Seer and prophet whose ill health led to utilisation of plants for therapeutic purpose. Could not read or write, but visions recorded by spiritual director and Church granted permission to share. Despite illiteracy entered into considerable correspondence across Europe helping physical/spiritual ailment. “The labours of knowledge must have public benefit.”
As many as 18 000 manuscripts, many from ancient libraries, are now housed in the Ahmed Baba Centre, named after the famous 15th century Timbuktu scholar, Ahmed Baba. The Timbuktu Manuscripts - or Mali Manuscripts - reams of written manuscripts dating as far back as the 13th century, are ancient Arabic texts that hark back to the Malian city of Timbuktu's glorious past, when it existed 500 years ago as a gold trading port and centre for academics and scholars of religion, literature and science. The manuscripts provide a written testimony to the skill of African scientists, in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, medicine and climatology in the Middle Ages. Discourse and commentary on manuscripts dating centuries later indicate an African scholarship system that existed independent of European scholarship. [Note glossary space around text for commentary.]
Digital is not the same as the webDigital is not automatically open, it also enables close
Gold Route- Primary publication in open-access journals.- 7 070 journals (DOAJ 2011)Green Route- Self-archiving of scholarly content in open access repositories prior to, in parallel with, or after publication.2085 repositories worldwide (DOAR 2011)
OER origins in the 1990s and formalised as movement in early 2000s. Encourages open sharing of teaching and learning content with appropriate licensing mechanisms for sharing, translation, remixing of content.
“OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the publicdomain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permitstheir free use or re-purposing by others. Open educa onal resources include fullcourses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, so ware,and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge”(Atkins, Brown and Hammond, 2007, p. 4).Atkins, D., Seely Brown, J., Hammond, A. (2007) A review of the the Open Educational Resources movement: Achievements, challenges and new opportunities. http://www.oerderves.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/03/a-review-of-the-open-educational-resources-oer-movement_final.pdIn its simplest form, the concept of Open Educational Resources (OER) describes any educational resources (including curriculum maps, course materials, textbooks, streaming videos, multimedia applications, podcasts, and any other materials that have been designed for use in teaching and learning) that are openly available for use by educators and students, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees.A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resources (OER)Prepared by Neil Butcher Edited by Asha Kanwar (COL) and Stamenka Uvalic´-Trumbic´ (UNESCO)ISBN 978-1-894975-41-4
Open Research exploring space beyond the journal article and more dynamic system of open exchange of “research objects”. Promotes expansive, collaborative approach, which has had particular success in making progress in biomedical sciences, astronomy. Most notably, led to identification of biomarkers for alzheimers.
The whole PROCESS becomes open and shareableEvery step is opened upAudiences all along the way
Open research heavily contingent on open data practice.
Significant challenges and barriers to sharing open data, particularly around metadata and curation considerations. Various large-scale organisations working at global interoperability of systems and standards.
Open everything Exploring open in higher education
Exploring Openin Higher EducationLaura Czerniewicz and Michelle WillmersOpenUCT InitiativeScholarly Communication in Africa ProgrammeCC-BY-SA
So many opens • Open scholarship • Open access • Open licensing • Open education practices • Open education resources • Open source • Open data • Open research • Open science • Open web • Open knowledge http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/
• All content becomes shareable• New ways of describing content (and looking for it)• New ways of tracking usage• Aggregation occurs• Rise of the Commons and the global networked scholar http://www.flickr.com/photos/balleyne/2668834386/lightbox/
Open Access Literature reviewsStudent Conceptual frameworks Bibliographies Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Interview transcripts Lectures Translation Data sets Data Collection Presentations Engagement Data Analysis Images Reports Audio recordings InterviewsCommunity Findings Books Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers Scholar
Open AccessGreen Route- Self-archiving of scholarly content prior to, in parallel with, or after publication- 2085 repositories worldwide (DOAR 2011)Gold Route- Primary publication in open-access journals- 7 070 journals (DOAJ 2011)
OA = increased visibility31 studies in a wide range of disciplines onOA and citation advantage*- 27 studies show up to 600% increase in impact- 4 studies show no differenceIncreased visibility = enhanced prestige andcontribution to development* Swan A (2010) The Open Access Citation Advantage: Studies and Results to Date.Available at http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/
Open Educational Resources Part of the open content continuum … Undergraduate Post-graduatePedagogised Non- pedagogisedresources resources
Open Education Resources Literature reviews Student Conceptual frameworks Bibliographies Proposals ConceptualisationCommunity Notes Scholar Lectures Presentations Translation Data Collection Engagement Data Analysis Data sets Reports Images Interviews Audio recordings Findings Interview Books transcripts Journal articles Conference papers Technical papers
Open Research Literature Reviews Bibliographies Conceptual frameworks Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Interview transcripts Lectures Translation Data sets Data CollectionPresentations Engagement Data Analysis Images Reports Audio recordings Interviews Findings Books Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers
Open Research• Replicable (transparency - method)• Reusable (results free for re-use and appropriation)• Replayable (tools available for appropriation)• Immediacy (more speedily available)• Granular in approach
Open Research Literature reviews Bibliographies Conceptual frameworks Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Interview transcripts Lectures Translation Data sets Data CollectionPresentations Engagement Data Analysis Images Reports Audio recordings Interviews Findings Books Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers
Open Research- New modes of dissemination- New ways of measuring impact- Blogging and social networking as mechanisms forresearch and collaboration- Output of social networking processes becomeresearch artefacts
Value proposition• Improve visibility, impact and prospects for collaboration (and, maybe, citation)• Good practice• Improved teaching and learning• Improved representation• Evolution of scholarship• Scalability and new prospects for advance
What do we need to participate?1. Conducive environment / policy cohesion - Reward systems aligned2. Appropriate licensing / protection of IP - Ducks in a row3. Curation / metadata - Open = well shared4. e-Infrastructure/virtual environments - Many birds, one stone?5. Agency of the individual - Rise of the global networked scholar