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Chapter 19The School-Age Child
Objectives• Describe the physical and psychosocial  development of children from 6 to 12 years of  age, listing age-specif...
Objectives (cont.)• Contrast two major theoretical viewpoints of  personality development during the school  years.• Discu...
General Characteristics• Ages 6-12 years• More engrossed in fact than fantasy• Develop first close peer relationships outs...
General Characteristics (cont.)• Progress from the skill of writing or reading to  understanding what is written or read• ...
General Characteristics (cont.)• Erikson: stage of industry• Freud: sexual latency• Piaget: concrete operationsElsevier it...
General Characteristics (cont.)• Between 6 and 12 years of age    – Self-esteem becomes very important in the      develop...
Physical Growth• Slows until just before puberty• Weight gain is more rapid than increase in  height• Brain has reached ap...
Physical Growth (cont.)• Loss of primary teeth begins around 6 years    – Four permanent teeth erupt per year• GI tract mo...
Physical Growth (cont.)• Important to note    – Size is not correlated with emotional maturity    – Problems can occur whe...
Gender Identity• Sex role development influenced by parents• Differential treatment and identification    – In the family ...
Sex Education• Lifelong process• Accomplished less by talking or formal  instruction than by the whole climate of the  hom...
Sex Education (cont.)• Boys should be                                                       • Can be taught in  prepared f...
Sexually Transmitted Infections              (STIs)• Education on how to prevent STIs and  HIV/AIDS should be presented in...
Nursing Tip• When discussing sexuality with school-age  children, it is necessary to review slang or  street terms• Most c...
Influences from the Wider WorldElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc...
School-Related Tasks• Children bring what they have learned and  experienced at home to school• May be unable to verbalize...
School-Related Tasks (cont.)• Holistic attitude must  • Anticipatory guidance  also focus on qualities   includes  such as...
School-Related Tasks (cont.)• Parents and children should set realistic  goals• Develop heightened awareness for things  s...
Play• Involve increased physical and intellectual  skills and some fantasy• Culture of the school-age child involves  memb...
Observing Play• Play is essential to growth and development• Provides link between spontaneity of  childhood and disciplin...
Latchkey Children• Subject to higher rate of accidents and are at  risk of feeling isolated and alone• Back-up adult shoul...
Physical, Mental, Emotional, and              Social DevelopmentElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Sau...
The 6-Year-Old• Energetic and on-the-go• Likes to start tasks, but does not always  complete them• Talks for a purpose rat...
The 6-Year-Old (cont.)• Boys and girls play together, but begin to  prefer to associate with children of the same  sex• Ne...
The 7-Year-Old•   Sets high standards for themselves•   Good sense of humor•   More modest•   Enjoys being active but also...
The 7-Year-Old (cont.)•   Knows seasons and months•   Understands beginning concept of math•   Hands are steadier•   Activ...
The 8-Year-Old•   Wants to do everything•   Can play alone for a longer period of time•   Creative•   Enjoys group activit...
The 8-Year-Old (cont.)• Arms and hands appear to grow faster than  rest of body• Muscles better developed• Enjoys competit...
The 9-Year-Old•   Dependable•   Shows more interest in family activities•   Assumes more responsibility•   More likely to ...
The 9-Year-Old (cont.)• Hand and eye coordination well-developed• Manual activities are managed with skill• About 10 hours...
PreadolescenceElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.   32
The 10-Year-Old• Marks beginning of preadolescence• Girls more physically mature than boys• Begins to show self-direction•...
The 10-Year-Old (cont.)• Girls more poised than boys• Slang terms used• Begins to identify himself or herself with skills ...
11- and 12-Year-Olds• Intense, observant, energetic• May be argumentative and meddlesome• Hormone influence on physical gr...
11- and 12-Year-Olds (cont.)•   Less concerned with appearance•   Seem preoccupied•   Ability to concentrate decreases•   ...
11- and 12-Year-Olds (cont.)• Need freedom within limits and recognition  that they are no longer infants• Should know why...
Guidance and Health SupervisionElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc...
Health Examinations• Usually given in spring preceding school  admission• If inattentive at school, should be screened  fo...
Health Examinations (cont.)• If ill, the school-age child can understand  simple explanations of the illness• Need time an...
Pet Ownership• Pets that have close contact with children  have the potential of transmitting disease• Handicapped childre...
Pet Ownership (cont.)• Age of child, allergies, immune issues are  major deciding factors• Infections can occur via contac...
Pet Ownership (cont.)• Having an allergy to animal dander does not  always rule out having a pet• Cats are most often the ...
Question for Review• Why is teaching fitness and exercises in  school important to growth and development?Elsevier items a...
Review•   Objectives•   Key Terms•   Key Points•   Online Resources•   Critical Thinking Questions•   Review QuestionsElse...
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  1. 1. Chapter 19The School-Age Child
  2. 2. Objectives• Describe the physical and psychosocial development of children from 6 to 12 years of age, listing age-specific events and type of guidance where appropriate.• Discuss how to assist parents in preparing a child for school.• List two ways in which school life influences the growing child.• Discuss accident prevention in this age group.Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2
  3. 3. Objectives (cont.)• Contrast two major theoretical viewpoints of personality development during the school years.• Discuss the role of the school nurse in providing guidance and health supervision for the school-age child.• Discuss the value of pet ownership for the healthy school-age child and the family education necessary for the allergic or immunocompromised child.Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3
  4. 4. General Characteristics• Ages 6-12 years• More engrossed in fact than fantasy• Develop first close peer relationships outside the family group• Often judged by their performance• Sense of industry and development of positive self-esteem directly influenced by peer groupElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4
  5. 5. General Characteristics (cont.)• Progress from the skill of writing or reading to understanding what is written or read• Must work toward a delayed reward• Parents need to be guided to understand that multiple unsuccessful experiences can lead to the development of a fear of tryingElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5
  6. 6. General Characteristics (cont.)• Erikson: stage of industry• Freud: sexual latency• Piaget: concrete operationsElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6
  7. 7. General Characteristics (cont.)• Between 6 and 12 years of age – Self-esteem becomes very important in the developmental process – They are evaluated according to their social contributions – Feelings about themselves are important and should be assessedElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7
  8. 8. Physical Growth• Slows until just before puberty• Weight gain is more rapid than increase in height• Brain has reached approximately adult size• Muscular coordination improved• Lower center of gravityElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8
  9. 9. Physical Growth (cont.)• Loss of primary teeth begins around 6 years – Four permanent teeth erupt per year• GI tract more mature – Stomach capacity increases – Caloric needs decrease• Heart grows slowly – Smaller in proportion to body sizeElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9
  10. 10. Physical Growth (cont.)• Important to note – Size is not correlated with emotional maturity – Problems can occur when a child faces higher expectations because he or she is taller and heavier than peersElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10
  11. 11. Gender Identity• Sex role development influenced by parents• Differential treatment and identification – In the family – In society• Influence of school environment – Aggressive behavior more accepted in boys than girls• Incorporation of traditionally masculine and feminine positive attributes may lead to fuller human functioningElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11
  12. 12. Sex Education• Lifelong process• Accomplished less by talking or formal instruction than by the whole climate of the home• Questions should be answered simply• Correct names for genitalia should also be used• Private masturbation is normalElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12
  13. 13. Sex Education (cont.)• Boys should be • Can be taught in prepared for the context of the erections and normal process nocturnal emissions and function of the• Girls should be human body prepared for • Facts must be menarche and provided taught how to use the suppliesElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13
  14. 14. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)• Education on how to prevent STIs and HIV/AIDS should be presented in simple terms• Factual and concrete information is an essential component• Facts concerning harmful effects of drugs and unprotected sex should be communicated to the child without scare tacticsElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14
  15. 15. Nursing Tip• When discussing sexuality with school-age children, it is necessary to review slang or street terms• Most children hear the terms but may be confused about their meaningElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15
  16. 16. Influences from the Wider WorldElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16
  17. 17. School-Related Tasks• Children bring what they have learned and experienced at home to school• May be unable to verbalize needs• Success requires an integration of cognitive, receptive, and expressive skillsElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17
  18. 18. School-Related Tasks (cont.)• Holistic attitude must • Anticipatory guidance also focus on qualities includes such as – Review of normal – Artistic expression physiology – Creativity – How it changes with – Joy puberty – – Child is encouraged to Cooperation ask questions at the – Responsibility time they arise – Industry – LoveElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18
  19. 19. School-Related Tasks (cont.)• Parents and children should set realistic goals• Develop heightened awareness for things such as attendance problems, tardiness, and signs of loneliness or depression – Should continue to encourage children to discuss school problems, feelings, and worries• Homework is the responsibility of the childElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19
  20. 20. Play• Involve increased physical and intellectual skills and some fantasy• Culture of the school-age child involves membership in a group of some type – Team sports, competition – Enables the child to feel powerful and in control• Mastering new skills helps the child feel a sense of accomplishmentElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20
  21. 21. Observing Play• Play is essential to growth and development• Provides link between spontaneity of childhood and disciplined adult activities• Some elements to assess – Motivation and intensity of engagement – Relation to reality or creativity – Choosing how to play – Self-control – Sharing – Skills being usedElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21
  22. 22. Latchkey Children• Subject to higher rate of accidents and are at risk of feeling isolated and alone• Back-up adult should be available to the child in case of emergenciesElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22
  23. 23. Physical, Mental, Emotional, and Social DevelopmentElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23
  24. 24. The 6-Year-Old• Energetic and on-the-go• Likes to start tasks, but does not always complete them• Talks for a purpose rather than for the sake of talking• Vocabulary consists of 2500 words• Requires 11 to 13 hours of sleep per nightElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24
  25. 25. The 6-Year-Old (cont.)• Boys and girls play together, but begin to prefer to associate with children of the same sex• Needs time and support to help adjust to school• Parents must observe children for signs of fatigue and stress• Increased exposure to infectious diseases – Stress importance of immunizationsElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25
  26. 26. The 7-Year-Old• Sets high standards for themselves• Good sense of humor• More modest• Enjoys being active but also enjoys periods of restElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26
  27. 27. The 7-Year-Old (cont.)• Knows seasons and months• Understands beginning concept of math• Hands are steadier• Active play still important• Becoming more independentElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27
  28. 28. The 8-Year-Old• Wants to do everything• Can play alone for a longer period of time• Creative• Enjoys group activities• Behaves better for company than for family• Hero worship evidentElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28
  29. 29. The 8-Year-Old (cont.)• Arms and hands appear to grow faster than rest of body• Muscles better developed• Enjoys competitive sports• Likes to argue• Need to teach child how to express anger in an acceptable mannerElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29
  30. 30. The 9-Year-Old• Dependable• Shows more interest in family activities• Assumes more responsibility• More likely to complete tasks• More able to accept criticism for their actions• Worries and mild compulsions are commonElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30
  31. 31. The 9-Year-Old (cont.)• Hand and eye coordination well-developed• Manual activities are managed with skill• About 10 hours of sleep are needed each night• Permanent teeth still erupting• More active in competitive sports• Important to teach proper technique and the use of adequate safety devicesElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31
  32. 32. PreadolescenceElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32
  33. 33. The 10-Year-Old• Marks beginning of preadolescence• Girls more physically mature than boys• Begins to show self-direction• Wants to be independent• Group ideas more important than individual ones• Sexual curiosity continuesElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33
  34. 34. The 10-Year-Old (cont.)• Girls more poised than boys• Slang terms used• Begins to identify himself or herself with skills that pertain to the sex role• Takes more interest in personal appearance• Knows abstract numbersElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34
  35. 35. 11- and 12-Year-Olds• Intense, observant, energetic• May be argumentative and meddlesome• Hormone influence on physical growth more apparent• Need freedom within limits and recognition they are no longer infantsElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35
  36. 36. 11- and 12-Year-Olds (cont.)• Less concerned with appearance• Seem preoccupied• Ability to concentrate decreases• Group participation still important• Interested in their bodies and watch for signs of growing upElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36
  37. 37. 11- and 12-Year-Olds (cont.)• Need freedom within limits and recognition that they are no longer infants• Should know why parents make a decision• Conscience enables them to understand and accept reasonable discipline• Will ignore constant verbal nagging• Chores are good teaching tool for this ageElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 37
  38. 38. Guidance and Health SupervisionElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 38
  39. 39. Health Examinations• Usually given in spring preceding school admission• If inattentive at school, should be screened for vision or hearing deficits and language or learning disabilities• Assessment of physical activity and school performance is importantElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 39
  40. 40. Health Examinations (cont.)• If ill, the school-age child can understand simple explanations of the illness• Need time and a place to study• Must learn to take responsibility for their assignments and school supplies• An allowance or at least a means of earning money provides children with opportunities to learn its valueElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 40
  41. 41. Pet Ownership• Pets that have close contact with children have the potential of transmitting disease• Handicapped children especially benefit from interacting with pets• Allows the ill child who feels separated from other people to feel companionship and positive attitudeElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 41
  42. 42. Pet Ownership (cont.)• Age of child, allergies, immune issues are major deciding factors• Infections can occur via contact with the pet’s saliva, feces, or urine, or by inhalation or skin contact with organisms• Risk factors can be further reduced if children are cautioned not to kiss pets, do not allow animals to sleep in bed with them, and are encouraged to perform hand hygieneElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 42
  43. 43. Pet Ownership (cont.)• Having an allergy to animal dander does not always rule out having a pet• Cats are most often the allergen offender because the allergens are secreted in the saliva and by sebaceous glands• If an allergenic pet is in the home, more frequent bathing of the animal can reduce some of the allergensElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 43
  44. 44. Question for Review• Why is teaching fitness and exercises in school important to growth and development?Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 44
  45. 45. Review• Objectives• Key Terms• Key Points• Online Resources• Critical Thinking Questions• Review QuestionsElsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 45

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