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B2.11 mutations

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B2.11 mutations

  1. 1. Mutations “A change in the sequence of DNA bases.” Congenital hypertrichosis Completely covered in hair except in the palms of their hands and feet No cure – options are drug treatment (side effects) or laser hair removal (painful, takes 1-4 years)
  2. 2. Homework Due Thursday 28th February. Research another example of genetic mutations ready for next lesson. Write down your example in your book along with a few sentences explaining about the mutation. If possible print out a picture too! Remember mutations can be harmful or a beneficial to an organism.
  3. 3. Mutations WALT: To be able to explain how mutations occur within an organism. WILF: ~ Recall that different proteins are made of up different numbers and sequences of amino acids. (C) ~ Explain that a mutation changes the DNA base sequence. (C) ~ Explain that mutations can be either harmful, beneficial or have no effect with examples (B) ~ Suggest why different amino acid sequences in proteins create different shapes (A) Keywords Mutation protein amino acid sickle cell anaemia
  4. 4. Following transcription and translation… The amino acid chain or polypeptide can then twist and fold in order to form a protein. Proteins are used throughout the body.
  5. 5. The folding of the polypeptide results in the protein having a specific 3d shape. For example… Haemoglobin Globular shape helps this protein to move around RBC easily. Keratin Long, strong, fibrous molecules.
  6. 6. Mutations How? “A change in the sequence of DNA bases.” A mistake is made when the DNA is being copied. An induced mutation.
  7. 7. Mutations What? “A change in the sequence of DNA bases.” Sickle cell disease. Bacteria being resistant to antibiotics.
  8. 8. 1. What is a mutation? 2. Explain why the 3d shape formed by the amino acid chains in haemoglobin are important. 3. Describe the effect of sickle-cell mutation on the shape of the red blood cell. 4. Explain why this mutation is a problem to people who have sickle cell disease. 5. Using your homework example of a mutation to discuss if this mutation is beneficial, a problem or neither to an organism.
  9. 9. The strongest link! Transcription Mutation Clone Meiosis Amino acid Mitosis Translation mRNA Haemoglobin Uracil Protein tRNA

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