Lev S. VygotskyLev S. Vygotsky
 Culture is the prime determinant of cognitiveCulture is the prime determinant of cognitiv...
The social formation of mindThe social formation of mind
Vygotsky believed thatVygotsky believed that
individual developme...
Mind evolution is continuousMind evolution is continuous
Unlike Piaget or Bruner,Unlike Piaget or Bruner,
Vygotsky focused...
Vygotsky’s theoretical assumptionsVygotsky’s theoretical assumptions
He rejected the idea that a single abstractHe rejecte...
He offered an alternative to Piaget’s constructivismHe offered an alternative to Piaget’s constructivism
Piaget: Mind mode...
MediationMediation
Mediation means thatMediation means that
human beingshuman beings
purposefullypurposefully
interpose to...
He states that byHe states that by
using activityusing activity
mediators, themediators, the
human being ishuman being is
...
MediationMediation
TwoTwo
phenomenaphenomena
marked themarked the
mediatedmediated
relationshiprelationship
of humansof hu...
MediationMediation  intelligenceintelligence  higher mentalhigher mental
processesprocesses
How peopleHow people
conve...
Higher mental processes: symbolicHigher mental processes: symbolic
mediationmediation
When a child tries to grasp an objec...
DecontextualizationDecontextualization
development. It appears as thedevelopment. It appears as the
detachment from the in...
MediationMediation  intelligenceintelligence  higher mentalhigher mental
processesprocesses
DuringDuring
humankind’shu...
Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development
(ZDP)(ZDP)
It represents one of the most obvious differenceIt rep...
Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development
(ZPD)(ZPD)This is the vygotskian concept thatThis is the vygotski...
Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development
Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development
(ZDP)(ZDP)
It supports a representation of intellectualIt support...
Learning, instruction andLearning, instruction and
development in Vygotsky’s viewdevelopment in Vygotsky’s view
The only g...
ScaffoldingScaffolding
Cognitive development inCognitive development in
the zone of proximalthe zone of proximal
developme...
Scaffolding:Scaffolding: the instructor becomes a supportive tool forthe instructor becomes a supportive tool for
the stud...
ScaffoldingScaffolding
In Vygotsky’s view, learning is an interactive, interpersonalIn Vygotsky’s view, learning is an int...
Scaffolding example:Scaffolding example:
Palincsar’s reciprocal learning (an instructional strategyPalincsar’s reciprocal ...
ReferencesReferences
Cognitive development theoriesCognitive development theories
http://education.indiana.edu/~p540/webco...
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Vygotsky

  1. 1. Lev S. VygotskyLev S. Vygotsky  Culture is the prime determinant of cognitiveCulture is the prime determinant of cognitive developmentdevelopment  Learning leads cognitive developmentLearning leads cognitive development
  2. 2. The social formation of mindThe social formation of mind Vygotsky believed thatVygotsky believed that individual development couldindividual development could not be understood withoutnot be understood without reference to the social andreference to the social and cultural context within whichcultural context within which such development issuch development is embeddedembedded
  3. 3. Mind evolution is continuousMind evolution is continuous Unlike Piaget or Bruner,Unlike Piaget or Bruner, Vygotsky focused on theVygotsky focused on the mechanism of themechanism of the development, excludingdevelopment, excluding distinguishabledistinguishable developmental stagesdevelopmental stages
  4. 4. Vygotsky’s theoretical assumptionsVygotsky’s theoretical assumptions He rejected the idea that a single abstractHe rejected the idea that a single abstract principle, such as equilibration, can explainprinciple, such as equilibration, can explain cognitive developmentcognitive development
  5. 5. He offered an alternative to Piaget’s constructivismHe offered an alternative to Piaget’s constructivism Piaget: Mind models the externalPiaget: Mind models the external worldworld Human beings make sense of their world byHuman beings make sense of their world by means of their mental structuresmeans of their mental structures Vygotsky: External world models the mind Knowledge is internalization of social activity
  6. 6. MediationMediation Mediation means thatMediation means that human beingshuman beings purposefullypurposefully interpose toolsinterpose tools between them andbetween them and their environment, intheir environment, in order to modify it andorder to modify it and obtain certainobtain certain benefits. Example:benefits. Example: farmers plough thefarmers plough the earth to acquire betterearth to acquire better crops.crops.
  7. 7. He states that byHe states that by using activityusing activity mediators, themediators, the human being ishuman being is able to modifyable to modify thethe environment,environment, and this is herand this is her way ofway of interacting withinteracting with the naturethe nature Mediation is aMediation is a central concept in Vygotsky’s view ofcentral concept in Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development.cognitive development. It offers a complementary perspective to the behaviourist view.
  8. 8. MediationMediation TwoTwo phenomenaphenomena marked themarked the mediatedmediated relationshiprelationship of humansof humans with theirwith their environmentenvironment :: The use of tools withinThe use of tools within social organized activitysocial organized activity The use of language as aThe use of language as a cultural form of mediationcultural form of mediation
  9. 9. MediationMediation  intelligenceintelligence  higher mentalhigher mental processesprocesses How peopleHow people convert socialconvert social relations intorelations into psychologicalpsychological functions?functions? They use different types of language (signs) asThey use different types of language (signs) as mediators between their minds and theirmediators between their minds and their environmentenvironment
  10. 10. Higher mental processes: symbolicHigher mental processes: symbolic mediationmediation When a child tries to grasp an object, and parents interpretWhen a child tries to grasp an object, and parents interpret this gesture as a pointing out to the object, they give herthis gesture as a pointing out to the object, they give her the object. She internalizes the gesture as a way ofthe object. She internalizes the gesture as a way of acquiring the object. After repeating this behaviour withacquiring the object. After repeating this behaviour with other objects, the mental representation of this behaviourother objects, the mental representation of this behaviour becomes more abstract. An interpersonal relation betweenbecomes more abstract. An interpersonal relation between child and parents becomes intrapersonal (child’schild and parents becomes intrapersonal (child’s representation of acquiring objects).representation of acquiring objects).
  11. 11. DecontextualizationDecontextualization development. It appears as thedevelopment. It appears as the detachment from the individualdetachment from the individual features of the environment . Anfeatures of the environment . An example is when children start toexample is when children start to play with abstract objects.play with abstract objects. The use of abstract language is the most important sign-mediated behaviour that occurs during cognitive
  12. 12. MediationMediation  intelligenceintelligence  higher mentalhigher mental processesprocesses DuringDuring humankind’shumankind’s evolution,evolution, more complexmore complex structures ofstructures of activityactivity mediated bymediated by more complexmore complex tools producetools produce more complexmore complex mentalmental structures.structures. Psychological toolsPsychological tools enable us to performenable us to perform higher mental functions:higher mental functions: various systems for countingvarious systems for counting  mnemonic techniquesmnemonic techniques algebraic symbol systemsalgebraic symbol systems works of artworks of art writingwriting schemes, diagrams, maps,schemes, diagrams, maps, and technical drawingsand technical drawings all sorts of conventionalall sorts of conventional signssigns
  13. 13. Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development (ZDP)(ZDP) It represents one of the most obvious differenceIt represents one of the most obvious difference between Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s view ofbetween Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s view of cognitive developmentcognitive development
  14. 14. Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development (ZPD)(ZPD)This is the vygotskian concept thatThis is the vygotskian concept that explains the mechanism of cognitiveexplains the mechanism of cognitive developmentdevelopment ZPD is actually the gap betweenZPD is actually the gap between actual competence level (whatactual competence level (what problem level a student is able toproblem level a student is able to independently solve), and theindependently solve), and the potential development level (whatpotential development level (what problem level could she solve withproblem level could she solve with guidance from a tutor)guidance from a tutor) ZPD is based on the mental functionsZPD is based on the mental functions that have not yet matured but arethat have not yet matured but are being in the process of maturation.being in the process of maturation.
  15. 15. Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development
  16. 16. Zone of proximal developmentZone of proximal development (ZDP)(ZDP) It supports a representation of intellectualIt supports a representation of intellectual development based on continuity.development based on continuity. It states that learning can force cognitiveIt states that learning can force cognitive developmentdevelopment It states the role of the teacher as a necessaryIt states the role of the teacher as a necessary mediator of child’s cognitive development.mediator of child’s cognitive development.
  17. 17. Learning, instruction andLearning, instruction and development in Vygotsky’s viewdevelopment in Vygotsky’s view The only good type of instruction is that which leadsThe only good type of instruction is that which leads the cognitive development.the cognitive development. The only good learning is that which is in advance ofThe only good learning is that which is in advance of the development. Learning that is situated within thethe development. Learning that is situated within the current developmental level is not desirable .current developmental level is not desirable . How could we understand the statement that someHow could we understand the statement that some learning doesn’t bring development?learning doesn’t bring development?
  18. 18. ScaffoldingScaffolding Cognitive development inCognitive development in the zone of proximalthe zone of proximal development stresses thedevelopment stresses the role of a social partner ofrole of a social partner of the student (a teacher or athe student (a teacher or a more skilled peer).more skilled peer).
  19. 19. Scaffolding:Scaffolding: the instructor becomes a supportive tool forthe instructor becomes a supportive tool for the student in the zone of proximal development. Thethe student in the zone of proximal development. The characteristics of an ideal teacher are those of a scaffold:characteristics of an ideal teacher are those of a scaffold: It provides supportIt provides support It functions as a toolIt functions as a tool It extends the rangeIt extends the range of the workerof the worker It allows toIt allows to accomplish a taskaccomplish a task otherwise impossibleotherwise impossible It is used selectively,It is used selectively, when neededwhen needed
  20. 20. ScaffoldingScaffolding In Vygotsky’s view, learning is an interactive, interpersonalIn Vygotsky’s view, learning is an interactive, interpersonal activity:activity: Instructor and student co-construct the solution to problemInstructor and student co-construct the solution to problem Inequality between partners resides only in their respective levelsInequality between partners resides only in their respective levels of understanding. Authority is sharedof understanding. Authority is shared The psychological mechanism is to create (external) activities thatThe psychological mechanism is to create (external) activities that will be later internalized by studentwill be later internalized by student
  21. 21. Scaffolding example:Scaffolding example: Palincsar’s reciprocal learning (an instructional strategyPalincsar’s reciprocal learning (an instructional strategy for improving reading comprehension). Intersubjectivityfor improving reading comprehension). Intersubjectivity comes together with scaffolding.comes together with scaffolding.
  22. 22. ReferencesReferences Cognitive development theoriesCognitive development theories http://education.indiana.edu/~p540/webcourse/develop.htmlhttp://education.indiana.edu/~p540/webcourse/develop.html Vygotsky Internet archiveVygotsky Internet archive http://www.marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/http://www.marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/ Theories in psychology. VygotskyTheories in psychology. Vygotsky http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Vygotsky.htmhttp://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Vygotsky.htm Vygotsky and language acquisitionVygotsky and language acquisition http://www.sk.com.br/sk-vygot.htmlhttp://www.sk.com.br/sk-vygot.html Zone of proximal development. Four stagesZone of proximal development. Four stages http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1zpd.htmhttp://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1zpd.htm Situating the Zone of Proximal Development Situating the Zone of Proximal Development  http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer82/marsh82.htmhttp://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer82/marsh82.htm Animation scafoldingAnimation scafolding http://www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/vygotskyconstructionism.htmhttp://www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/vygotskyconstructionism.htm These are not animations, but are good examples for iconic representations of scientific conceptsThese are not animations, but are good examples for iconic representations of scientific concepts (Bruner)(Bruner) http://auc.uow.edu.au/conf/Conf96/Papers/McNaught.htmlhttp://auc.uow.edu.au/conf/Conf96/Papers/McNaught.html Animation: Nerve Synapse (the same, Bruner)Animation: Nerve Synapse (the same, Bruner) http://camel2.conncoll.edu/academics/zoology/courses/zoo202/Nervous/synapse.htmlhttp://camel2.conncoll.edu/academics/zoology/courses/zoo202/Nervous/synapse.html Making sentencesMaking sentences http://www.cs.fsu.edu/~jtbauer/sentence.htmlhttp://www.cs.fsu.edu/~jtbauer/sentence.html

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