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Lewis Structures Ac

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Lewis Structures Ac

  1. 1. I can draw a Lewis structure for a given molecule<br />Learning Targets<br />
  2. 2. Lewis structures are a visual representation of covalent bonding that indicates where the valence shell electrons are in the molecule.<br />Shared electron pairs are shown as lines and lone pairs (pairs of electrons not involved in bonding) are shown as dots.<br />Lewis Structures<br />
  3. 3. Atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons (octet). <br />An octet consists of full s and p orbitals.<br />Octet Rule Revisited<br />
  4. 4. Duet Rule<br />Hydrogen bonds to have 2 valence electrons<br />Boron <br />Boron bonds to have 6 valence electrons<br />Exceptions to the Octet Rule<br />
  5. 5. Sum all valence electrons from atoms in the molecules<br />Anion – add electrons equal to the charge<br />Cation – subtract electrons equal to the charge<br />Lewis Structures Rules<br />
  6. 6. Identify the central atom (least electronegative or first atom in the formula)<br />Write the symbol for the central atom surrounded by symbols for all other atoms bonded to the central atom<br />Lewis Structures Rules<br />
  7. 7. Connect atoms with a single bond (a line representing 2 electrons) to the central atom<br />Subtract bonding electrons from electron total<br />Lewis Structures Rules<br />
  8. 8. Use remaining electrons to complete the octets of all atoms bonded to the central atom<br />Place any remaining electrons on central atom<br />Lewis Structures Rules<br />
  9. 9. Check the octet of the central atom. Complete the central atom octet by using multiple bonds if necessary.<br />Lewis Structures Rules<br />
  10. 10. PCl3<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  11. 11. PCl3<br />Total electrons<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  12. 12. PCl3<br />Total electrons<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Cl = 3 x 7 = 21<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  13. 13. PCl3<br />Total electrons = 26<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Cl = 3 x 7 = 21<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  14. 14. PCl3<br />Total electrons = 26<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Cl = 3 x 7 = 21<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />Cl<br />P<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />
  15. 15. PCl3<br />Total electrons = 26 – 6 = 20<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Cl = 3 x 7 = 21<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />Cl<br />P<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />
  16. 16. PCl3<br />Total electrons = 26 – 6 = 20<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Cl = 3 x 7 = 21<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />P<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  17. 17. PCl3<br />Total electrons = 26 – 6 = 20 – 18 = 2<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Cl = 3 x 7 = 21<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />P<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  18. 18. PCl3<br />Total electrons = 26 – 6 = 20 – 18 = 2 – 2 = 0<br />P = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Cl = 3 x 7 = 21<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />P<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  19. 19. CH2Cl2<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  20. 20. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  21. 21. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons <br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />H = 2 x 1 = 2<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  22. 22. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons <br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />H = 2 x 1 = 2<br />Cl = 2 x 7 = 14<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  23. 23. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons = 20<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />H = 2 x 1 = 2<br />Cl = 2 x 7 = 14<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  24. 24. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons = 20<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />H = 2 x 1 = 2<br />Cl = 2 x 7 = 14<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />H<br />C<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />H<br />
  25. 25. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons = 20 – 8 = 12<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />H = 2 x 1 = 2<br />Cl = 2 x 7 = 14<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />H<br />C<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />H<br />
  26. 26. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons = 20 – 8 = 12<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />H = 2 x 1 = 2<br />Cl = 2 x 7 = 14<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />H<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />H<br />
  27. 27. CH2Cl2<br />Total electrons = 20 – 8 = 12 – 12 = 0<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />H = 2 x 1 = 2<br />Cl = 2 x 7 = 14<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />H<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />. .<br />. .<br />H<br />
  28. 28. CO2<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  29. 29. CO2<br />Total electrons<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  30. 30. CO2<br />Total electrons<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  31. 31. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  32. 32. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />
  33. 33. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16 – 4 = 12<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />
  34. 34. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16 – 4 = 12<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  35. 35. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16 – 4 = 12 – 12 = 0<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  36. 36. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16 – 4 = 12 – 12 = 0<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />Central atom octet not satisfied!<br />
  37. 37. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16 – 4 = 12 – 12 = 0<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />Create multiple bonds by borrowing lone pairs.<br />
  38. 38. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16 – 4 = 12 – 12 = 0<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  39. 39. CO2<br />Total electrons = 16 – 4 = 12 – 12 = 0<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />C<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />Octets on all atoms are now satisfied.<br />
  40. 40. HCN<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  41. 41. HCN<br />Total electrons<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  42. 42. HCN<br />Total electrons<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  43. 43. HCN<br />Total electrons<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  44. 44. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  45. 45. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />
  46. 46. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10 – 4 = 6<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />
  47. 47. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10 – 4 = 6<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  48. 48. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10 – 4 = 6 – 6 = 0<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  49. 49. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10 – 4 = 6 – 6 = 0<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />. .<br />. .<br />Central atom octet not satisfied!<br />
  50. 50. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10 – 4 = 6 – 6 = 0<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />. .<br />. .<br />Create multiple bonds by borrowing lone pairs.<br />
  51. 51. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10 – 4 = 6 – 6 = 0<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  52. 52. HCN<br />Total electrons = 10 – 4 = 6 – 6 = 0<br />H = 1 x 1 = 1<br />C = 1 x 4 = 4<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />C<br />N<br />H<br />. .<br />
  53. 53. NO2–<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  54. 54. NO2–<br />Total electrons<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  55. 55. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 17<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  56. 56. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 17 + 1 (for charge) = 18<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />
  57. 57. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />
  58. 58. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />
  59. 59. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  60. 60. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  61. 61. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  62. 62. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2 – 2 = 0<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  63. 63. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2 – 2 = 0<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />Central atom octet not satisfied!<br />
  64. 64. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2 – 2 = 0<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  65. 65. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2 – 2 = 0<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  66. 66. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2 – 2 = 0<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />
  67. 67. NO2–<br />Total electrons = 18 – 4 = 14 – 12 = 2 – 2 = 0<br />N = 1 x 5 = 5<br />O = 2 x 6 = 12<br />Practice Problems<br />Draw Lewis structures for the following molecules.<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />N<br />O<br />O<br />. .<br />. .<br />. .<br />Brackets are placed around the structure with the charge indicated outside of the brackets.<br />

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