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### Class 7 presentation

1. 1. 2D Essentials Instructor: Laura Gerold, PE Catalog #10614113 { Class # 22784, 24113, 24136, & 24138 Class Start: January 18, 2012 Class End: May 16, 2012
2. 2. Questions . . .
3. 3. When do you include theprojection angle symbolon plans?  When you are working on plans that will be used in Europe or Asia.
4. 4. ELLIPSE TEMPLATESThese ellipse guides are usually designated by the ellipse angle, theangle at which a circle is viewed to appear as an ellipse.
5. 5. DRAWING A FOCI ELLIPSE Major axis = long axis of ellipse Minor axis = short axis of ellipse The foci of the ellipse are two special points E and F on the ellipses major axis and are equidistant from the center point. The sum of the distances from any point P on the ellipse to those two foci is constant and equal to the major axis ( PE + PF2= 2A ). Each of these two points is called a focus of the ellipse.
6. 6. DRAWING A FOCI ELLIPSE Let AB be the major axis and CD the minor axis To find foci E and F, draw arcs R with radius equal to half the major axis and centers at the end of the minor axis Between E and O on the major axis, mark at random a number of points. Using a random point (point 3), with E and F as centers and radii A-3 and B-3, draw arcs to intersect at four points 3’. Use the remaining points to find four additional points on the ellipse in the same manner. Sketch the ellipse lightly through the points
7. 7. Drawing an Ellipse Draw a major axis 5” long and a minor axis 2.5” long. Draw an ellipse by the foci method with at least five points in each quadrant
8. 8. DRAWING AN ARC TANGENT TO TWO LINES AT ACUTE OROBTUSE ANGLES Given two lines not making a 90° Draw lines parallel to the given lines at distance R from them to intersect at C the center From C, drop perpendiculars to the given lines to locate tangent points, T With C as the center and with given radius R, draw the required tangent arc between the points of tangency
9. 9. DRAWING AN ARC TANGENT TO TWOLINES AT ACUTE OROBTUSE ANGLES  Draw two intersecting lines at an acute angle, each 2.5 inches long  Draw a 1.5 inch radius arc tangent to the two lines
10. 10. TEST REVIEW {
11. 11. How Many Questions areon the Test? 50 You have the entire class period to complete the test
12. 12. How are the questionsformatted?  True and False  Multiple Choice  Fill in the Blank  Essay Questions  Drawing
13. 13. What can I bring?  All of your drawing utensils  A Calculator  This is NOT an open book exam.  Other electronic devices can not be used in place of a calculator
14. 14. What do I need to knowhow to draw?  Circles  Squares  Bisect an angle  Perpendicular Bisect a line  Triangles  Orthographic Sketches  Alphabet of Lines  Lettering
15. 15. What Chapters in theBook Will be Covered? Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 (Sections 1-5) Chapter 4 Chapter 5
16. 16. What Should I Use toStudy?  Class Notes (Power Points on Blackboard)  Class Notes you took  Homework  Textbook
17. 17. Potential Topics on Test Identify and Describe the five phases of the design process Identify what technical drawings are used for Identify why drawing by hand is still useful Identify who creates technical drawings and what professions use them Draw & Identify the Alphabet of Lines
18. 18. Potential Topics on Test Apply civil engineering scales to sketches of simple objects Apply architectural scales to sketches of simple objects Scale a drawing up or down using scale ratios (ex 1:2, 2:1) Apply standard lettering practice and standards to sketches Identify negative space
19. 19. Potential Topics on Test Describe Prisms Describe Cylinders Describe Pyramids Describe Cones Describe Spheres Describe a Torus Describe Ellipsoids
20. 20. Potential Topics on Test Describe Parallelograms Describe a Trapezoid Describe a Trapezium Describe a Regular Polygon up to 8 Sides Describe a Circumference of a Circle Describe Diameter of a Circle Describe Radius of a Circle Describe a Quadrant of a Circle Describe a Chord of a Circle Describe Concentric Circles Describe Eccentric Circles Identify the point at which a line is tangent to an arc Identify the pint at which an arc is tangent to an arc
21. 21. Potential Topics on Test Differentiate between the 1st and 3rd Angle Projection Name and position the 6 primary views Create orthographic sketches of simple objects Transfer dimensions Apply hidden line conventions to sketches Apply line precedence conventions to sketches
22. 22. What are you confused about? Write down a question that you still have about a topic that will be covered on the test. Share the question and topic with your group As a group determine the answer to the question Still stumped? Ask a neighboring group Classroom stumped? Save the question for the end and ask me
23. 23. Stand up and Stretch . . . It’s time for a review game!
24. 24. Information Domination Which Team Will Dominate? Winning team will each receive 5 extra credit points. Pick a team name Team members pick a category and answer the next question in that category All question are answered in order starting with 1 then 2, etc. If the team answers correctly, they get 2 points If they have to use their text to answer, they only get 1 point If nobody on the team is able to answer the question correctly, they can say “pass.” The next team gets a chance to answer for 1 point.
25. 25. Information Domination Design Process 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Alphabet of Lines 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Scales 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Lettering 1, 2, 3, 4 Solids 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Planar Shapes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Orthographic Sketches 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
27. 27. Chapter 5 –ORTHOGRAPHICPROJECTION {
28. 28. VIEWS OF SURFACESThere are terms used for describing a surface’s orientation to the plane ofprojection. The three orientations that a plane surface can have to the planeof projection are normal, inclined, and oblique. Note how a plane surface that is perpendicular to a plane of projection appears on edge as a straight line
29. 29. Wisconsin House Hotel – Normal Surfaces
30. 30. Normal Surfaces  A normal surface is parallel to the plane of projection  It appears its true shape and size on orthographic drawings.  A edges are true length on plane of projection
31. 31. “Normal” Group Project  Use your blocks to make a creation different than last week  Sketch the three necessary views
32. 32. Heritage Hill – Inclined Surfaces
33. 33. Inclined Surfaces An inclined surface is perpendicular to one plane of projection It is inclined or tipped to adjacent planes Inclined edge is parallel to one plane of projection and appears true length on this plan (appears as angled line) Inclined edge appears as a foreshortened line on adjacent planes (appears as horizontal or vertical line)
34. 34. “Inclined” Group Project Each group gets a right triangular prism Draw the three necessary views What was different about drawing the inclined planes versus the normal planes (with the blocks)?
35. 35. Milwaukee Art Museum – Oblique Surfaces
36. 36. Oblique Surfaces An oblique surface is tipped on all principal planes of projections It does not appear on edge or true size in any standard view An oblique edge appears foreshortened and at an angle in every view
37. 37. “Oblique” Group Project  As a group, try to think of any oblique surfaces you have seen at home, work, or on your way here tonight.  Sketch up a few and present to class
38. 38. ANGLESIf an angle is in a normal plane (a plane parallel to a plane of projection) it willshow true size on the plane of projection to which it is parallel.
39. 39. Chapter 6 – 2D DrawingRepresentation {
40. 40. Conventional RepresentationsStandard orthographic projectionsdon’t always show complex shapes asclearly and simply as you may wish,so certain alternative practices,referred to as conventions, areaccepted.Conventions are like rules for breakingthe rules. Note how these views areprojected What do you notice on these drawings? Orthographic Views of Intersecting and Tangent Surfaces. (Lockhart, Shawna D.; Johnson, Cindy M., Engineering Design Communication: Conveying DesignThrough Graphics, 1st, © 2000. Printed and Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.)
41. 41. Removed Views  Can’t always show all views on a sheet  When this is the case, use a removed view  Two ways to show this. . .
42. 42. Removed Views – Type 1Use a View Indicator arrow to show direction of sight
43. 43. Removed Views – Type 2 Use a Viewing Plane Line
44. 44. Group Project – RemovedViews  Remove a View from one of your group drawings of today  Create a removed view plane using an indicator arrow or viewing plane line
45. 45. Manufactured Features• Fillet• Round• Counterbore• Countersink• Spotface• Boss• Lug• Flange• Chamfer• Neck• Keyway/Keyseat• Knurl• Bushing
46. 46. Manufactured Features For class on March 21st, bring in objects with “manufactured features” for use in group projects
47. 47. Review of Drafting Overview of Drafting
48. 48. What’s Next?• Test next week – March 7th• Spring Break March 14th - NO CLASS• Finish Chapter 6 – 2D Drawing Representation on March 21st
49. 49.  On one of your sketches, answer the following two questions:  What was the most useful thing that you learned today?  What do you still have questions about?Questions?
50. 50. Chapter 5 Review Question: 5Chapter 5 Exercises: 5.2, 5.5 (9), 5.6 (8– noisometric drawing) Homework – Due March 21st!