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Exploring Open
in Higher Education


Laura Czerniewicz and Michelle Willmers
OpenUCT Initiative
Scholarly Communication in Africa Programme
CC-BY-SA
So many opens
        •      Open scholarship
        •      Open access
        •      Open licensing
        •      Open education practices
        •      Open education resources
        •      Open source
        •      Open data
        •      Open research
        •      Open science
        •      Open web
        •      Open knowledge

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/
ttp://www.flickr.com/photos/jannemei/1023015396/sizes/o/in/photostream/
Openness
as a concept is
  not new
 to academia
St Hildegard of Bingen (1098-
            1179)
               “The labours of
               knowledge must have
               public benefit.”
In Africa …
              Timbuktu
              Manuscripts
              (13th Century)
Ways of being open
     are new
    The shift to digital
Traditional Scholarship

                                     Literature reviews
Student                  Conceptual frameworks
                                                   Bibliographies
                                                   Proposals
                                               Conceptualisation




                    Notes                                                            Interview transcripts
              Lectures        Translation
                                                                                        Data sets
                                                                   Data Collection
             Presentations   Engagement                             Data Analysis
                                                                                         Images
                  Reports                                                               Audio recordings
                   Interviews
Community                                         Findings


                                            Books
                                                 Conference papers
                             Journal articles Technical papers




            Scholar
Traditional Model
•   Relatively contained disciplinary context
•   Relatively clear scholarly community
•   Relatively clear boundaries
•   Particular points of engagement
•   Specific audiences at particular stages
•   Generally closed/ contained
Enter
the Internet
• All content becomes
  shareable
• New ways of describing
  content (and looking
  for it)
• New ways of tracking
  usage
• Aggregation occurs
• Rise of the Commons
  and the global
  networked scholar

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/balleyne/2668834386/lightbox/
Open Access
                              Literature reviews
Student                Conceptual frameworks
                                               Bibliographies
                                                Proposals
                                           Conceptualisation




                   Notes                                                         Interview transcripts
             Lectures        Translation
                                                                                   Data sets
                                                               Data Collection
            Presentations   Engagement                          Data Analysis
                                                                                    Images
                 Reports                                                         Audio recordings
                    Interviews
Community                                     Findings


                                  Books
                                                              Conference papers
                            Journal articles
                                                         Technical papers




            Scholar
Open Access

Green Route
- Self-archiving of scholarly content prior to, in
  parallel with, or after publication
- 2085 repositories worldwide (DOAR 2011)

Gold Route
- Primary publication in open-access journals
- 7 070 journals (DOAJ 2011)
OA = increased visibility

31 studies in a wide range of disciplines on
OA and citation advantage*
- 27 studies show up to 600% increase in impact
- 4 studies show no difference


Increased visibility = enhanced prestige and
contribution to development

* Swan A (2010) The Open Access Citation Advantage: Studies and Results to Date.
Available at http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/
Open Educational Resources
 Part of the open content continuum …




    Undergraduate                 Post-graduate

Pedagogised                       Non- pedagogised
resources                         resources
Open Education Resources


                                      Literature reviews
 Student                  Conceptual frameworks
                                                     Bibliographies
                                                    Proposals
                                            Conceptualisation

Community
                   Notes

  Scholar    Lectures
            Presentations
                              Translation
                                                                Data Collection

                             Engagement                          Data Analysis
                                                                                   Data sets
                Reports
                                                                                    Images
                  Interviews
                                                                                  Audio recordings
                                               Findings
                                                                                     Interview
                                      Books                                         transcripts
                                    Journal articles
                                                   Conference papers
                                                   Technical papers
Open Research

                                 Literature Reviews
                                    Bibliographies
                Conceptual frameworks
                                         Proposals
                                  Conceptualisation




         Notes                                                          Interview transcripts
   Lectures        Translation
                                                                          Data sets
                                                      Data Collection
Presentations      Engagement                          Data Analysis
                                                                           Images
      Reports                                                            Audio recordings
        Interviews

                                     Findings


                         Books
                                                   Conference papers
                  Journal articles              Technical papers
Open Research
• Replicable (transparency - method)
• Reusable (results free for re-use and
  appropriation)
• Replayable (tools available for appropriation)
• Immediacy (more speedily available)
• Granular in approach
Open Research

                                    Literature reviews
                                    Bibliographies
                Conceptual frameworks
                                         Proposals
                                     Conceptualisation




         Notes                                                             Interview transcripts
   Lectures         Translation
                                                                              Data sets
                                                         Data Collection
Presentations       Engagement                            Data Analysis
                                                                               Images
      Reports                                                                Audio recordings
        Interviews

                                        Findings


                                  Books
                                                      Conference papers
                  Journal articles                 Technical papers
Open Research
- New modes of dissemination
- New ways of measuring impact
- Blogging and social networking as mechanisms for
research and collaboration
- Output of social networking processes become
research artefacts
Citizen Science
Open Science
Open Humanities?




http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/6555466069/sizes/o/in/set-72157625612605617/
Why?
Value proposition
• Improve visibility, impact and prospects for
  collaboration (and, maybe, citation)
• Good practice
• Improved teaching and learning
• Improved representation
• Evolution of scholarship
• Scalability and new prospects for advance
The
Open Education Continuum
What do we need to participate?


1. Conducive environment / policy cohesion
    - Reward systems aligned
2. Appropriate licensing / protection of IP
    - Ducks in a row
3. Curation / metadata
    - Open = well shared
4. e-Infrastructure/virtual environments
    - Many birds, one stone?
5. Agency of the individual
    - Rise of the global networked scholar
Thank you
• Laura.czerniewicz@uct.ac.za
• Michelle.willmers@uct.ac.za

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Open everything Exploring open in higher education

  • 1. Exploring Open in Higher Education Laura Czerniewicz and Michelle Willmers OpenUCT Initiative Scholarly Communication in Africa Programme CC-BY-SA
  • 2. So many opens • Open scholarship • Open access • Open licensing • Open education practices • Open education resources • Open source • Open data • Open research • Open science • Open web • Open knowledge http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  • 4. Openness as a concept is not new to academia
  • 5. St Hildegard of Bingen (1098- 1179) “The labours of knowledge must have public benefit.”
  • 6. In Africa … Timbuktu Manuscripts (13th Century)
  • 7. Ways of being open are new The shift to digital
  • 8. Traditional Scholarship Literature reviews Student Conceptual frameworks Bibliographies Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Interview transcripts Lectures Translation Data sets Data Collection Presentations Engagement Data Analysis Images Reports Audio recordings Interviews Community Findings Books Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers Scholar
  • 9. Traditional Model • Relatively contained disciplinary context • Relatively clear scholarly community • Relatively clear boundaries • Particular points of engagement • Specific audiences at particular stages • Generally closed/ contained
  • 11. • All content becomes shareable • New ways of describing content (and looking for it) • New ways of tracking usage • Aggregation occurs • Rise of the Commons and the global networked scholar http://www.flickr.com/photos/balleyne/2668834386/lightbox/
  • 12.
  • 13. Open Access Literature reviews Student Conceptual frameworks Bibliographies Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Interview transcripts Lectures Translation Data sets Data Collection Presentations Engagement Data Analysis Images Reports Audio recordings Interviews Community Findings Books Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers Scholar
  • 14. Open Access Green Route - Self-archiving of scholarly content prior to, in parallel with, or after publication - 2085 repositories worldwide (DOAR 2011) Gold Route - Primary publication in open-access journals - 7 070 journals (DOAJ 2011)
  • 15. OA = increased visibility 31 studies in a wide range of disciplines on OA and citation advantage* - 27 studies show up to 600% increase in impact - 4 studies show no difference Increased visibility = enhanced prestige and contribution to development * Swan A (2010) The Open Access Citation Advantage: Studies and Results to Date. Available at http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/
  • 16.
  • 17. Open Educational Resources Part of the open content continuum … Undergraduate Post-graduate Pedagogised Non- pedagogised resources resources
  • 18. Open Education Resources Literature reviews Student Conceptual frameworks Bibliographies Proposals Conceptualisation Community Notes Scholar Lectures Presentations Translation Data Collection Engagement Data Analysis Data sets Reports Images Interviews Audio recordings Findings Interview Books transcripts Journal articles Conference papers Technical papers
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Open Research Literature Reviews Bibliographies Conceptual frameworks Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Interview transcripts Lectures Translation Data sets Data Collection Presentations Engagement Data Analysis Images Reports Audio recordings Interviews Findings Books Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers
  • 22. Open Research • Replicable (transparency - method) • Reusable (results free for re-use and appropriation) • Replayable (tools available for appropriation) • Immediacy (more speedily available) • Granular in approach
  • 23. Open Research Literature reviews Bibliographies Conceptual frameworks Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Interview transcripts Lectures Translation Data sets Data Collection Presentations Engagement Data Analysis Images Reports Audio recordings Interviews Findings Books Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers
  • 24. Open Research - New modes of dissemination - New ways of measuring impact - Blogging and social networking as mechanisms for research and collaboration - Output of social networking processes become research artefacts
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. Why?
  • 31. Value proposition • Improve visibility, impact and prospects for collaboration (and, maybe, citation) • Good practice • Improved teaching and learning • Improved representation • Evolution of scholarship • Scalability and new prospects for advance
  • 33. What do we need to participate? 1. Conducive environment / policy cohesion - Reward systems aligned 2. Appropriate licensing / protection of IP - Ducks in a row 3. Curation / metadata - Open = well shared 4. e-Infrastructure/virtual environments - Many birds, one stone? 5. Agency of the individual - Rise of the global networked scholar
  • 34. Thank you • Laura.czerniewicz@uct.ac.za • Michelle.willmers@uct.ac.za

Editor's Notes

  1. http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  2. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jannemei/1023015396/sizes/o/in/photostream/http://www.flickr.com/photos/jannemei/1023015396/
  3. Seer and prophet whose ill health led to utilisation of plants for therapeutic purpose. Could not read or write, but visions recorded by spiritual director and Church granted permission to share. Despite illiteracy entered into considerable correspondence across Europe helping physical/spiritual ailment. “The labours of knowledge must have public benefit.”
  4. As many as 18 000 manuscripts, many from ancient libraries, are now housed in the Ahmed Baba Centre, named after the famous 15th century Timbuktu scholar, Ahmed Baba. The Timbuktu Manuscripts - or Mali Manuscripts - reams of written manuscripts dating as far back as the 13th century, are ancient Arabic texts that hark back to the Malian city of Timbuktu's glorious past, when it existed 500 years ago as a gold trading port and centre for academics and scholars of religion, literature and science. The manuscripts provide a written testimony to the skill of African scientists, in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, medicine and climatology in the Middle Ages. Discourse and commentary on manuscripts dating centuries later indicate an African scholarship system that existed independent of European scholarship. [Note glossary space around text for commentary.]
  5. Digital is not the same as the webDigital is not automatically open, it also enables close
  6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/balleyne/2668834386/lightbox/
  7. Gold Route- Primary publication in open-access journals.- 7 070 journals (DOAJ 2011)Green Route- Self-archiving of scholarly content in open access repositories prior to, in parallel with, or after publication.2085 repositories worldwide (DOAR 2011)
  8. OER origins in the 1990s and formalised as movement in early 2000s. Encourages open sharing of teaching and learning content with appropriate licensing mechanisms for sharing, translation, remixing of content.
  9. “OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the publicdomain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permitstheir free use or re-purposing by others. Open educa􀆟 onal resources include fullcourses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, so􀅌 ware,and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge”(Atkins, Brown and Hammond, 2007, p. 4).Atkins, D., Seely Brown, J., Hammond, A. (2007) A review of the the Open Educational Resources movement: Achievements, challenges and new opportunities. http://www.oerderves.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/03/a-review-of-the-open-educational-resources-oer-movement_final.pdIn its simplest form, the concept of Open Educational Resources (OER) describes any educational resources (including curriculum maps, course materials, textbooks, streaming videos, multimedia applications, podcasts, and any other materials that have been designed for use in teaching and learning) that are openly available for use by educators and students, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees.A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resources (OER)Prepared by Neil Butcher Edited by Asha Kanwar (COL) and Stamenka Uvalic´-Trumbic´ (UNESCO)ISBN 978-1-894975-41-4
  10. Open Research exploring space beyond the journal article and more dynamic system of open exchange of “research objects”. Promotes expansive, collaborative approach, which has had particular success in making progress in biomedical sciences, astronomy. Most notably, led to identification of biomarkers for alzheimers.
  11. The whole PROCESS becomes open and shareableEvery step is opened upAudiences all along the way
  12. A few commonly acknowledge characteristics.
  13. New contributors
  14. http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/6555466069/sizes/o/in/set-72157625612605617/
  15. Open research heavily contingent on open data practice.
  16. Significant challenges and barriers to sharing open data, particularly around metadata and curation considerations. Various large-scale organisations working at global interoperability of systems and standards.