INTRODUCTION A novel technique has been developed and demonstrated at Penn State to map the proteins that read and regulate chromosomes An international team of microbiologists led by Indiana University researchers has identified a new bacterial growth process , one that occurs at a single end or pole of the cell instead of uniform
PART A IMPORTANT GENE- REGULATION PROTEINS PINPOINTED BY NEW METHOD ScienceDaily (Jan. 18, 2012)
PART B IMPORTANT GENE-REGULATION PROTEINS PINPOINTED BY NEW METHOD•The new techniqueprecisely pinpoints theirlocation, and has thepotential to take highresolution snapshots ofproteins as they regulate ormiss regulate an entiregenome. ScienceDaily (Jan. 18, 2012)
PART CIMPORTANT GENE-REGULATION PROTEINS PINPOINTED BY NEW METHOD The research process began by their using a molecular tool called an exonuclease to remove DNA that is not bound by one of the gene-regulating proteins. They then determined the nucleotide sequence for each of the remaining protein-bound DNA bundles. This technique is known as CHIP-EXO ScienceDaily (Jan. 18, 2012)
IMPORTANT GENE-REGULATION PROTEINS PINPOINTED BY NEW PART D METHOD Technique CHIP-EXO Reduce any binding site singlenucleotide THROUGH million nucleotides of the genomes. provides an unprecedented view of how genes are regulated. is a low-noise technique that reveals two to five times more binding sites, which provides a much more complete picture of the genes that are regulated by a particular protein, and a greater understanding of their structural organization across genomes . ScienceDaily (Jan. 18, 2012)
IMPORTANT GENE-REGULATION PROTEINS PINPOINTED BY NEW METHODPERSONAL COMMENTIts important know about the gene-regulation proteins,because this allows to determine the different type of cells,and a better picture of how the gene pathways work inthe normal development of the human body and when apathology exist. ScienceDaily (Jan. 18, 2012)
PART A POLAR GROWTH AT THE BACTERIAL SCALE REVEALS POTENTIAL NEW TARGETS FOR ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY. ScienceDaily (Jan. 17, 2012)
PART BBased on past detailed studies of rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coliand Bacillus subtilis, it has been assumedthat most bacteria grow by binary fission,a dispersed mode of growth involvinginsertion of new cell wall materialuniformly along the long axis of the cell.Growth requires breaking the cell wall atnumerous places along the cylinder toallow insertion of new cell wall material,enabling uniform elongation of the cell,with the process culminated by cleavageat the mid-point of the cell to create twosymmetric new cells. ScienceDaily (Jan. 17, 2012)
PART COuter membrane proteins of an Agrobacterium tumefacienscell were labeled in red, with images taken every 50 minutesas the cell grew. In panels three and four it is clear that thecell on the left (red) has kept all the labeled proteins, whereasthe other cell has all new surface proteins. Credit: Image courtesy of Indiana University ScienceDaily (Jan. 17, 2012)
PART D ScienceDaily (Jan. 17, 2012) using time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was observed using four species of bacteria Polar growth of four bacterial species , the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the human pathogens Brucella abortus and Ochrobactrum anthropi these bacteria are members of a class of bacteria called the Alphaproteobacteria. the results show that polar growth is present in different types of bacteria including types that are outside the classroomalphaproteobacteria.
POLAR GROWTH AT THE BACTERIAL SCALE REVEALS POTENTIAL NEW TARGETS FOR ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY. PERSONAL COMMENTThis process of bacterial growth is important because fromthe molecular biology scientist can do some procedures,the objective is improve the clinical practice , from studycellular method and antibacterial strategies to therapieswith organs, systems, and whole human body, preventingdiseases. ScienceDaily (Jan. 17, 2012)
MEDICAL UTILITY the study of molecularstructures facilitate better understanding of medicine in their practice.
MEDICAL UTILITY investigations allow this typeof progress in medical treatment, as both take preventivemeasures on the development of some diseases caused by specific characteristics of the organismsthat had never been explored in detail. these studies promote better health in the human population.
MEDICAL UTILITYgene regulatory proteins polar growth of bacteria allows a more complete vision of antibiotic therapy allowed. the normal and abnormalhuman development in the disease PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION
Important Gene-Regulation Proteins Pinpointed by New Method.sciencedaily.2012,january 18, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/1201181 32330.htm Polar Growth at the Bacterial Scale Reveals Potential New Targets for Antibiotic Therapy.sciencedaily.2012,january 17, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/1201171 91421.htm MARTINEZ S. LINA MARIA, Biología molecular. 6 ed. Medellin; UPB.fac. de medicina 2011, p 10-14;42-55.