Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to
protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a
community in the ...
Research Problem
• Communities along Laguna Torrecilla source of heavy metal discharge to
Laguna Torrecilla and Boca de Ca...
Research Problem
Overview of Project
• Multi-disciplinary Research
– Biophysical /Nanotechnology: Development of Heavy
Metal Sensor
– Ecolo...
Strategic Plan of Sea Grant Puerto Rico
2014 - 2017
Healthy Ecosystems and Habitats
GOAL: Widespread use of ecosystem-base...
Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to
protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a
community in the ...
Sensor for Heavy Metals
monitoring
Background
Objectives
Methodology
Hypothesis
Background
• Electrochemical three-electrode sensors for trace determination of
elements in liquids can be utilized in man...
Background
• Graphene is a nanoscale allotrope of carbon like
carbon nanotubes. Unlike graphite, the most common
allotrope...
Objectives and Hypothesis
1. Synthesize carbon nanostructure material by Hot
Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) or...
Objective and Hypothesis
2. Create sensor electrode with carbon nanostructure
copper substrate attached. Characterization ...
Methodology
• Synthesis: mix H2 CH4 gases with different concentration
at 20 Torr pressure in 15-90 minutes time intervals...
Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to
protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a
community in the ...
Background
 In our study we are evaluating the effect of high Hg
concentration on species of coral that are considered
se...
Background
 Untreated sewage and runoff, discharge in Laguna Torrecillas
have higher concentration of Hg, which have leth...
Hg concentration in Laguna Torrecillas

SJBEP (San Juan Bay Estuary Partnership). 2001.
Comprehensive Conservation and
Man...
Table showing coral health and source of Hg in study
area
Picture showing coral reef health condition
in Puerto Rico
Objectives and Hypothesis
Objective 1 - Study of effect of Hg concentration on coral survival

Hypothesis - Adult colonies...
Method
 We will collect colonies of coral species containing zooxanthellae
using a hammer and chisel from 1 to 1.5 m deep...
Method
 Temperature of container we will keep less than required
for bleaching.
 We will use Culebra condition as contro...
Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to
protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a
community in the ...
Objectives and Hypotheses
Objective .
COLLABORATIVE CITIZEN SCIENCE:
Educate and engage community about the magnitude and ...
Methodology
Identification of Community Leaders and Community Members (adults, students in
schools, both) to help collect,...
COPI: La Corporacion Pinones
Se Integra
Community based, non profit
Incorporated 1999
Partners: DRNA
Sponsors: Estuario de...
Methodology
•

Measure social learning in community by conducting surveys before and after
educational workshops.

•

Meas...
Evaluation of Social Learning from
Collaborative Citizen Science

Jordan et al. 2012.
Annual Budget
• Sensor Development
• Coral Bioassay Experiment
• Collaborative Citizen Science

$ 8,000
$11,000
$ 5,600

T...
References
 Bastidas, C., & García, E. M. (2004). Sublethal effects of mercury and its
distribution in the coral Porites ...
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Team Healthy Coral Reef, Healthy People Pre-proposal Presentation

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University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus.
Environmental Science Department.
Coastal Environment Course.

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Team Healthy Coral Reef, Healthy People Pre-proposal Presentation

  1. 1. Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a community in the San Juan Bay Estuary watershed Abelardo Colon Nieves Molly Ramsey, Shweta Sharma
  2. 2. Research Problem • Communities along Laguna Torrecilla source of heavy metal discharge to Laguna Torrecilla and Boca de Cangrejo. • Coral reef communities of Boca de Cangrejo highly degraded by sedimentation and heavy metal discharges • Community awareness about their role in coral reef conservation and management. • Expensive to monitor heavy metal concentration in San Juan Bay Estuary. Photos from J. Bauza
  3. 3. Research Problem
  4. 4. Overview of Project • Multi-disciplinary Research – Biophysical /Nanotechnology: Development of Heavy Metal Sensor – Ecology/Toxicology: Monitoring of coral reef species and experimentation of heavy metal toxicity to sensitive coral reef species • Collaborative Community Science – Resource Users: Community along Laguna Torrecilla – Resource Managers: San Juan Bay Estuary Program, potentially DRNA and PRASA – Researchers: UPR-RP
  5. 5. Strategic Plan of Sea Grant Puerto Rico 2014 - 2017 Healthy Ecosystems and Habitats GOAL: Widespread use of ecosystem-based management approaches to managing land, water and living resources. Learning outcomes: Residents, resource managers and businesses understand the effects of human activities and environmental changes on coastal resources. Resource managers have an understanding of the social factors, policies and human processes that shape the seascape and habitats. Action outcomes: Residents, resource managers and business collaborate, in an open and integrated manner, to facilitate the implementation of ecosystem-based management. Consequence outcomes: Residents, resource managers and business owners integrate social, natural and physical sciences when managing resources and work with all sectors in the decisionmaking process. Performance measures: Sea Grant-sponsored research projects incorporate, as partners and collaborators, the following: resource users, resource managers and researchers.
  6. 6. Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a community in the San Juan Bay Estuary watershed Abelardo Colon Nieves Molly Ramsey, Shweta Sharma
  7. 7. Sensor for Heavy Metals monitoring Background Objectives Methodology Hypothesis
  8. 8. Background • Electrochemical three-electrode sensors for trace determination of elements in liquids can be utilized in many areas. Their sensing properties are usually determined by the properties of the working electrodes. High active electrode area on the miniaturized sensor is to create high surface area nanostructures for better work. • The glassy carbon electrode modified by a nanoporous composite film was used successfully for the simultaneous voltammetry determination of a trace level of Cd(II) and Cu(II). One way of fabricating a low-cost small sensor with solid electrodes is use of the thick-film technology (TFT). • TFT sensors is their low dimensions, good reproducibility, mechanical, electrical properties of electrodes, low cost of the electrodes and a well accessible and ecological fabrication process.
  9. 9. Background • Graphene is a nanoscale allotrope of carbon like carbon nanotubes. Unlike graphite, the most common allotrope, graphene is quasi-two-dimensional, since electron can only move between carbon atoms in the 2D lattice. That’s make graphene sheet a ballistically carrier of electrons in their surface thereby conducting electricity. (Pollar, 2011.) • Recent studies done by National Tsing Hua University has been shown the synthesis of single to few layer Graphene via CVD process on Nickel substrate (Zhen-Yu Juan et al, 2013.) showing that the industrial production of this material can be done at large scale production.
  10. 10. Objectives and Hypothesis 1. Synthesize carbon nanostructure material by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) or Tube Furnace Chemical Vapor Deposition (TFCVD) in Copper substrate. Characterize nanostructure material by RAMAN, SEM, TEM microscopy and AFM. Hypothesis 1: If we do a mix of CH4 and H2 gases in high temperature in a specific amount of time in HFCVD or TBCVD with a Copper substrate then, carbon nanostructures like graphene will grow in a copper substrate by HFCVD or TFCVD.
  11. 11. Objective and Hypothesis 2. Create sensor electrode with carbon nanostructure copper substrate attached. Characterization of electrode with heavy metals solutions at laboratory and at different sites at Laguna Torrecillas in the San Juan estuary. Hypothesis 2: If an electrode sensor for heavy metals that is made of carbon nanotubes and is more sensitive by higher surface area comparing it to graphite then, an electrode sensor for heavy metals made of graphene will be more sensitive in comparison of the nanotube sensor.
  12. 12. Methodology • Synthesis: mix H2 CH4 gases with different concentration at 20 Torr pressure in 15-90 minutes time intervals with Copper or Nickel substrate in HFCVD. • Electrode: Put copper or Nickel substrates in tree electrode electrochemical sensor in voltammetry determination of liquids metals. • Test: put electrochemical sensor with different concentration of heavy metals for detection of analytical signal. Measure liquids metal concentration at 3 points of the Laguna Torrecillas/Boca Cangrejos area with calibrated electrode sensor elaborated in laboratory.
  13. 13. Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a community in the San Juan Bay Estuary watershed Abelardo Colon Nieves Molly Ramsey, Shweta Sharma
  14. 14. Background  In our study we are evaluating the effect of high Hg concentration on species of coral that are considered sensitive. Those sensitive species require a higher abundance of zooxanthellae to survive.  There are certain coral reef species found in Puerto Rico that contain abundant zooxanthellae and other species that do not contain. For e.g. Hermatypic gorgonians require abundant zooxanthellae in their tissue for survival while Black corals do not (Carlos Goenaga, 1991).
  15. 15. Background  Untreated sewage and runoff, discharge in Laguna Torrecillas have higher concentration of Hg, which have lethal effect on corals of Boca de Congrejo. Among heavy metals we are considering mercury due to it’s higher toxicity.  Concentration of Hg toxic to coral reef species range from 0.03 to 0.2 mg/l. (C.Bastidas & E.M Garcia 2004)  Laguna Torrecillas have high Hg concentration 0.05mg/gm so all the sensitive species will die in Boca de Congrejo. Culebra have low Hg concentration so sensitive as well as resistant both variety can exist in Culebra
  16. 16. Hg concentration in Laguna Torrecillas SJBEP (San Juan Bay Estuary Partnership). 2001. Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for the San Juan Bay Estuary. San Juan Bay Estuary Partnership, San Juan, PR.
  17. 17. Table showing coral health and source of Hg in study area
  18. 18. Picture showing coral reef health condition in Puerto Rico
  19. 19. Objectives and Hypothesis Objective 1 - Study of effect of Hg concentration on coral survival Hypothesis - Adult colonies of sensitive coral species will have a lower survivorship in tank with Hg concentration representative of condition at Boca de Congrejo than in tanks with Hg concentrations representative of condition at Culebra. Objective 2 - Monitor abundance of sensitive coral reef species in Boca de Congrejo and in Culebra. Hypothesis- Because zooxanthellae are sensitive to Hg, we hypothesize that there is a low relative abundance of sensitive coral reef species in the system of Boca de Congrejo and a higher relative abundance of sensitive coral reef species in the system of Culebra.
  20. 20. Method  We will collect colonies of coral species containing zooxanthellae using a hammer and chisel from 1 to 1.5 m deep reef flat from Boca de Cangrejo/Pinones and Culebra.  We will transport corals to the laboratory in 40 l sea water container within 2 hrs of collection and thoroughly cleaned of associated biota.  We will do two semi static bioassay ( with water renewal every 3 d ) in 11 to 15 days. This will be represented as bioassay I and II respectively.  For each bioassay 3 coral colonies will be used as replicates in each concentration of Hg
  21. 21. Method  Temperature of container we will keep less than required for bleaching.  We will use Culebra condition as control to evaluate the potential change in corals during the bioassay acclimatization period .
  22. 22. Healthy coral reefs, healthy people: Using technology to protect coral reefs and improve well-being of a community in the San Juan Bay Estuary watershed Abelardo Colon Nieves Molly Ramsey, Shweta Sharma
  23. 23. Objectives and Hypotheses Objective . COLLABORATIVE CITIZEN SCIENCE: Educate and engage community about the magnitude and sources of heavy metals and the effects of heavy metals on coral reefs. Engage resource users, managers, and researchers into the science research for co-learning. Hypothesis. The process of active engagement in scientific process measuring concentrations of heavy metals and studying the effects of heavy metals on coral reef systems we will increase the resource users knowledge and understanding about ecological relationship between their activities and coral reef communities of Boca de Cangrejo. We will increase the resource managers understanding of the social and environmental processes involved in the heavy metal pollution problem.
  24. 24. Methodology Identification of Community Leaders and Community Members (adults, students in schools, both) to help collect, analyze, contribute to study design. COLI will assist us. 187 km 4.2 Sector Boca de Cangrejos, Piñones-Loíza
  25. 25. COPI: La Corporacion Pinones Se Integra Community based, non profit Incorporated 1999 Partners: DRNA Sponsors: Estuario de la Bahia de San Juan COPI is committed to finding alternatives to existing social problems that deteriorate Pinones in order to impress quality of life of residents, families, and visitors. COPI is focus on strengthening the community of Pinones through numerous sustainable development initiatives, recognizing the peculiarities and necessities of community residents and its business community. COPI tries to promote an authentic process of community participation empowerment and mobilization through social improvement actions and microenterprise development Offer lectures for groups on community development, natural resources, economic development, culture and environment conservation, among others.
  26. 26. Methodology • Measure social learning in community by conducting surveys before and after educational workshops. • Measure toxicity of coral community to heavy metal concentrations found in – • Community members assist in sampling from coral reef systems. Take photographs of samples, assist with species identification on site. • Community member share experience and results from study on reef community health with community during one of presentations/workshops. • Measure species abundance of coral species (potential) • using photographic data taken at coral reefs • Measure Hg and heavy metal concentrations using sensor technology • outflow pipes • runoff areas • Evaluate learning • Using results from surveys conducted before, during, and after quantify learning based on learning outcomes identified at the beginning of the project.
  27. 27. Evaluation of Social Learning from Collaborative Citizen Science Jordan et al. 2012.
  28. 28. Annual Budget • Sensor Development • Coral Bioassay Experiment • Collaborative Citizen Science $ 8,000 $11,000 $ 5,600 Total (w/o stipend) $24,600
  29. 29. References  Bastidas, C., & García, E. M. (2004). Sublethal effects of mercury and its distribution in the coral Porites astreoides. Marine Ecology Progress Series,267, 133-143.  Goenaga, C., & Boulon, R. (1992). The state of Puerto Rican corals: An aid to managers. Report submitted to Caribbean Fisheries Management Council.  B. Pollard. 2011. Growing Graphene via Chemical Vapor Deposition. Department of Physics, Pomona College.  J. Praseka, J. Hubaleka, M. Adameka, O. Jasekb. Carbon nanotubes grown directly on printed electrode of electrochemical sensor. Department of Microelectronics, Brno University of Technology, Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University.  Warne, A. G., Webb, R. M., & Larsen, M. C. (2005). Water, sediment, and nutrient discharge characteristics of rivers in Puerto Rico, and their potential influence on coral reefs. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey.

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