true story, Written by Linda Sue Park. Linda is an American author that writes mostly teen fiction. She has written a total of 9 books including Long Walk to Water. The events that occurred in A Long Walk to Water would be horrifying for anyone. Living in a country during war can be hard for anyone,, it can change your future in a big way. Salva's childhood was a normal life, any other eleven year old's life in south Sudan would be composed of mostly the same events. Salva worked for his mother most of his day. Travelling many miles to the closest pond of water they had. Salva would make two trips there a day. He went to school unlike most of the kids because his dad was an important person and he made a lot of money allowing... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Into the bush, not home. Unfortunately Salva couldn't find his parents. He thought, "Where are we going? Where is my family" (Park 7). He ran until he couldn't run anymore, then he walked. Salva was walking with other people. He walked until the sun went down. After they stopped walking and it was night time. Everybody decided they would group each other with their villages. Eventually Salva heard his village name, "The village of Loun–Ariik, here!" (Park 9). He found his village! Once he visually found them there were about twelve people in his group. Salva looked at everyone from his village, none of them were his family. They spent the night at a road. Once morning came they started walking again. While they were walking the Rebels saw them, came up to them and forced all of the men to come with them. All that was left were women and children. That night they slept in a barn they found. Salva woke up in the morning and everybody was gone, he thought, "Nobody else was in the barn...Nobody, nothing"(Park ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Problems With Optimization Of Tcp Protocol ABSTRACT This paper is concerned with optimization of TCP since 2.5G and 3G services are available to public users and mobile clients accessing the Internet using TCP/IP is increasing. It highlights the features of 2.5G and 3G networks and its deployment. It also offers recommendations on appropriate TCP algorithms for nodes known to be starting or ending on such paths.However TCP was originally designed for use in wired networks which differ a lot from the wireless networks.The technical mechanisms recommended in this document are available in modern TCP stacks, and considered safe for use by a growing community of users. 1.0INTRODUCTION 2g systems are commonly refered to as second generation networks and have initiated exponential growth in the number of wireless network from 1990s when digital voice encoding replaced analog systems (1G). Second Generation 2G circuit switched systems are based on various radio technologies including frequency, code and time division multiple access. Examples are 2G systems GSM (Europe), PDC (Japan), and IS–95 (USA). The data links provided by 2G systems are mostly circuit–switched and have transmission speeds of 10–20 kbps uplink and downlink. An overwhelming demand for higher data rates resulted in the introduction of 2.5g which incresed availability and curtailed some challenges such as lack of radio spectrum allocated for 2G. 3G systems provide both packet–switched and circuit–switched connectivity in order to address the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. Rikki Tavi From The Jungle Book The children's story, Rikki Tikki Tavi is from the Jungle Books, Volume 2, by Rudyard Kipling. The story is about a mongoose that got washed up and was found by a little boy named Teddy. The little boy and his family had a garden where two cobras lived. Throughout the story Rikki Tikki Tavi tries to fight the cobras to keep them from hurting the people that live there. At certain times Rikki Tikki behaved in a manner toward other animals that was disrespectful and not like his normal character. During the nights Rikki Tikki would do a walk around the house. One night he found a muskrat named Chuchundra. The both of them talked and at one point Chuchundra started to say something but stopped in fear that the cobra Nag was listening. Rikki Tikki ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Essay On Pcb IEEE 802.1Qbb (PFC) is a Ethernet flow control mechanism proposed in 2008 cite{barrass2008proposal}. PFC employs eight virtual channels with eight different priorities. For each priority, PFC uses IEEE 802.3 PAUSE frame cite{barrass2007definition} to prevent packets loss, and the PAUSE action in a VC does not affect the flows with other priorities. As shown in Fig. ref{PFC}, in the VC with priority–1, queue length exceeds the threshold, and the switch sends back a pause frame to the upstream switch. When receives a PAUSE frame, the P1 timer specifies how long the traffic should be paused, and the switch pauses the transmission of the flow of corresponding priority. there are eight timers controlling the pausing time for eight priority... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When receives the RM sell, the source starts to throttle the injection rate. b)BECN The Backward explicit congestion notification (BECN) cite{newman1993backward}cite{newman1994traffic} is different from FECN. Instead of returning RM cell by the destination–end, the congestion information is directly sent back to the source by the congested point (switch). As shown in Fig. ref{BECN}, when the queue of a virtual channel exceeds a fixed threshold, the switch will directly send BECN cells to the source that contribute to the congestion. On each receiving of a BECN cell, the source reduces the sending rate of the specific virtual channel. If no BECN cell arrives on the throttled virtual channel for a time period, the sending rate will be gradually regained. c)TCP–ECN The ECN mechanism for TCP/IP protocol cite{floyd1994tcp}cite{ramakrishnan1998proposal}, TCP–ECN for short, is an end–to–end congestion control scheme deployed on layer 3 and layer 4. TCP–ECN employs Random Early Detection (RED) mechanism to mark the congested packet with textit{Congestion Experienced} (CE) bit, which is carried in packet's IP header. And the end–host enables ECN–Capable TCP (ECT) bit in the packet header to support the ECN mechanism. Fig. ref{TCP–ECN} illustrates the working process of TCP–ECN. When the queue length exceeds a fixed threshold, the router will use RED to set the CE bit in the packet header instead of dropping the packet, and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. Advantages And Disadvantages Of MPTCP Abstract: Headway of usage of remote advances in tablets and compact terminals, which are outfitted with a couple framework interfaces, has offered customers to misuse from multi–homing to get the opportunity to network benefits wherever, at a point and from any framework. Advantage with multi homed host is that a segment of the action from more congested ways can be moved to less congested way. In this paper we consider about Multipath TCP (MPTCP), which encounters the degradation of good put inside seeing changing framework conditions on the open sub streams due to out–of–demand got groups. Purpose behind degradation is the considerable assortment of end–to–end defer for various courses over remote channels. To diminish the assortment of... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 1 shows a multi–home circumstance where a Mobile device is related with both Base Station and Access point through its various interfaces. MPTCP works commendably for multi–homed phones to in the meantime pass on TCP packages over various ways and pool the open information exchange limit together. Despite the way that MPTCP has a prevalent available throughput for the upper layer, there is as yet another questionable issue realized by out–of–solicitations bundles. Throughput addresses the general getting point of confinement of powerful bundle movement over various ways. Regardless, it is extraordinary put that mirrors the certified application–level throughput, which is the measure of accommodating data available to the recipient application per time unit. Specifically, all together packages got at the vehicle layer can be sent to the application layer and implied extraordinary put. Most recent review [7] gave CWA a proactive scheduler for wired correspondence. This review show that MPTCP extraordinary put is close perfect when the end–to end deferments of two transmission ways are close. However these review exhibit that it requires a significant measure of venture to reorder packs at getting end. Some later work in 2012 tries to improve incredible put for MPTCP, by using framework coding [2] ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. The Drama, The Diary Of Anne Frank "We used to have heavenly times... we'd finish up with ice cream at the Delphi or Oasis, where Jews were allowed..." The drama, The Diary of Anne Frank, by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett is about a young girl and her experiences during the Holocaust. It explains both the occurrences happening inside and outside of the characters secret Annex. The drama reflects the historical events surrounding the characters in a different light than what would usually be seen in things including textbooks or pieces of informative writing. Dialogue is one of the pieces reflecting large events that are happening all over the world in a smaller point of view. One such example, on page 122, is, "His name is Dirk, and Miep's afraid the Nazis will ship him off... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Simultaneously, they allow readers to comprehend the large effects the events had on small people's lives. For instance, on page 185 it states, "They realize that what they feared has happened... There is a sound of violent pounding on the door below." These directions show the collection of Jews wasn't gentle or calm, but violent and terrifying. They gave the opportunity to experience what it might have been like to be going through the same thing they did. Consequently, it gives life to the dull happenings one would read about in an informative piece of writing. Not to mention another paradigm on page 136, "In the distance we hear the sound of ack–ack." Ack–ack is 1940's slang for an anti–aircraft gun's fire. This particular stage direction means many things including the fact that war was a constant in many people's lives and eventually they got used to it. It also signifies the air raids happening all over Europe from opposing forces. The stage directions in this drama help understand the personal struggles and feelings of actual people that lived during the time of the Holocaust and suffered its ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. DHCP: Highly Implemented Network Protocol DHCP is one of the most commonly implemented network protocols in the world which is used to assign IP addresses to the clients automatically. DHCP reduces work of network Administrator from going to each and every workstation in the network to assign IP address. In addition, DHCP reduces IP addresses conflict issue. DHCP protocol uses 4 different packets that are exchanged between client and server to assign an IP address automatically. In order to examine DHCP packets, Wireshark will be used. The conversation between DHCP client and DHCP server to get an IP address automatically completes by exchanging four packets. These packets are DHCP Discover DHCP DISCOVER – Workstation broadcasts DHCP DISCOVER message on power–up. 1.DHCP DISCOVER ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Request may include: DNS servers, time servers, and boot files. When workstation receives DHCP OFFER, workstation accepts 172.16.225.190 as its IP address and replies to server with DHCP REQUEST message. This packet tells the DHCP server that his offer of the IP address has been accepted. Transaction ID value is the same as DHCP DISCOVERY and DHCP OFFER because it identifies DHCP set of packets from each other. Source address is 0.0.0.0. It means that still IP is not assigned to workstation yet. Destination IP address is 255.255.255.255 which indicates that DHCP REQUEST is also broadcasted. Requested IP address is 172.16.225.190 which was offered in DHCP OFFER packet by server. DHCP ACK DHCP ACK– When workstation receives DHCP REQUEST message requesting for the offered IP address, it looks into the DHCP pool to confirm that the offered IP address is still available. If IP address is still available in the pool, server replies with DHCP ACK packet to the workstation to confirm the lease length and other parameters. Assigned IP address is 172.16.225.190 Renewal time value is 6 hours, after expiration of this period of time lease will be
  • 39. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40. Naoto In Detective Prince From the outside, Naoto seems cool, calm, and collected. At times she can come off as cold or unemotional, but only because, despite her small stature, she attempts to put on the air of someone much more mature than her age. Through this demeanor (and while masquerading as a male), she earned the title of "Detective Prince," and was a consultant of the police, although she also often worked on her own. Even with this exterior, however, it's easier to illicit an emotional reaction out of Naoto than it first appears. This is especially true when dealing with a case, or when someone close to her is being threatened. Despite her serious appearance, she can act quite childish and narrow–minded at times. Her work and her job is one of her driving forces; her parents were both detectives, and died during an investigation when she was young. Partly out of adoration and partly to find her place, she started training soon after the accident to become a detective and continue the Shirogane line. It's no small matter; Naoto is a workaholic. Although she works as a consultant for the police, she is also often on her own, and will fall just short of doing anything to solve a case. When it became obvious that the police had arrested the wrong suspect in the Inaba murders, Naoto acts as a decoy (and the next victim) by readily ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This acceptance that she strives for has two dimensions; she both wants to be accepted and respected in the workplace, and accepted by her peers as a friend. In the workplace, she was (and still is) very rarely taken seriously because of her age, despite her accomplishments. However, at the end of her social link, she vows to keep working cases and trying harder so that she'll one day be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41. College Vs Highschool Research Paper What similarities and differences can be identified between college and Highschool? Similarities and differences between the two institutions can be observed through the amount of class work, interactions between the student and faculty, social interactions, and the amount of time in class. There is a higher demand for class work in High school than in college. In one class at a college, you may have and average of 6 to 8 assignments the whole semester whereas a high school course may ask for upwards of thirty assignments or more. These amount effects an individual's GPA significantly. This is because having multiple assignments ack as a safety net whereas one F on an assignment in college may drop your grade from an A to a C with little or ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...