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KNOWLEDGE INEQUALITIES
A marginal view of the digital landscape
Laura Czerniewicz
14 June 2016
THIS TALK
o General inequalities of knowledge
production & dissemination
o The emerging complexities of the digital
o Two ...
Knowledge production and dissemination
have always been
fraught contested unequal
http://www.un.org/en/events/humanrightsday/udhr60/exhibit.shtml
http://jalperin.github.io/d3-cartogram/
World scaled by the number of documents in Web of Science by authors living there
...
(Florida, 2005)
The global south is partly geographical
but it is also an imaginary
http://images.slideplayer.com/24/7344819/slides/slide_30.jpg
“The global economy is a dynamic and
often turbulent affair. It doesn’t produce a
simple dichotomy. It does produce
massiv...
INEQUALITIES ACROSS AND WITHIN
Hout Bay and Imizamo Yethu in Cape Town, South Africa in 2016
http://www.unequalscenes.com/...
What causes inequalities in knowledge
production?
FUNDING
Research and development intensity
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/
1.53 % of GDP
1.96 % of GDP2.76 % of GDP
0.73 % of GDP
FUNDING
Gross domestic spending on R & D (2012)
figureshttps://data...
IT’S MORE THAN THE MONEY
What counts?
Reward systems
Legitimacy
Gatekeeping
http://jalperin.github.io/d3-cartogram/
Genres
• Journal article
• Books
• Book chapters
• Monographs
• Technical
reports
...
TYPES OF RESEARCH
o Different types of research
• Different genres
• Different audiences
o A typology of research types
• ...
REWARD SYSTEMS
o In South Africa the national department of
education (DHET) gives universities +/-
$13000 for every artic...
CITATIONS
o Valorisation of citation counts in
academia
• Citations used for promotion
• Measure of reputation
o Citations...
ACCESSIBILITY
o Research is generally not easily
accessible to those in the South
• works that are more easily found will
...
CULTURE
(Adams et al, 2010)
Zimbabwe
Malawi
Tunisia
Who publishes?
What about?
What does an “international” high impact
journal look like?
WHO GETS PUBLISHED
o Of the articles published in international
peer-reviewed journals
• USA academics 30%
• Developing co...
A CASE IN POINT
Authorship per country AMJ, AMR, ASQ and JIBS (2006-2010),
Four high impact social science journals
(Haman...
Empirical focus AMJ, AMR, ASQ and JIBS (2006-2010)
(Hamann,2012)
o At the same time Northern authors publish
about the South
• A study of 2 top African studies journals
1993 - 2013 found
...
WHO DECIDES?
“We editors seek a global status for our journals, but we
shut out the experiences and practices of those liv...
WHY THIS MATTERS
o Local knowledge
• Needs to be available to others in similar
conditions
• Is a necessary and often miss...
“African scholars face a critical choice between
sacrificing relevance for recognition, or
recognition for relevance”
(Nya...
A NETWORKED WORLD
New opportunities
The internet changed the nature of networks by
making them more inclusive and easy to
participate in
(Castells 1996)
(Lessig, 2003)
For the first time in a
millennium, we have a
technology to equalise the
opportunity that people
have to ac...
www.soros,org/openaccess
Conceptualisation
Data collection
Data analysis
Findings
Engagement
Translation
Protocols
Literature reviews
Bibliographie...
New opportunities to
collapse distance
enable easier cross-country collaborations
create possibilities for knowledge produ...
Digital affords open
Digital = open
Digital affords closed
At each stage new layers of complexity
o Each stage can be analysed in terms of:
• Social relations – power relations, networks &
relationships
• Audiences – for...
There is a danger that the
information revolution could
exacerbate sociospatial
segregation
(Castells, 1998)
and create ‘d...
The basics: infrastructure
http://en.actualitix.com/country/wld/access-to-electricity.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization#/media/File:Global_Digital_Divide1.png
http://submarine-cable-map-2013.telegeography.com/
http://www.slideshare.net/kleinerperkins/2016-internet-trends-report/10-KPCB_INTERNET_TRENDS_2016_PAGE
AFFORDABILITY: IT’S THE DATA, NOT THE DEVICE
o Affordability (5% monthly income)
• Entry level -100MB; maturing – 500MB; c...
The new currency: discoverability
If it is not online, it does not exist
If it can’t be found, it does not exist
Visibilit...
Why this matters
What is found online shapes what comes to be known
“Visibility and invisibility in material space are
inc...
SEARCH ENGINES
o The primary way that content is found
• By academics in all disciplines
• By NGOs
• By students
• BY prof...
SEARCH ENGINES
o Co-producers of knowledge
o Surrogate experts
o Play a role as “switchers’ between
networks
o Engine’s so...
JerryKing,ttps://c4.staticflickr.com/4/3451/3364886451_52915e5621.jpg
ALGORITHMS
o Page ranking
• “collective intelligence”
o Location
• Internet Protocol (IP) address provides country,
region...
ALGORITHMS
o Shape what is found through
• prioritising, classifying, associating and
filtering information
o Mediate
o Cr...
Browsers per country 2016
http://gs.statcounter.com/#all-browser-ww-monthly-201602-201602-map
OPEN ACCESS
http://roarmap.eprints.org/dataviz2.htmlat11June2016
Leveraging the power of the Internet?
Danger of increasingly
drowning out scholarship from the global south
ThankstoLeslieChanforimage
UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
TWO CASES
CC0http://www.pdpics.com/photo/2320-research
CASE 1: POVERTY ALLEVIATION
Global Inequality: Poverty
http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=169#
Global Inequality: Income
http://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/ireland-at-risk-of-reaching-us-levels-of-income-inequality-says-study-1.2105...
THE INVESTIGATION
o Premises
• Poverty and inequality taken seriously in South
Africa, & beyond
• A great deal of work inc...
THE INVESTIGATION
o How findable is the research & work on
poverty alleviation?
o What is found?
• Where the results come ...
THE SEARCHERS
TOTAL: = 20 : Academic sector -9; Development sector -8 ; IT -3
THE SEARCH QUERIES
FINDINGS
o Google search “poverty alleviation”
• No South African results
• The 3 South African participants' had no
local...
FINDINGS: RANKINGS
WIKIPEDIA
o In academia
• Widely used by the general public, researchers
and students
• Wikipedia’s citation rates in scho...
One result in both
Google “poverty alleviation South Africa” and
Google Scholar “poverty alleviation South Africa”
65% referrals to the repository link through search engines
Among the top 10 search results was one which led to Wikipedia...
Online access to single
article for 24 hours at a
cost of USD31.50
o Google Scholar Poverty Alleviation South Africa
• High % published in South Africa
• Many had “South Africa” in the titl...
CASE 2: CLIMATE CHANGE
A shared global problem
CC-BYhttps://www.flickr.com/photos/ojbyrne/2167696800
UNEQUAL IN CAUSE….
http://createhtml5map.com/interactive-map-blog/heat-map-map-shows-countries-are-responsible-to-climate-...
…AND EFFECT
o Climate change
• Consequences matter world wide
• A new disciplinary field, scholarly
communication practices not yet
en...
o Analysis climate change publications
1980 – 2013:
• USA dominance of the field
• Other countries from the Global North
c...
An investigation into one climate change
research group (CCRG)
From the outside in and the inside out
Has their involvemen...
THE INVESTIGATION
o Outside in
• Searching on Google Scholar
• Climate change
• Climate change South Africa
o Inside out
•...
SEARCHERS
o Searching for “climate change” (no South
Africa)
• Results largely uniform
• 83% same findings and rankings
• Authors fo...
o Item ranked Number 1
• Cited 4337 x
• Google Scholar 1st results always highly
cited, hence ongoing cycle
• Is a multi-a...
o Genres
• largely technical reports
• only two (different) journals
• technical reports are an acceptable form
of researc...
SEARCHING FOR
CLIMATE CHANGE SOUTH AFRICA
o Largely uniform results, 2 sequences
o Number 1 ranked result
• Nature
• Cited...
“CLIMATE CHANGE SOUTH AFRICA”
o Number 1 ranked result
• South African Journal of Science
o Searching techniques matter!
GATEKEEPING
Editorial oversight of publications for 10 ten results
Google Scholar searches “climate change’
Editorial oversight of publications for 10 ten results in
Google Scholar searches
“climate change South Africa”
GATEKEEPING
GATEKEEPING
Editorial oversight : countries by HDI
(Human Development Index)
(Northern and Southern researchers favour dif...
INSIDE OUT: CCRG ONLINE PRESENCE
o CCRG researchers’ views
• Online presence takes time, money and
expertise
• Hard choices regarding how to use limited
re...
o New opportunities and old reward systems
I want the visibility and impact of our work.
I have slaved over the research a...
CONCLUSION
In knowledge creation and dissemination
The online adds major complexities to the
abiding global inequalities of power and...
On a positive note
Active Open Source software developers
per thousand internet users
Study of 1.3million registered developers in SourceForg...
Image:StaceyStent
THANK YOU
REFERENCES
Abrahams, L., Burke, M., Gray, E., & Rens, A. (2008). Opening access to knowledge in Southern African
universit...
Czerniewicz, L, and K Wiens. 2013. “The Online Visibility of South African Knowledge: Searching for Poverty
Alleviation.” ...
Lessig L (2003) , An information society: Free or feudal? International Telecommunication Union, World–
WSIS-PREPCOM-2, ht...
Laura Czerniewicz Open Repositories Conference 2016 Dublin
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Laura Czerniewicz Open Repositories Conference 2016 Dublin

  1. 1. KNOWLEDGE INEQUALITIES A marginal view of the digital landscape Laura Czerniewicz 14 June 2016
  2. 2. THIS TALK o General inequalities of knowledge production & dissemination o The emerging complexities of the digital o Two cases of discoverability & visibility A view from the global south, a marginal perspective
  3. 3. Knowledge production and dissemination have always been fraught contested unequal
  4. 4. http://www.un.org/en/events/humanrightsday/udhr60/exhibit.shtml
  5. 5. http://jalperin.github.io/d3-cartogram/ World scaled by the number of documents in Web of Science by authors living there (2011)
  6. 6. (Florida, 2005)
  7. 7. The global south is partly geographical but it is also an imaginary
  8. 8. http://images.slideplayer.com/24/7344819/slides/slide_30.jpg
  9. 9. “The global economy is a dynamic and often turbulent affair. It doesn’t produce a simple dichotomy. It does produce massive structures of centrality and marginality, whose main axis is the metropole-periphery, North-South relationship.“ (Connell 2007, 2014)
  10. 10. INEQUALITIES ACROSS AND WITHIN Hout Bay and Imizamo Yethu in Cape Town, South Africa in 2016 http://www.unequalscenes.com/hout-bay-imizamo-yethu
  11. 11. What causes inequalities in knowledge production?
  12. 12. FUNDING Research and development intensity http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/
  13. 13. 1.53 % of GDP 1.96 % of GDP2.76 % of GDP 0.73 % of GDP FUNDING Gross domestic spending on R & D (2012) figureshttps://data.oecd.org/rd/gross-domestic-spending-on-r-d.htm
  14. 14. IT’S MORE THAN THE MONEY What counts? Reward systems Legitimacy Gatekeeping
  15. 15. http://jalperin.github.io/d3-cartogram/ Genres • Journal article • Books • Book chapters • Monographs • Technical reports • Scholarly blogs • Websites • Multimodal outputs • Consultancy reports • Etc.
  16. 16. TYPES OF RESEARCH o Different types of research • Different genres • Different audiences o A typology of research types • Discovery – traditional empirical, generalizable explanations or theories • Interpretive - interpretation of phenomena not search for generalizable explanations • Applied – applied enquiry, problem solving, may include consultancy • Integrative – use-inspired basic research • Teaching and Learning – scholarship of T&L (Kell and Czerniewicz 2016; Czerniewicz and Kell 2014)
  17. 17. REWARD SYSTEMS o In South Africa the national department of education (DHET) gives universities +/- $13000 for every article published in • The Sciences Citation Index of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) • The Social Sciences Citation Index of the ISI • The Arts and Humanities Citation Index of the ISI • The International Bibliography of Social Sciences (IBSS) • A list of approved South African Journals o The majority of SA universities give a % directly to the authors
  18. 18. CITATIONS o Valorisation of citation counts in academia • Citations used for promotion • Measure of reputation o Citations have their uneven geographies • Citing those from the global north • Keeping the networks closed o Altmetrics’ slow acceptance
  19. 19. ACCESSIBILITY o Research is generally not easily accessible to those in the South • works that are more easily found will likely be more frequently cited • 54% of respondents in SARUA universities said research output exists; of these 90% said that ready accessibility is hampered • Budget cuts in library subscriptions (Abrahams et al 2008)
  20. 20. CULTURE (Adams et al, 2010) Zimbabwe Malawi Tunisia
  21. 21. Who publishes? What about? What does an “international” high impact journal look like?
  22. 22. WHO GETS PUBLISHED o Of the articles published in international peer-reviewed journals • USA academics 30% • Developing country academics 20% • of which half from China, India, Brazil, Turkey, Mexico • Sub Saharan Africa 1% of total (Hassan 2008)
  23. 23. A CASE IN POINT Authorship per country AMJ, AMR, ASQ and JIBS (2006-2010), Four high impact social science journals (Hamann, 2012)
  24. 24. Empirical focus AMJ, AMR, ASQ and JIBS (2006-2010) (Hamann,2012)
  25. 25. o At the same time Northern authors publish about the South • A study of 2 top African studies journals 1993 - 2013 found • the percentage of articles by Africa-based authors has declined • not lower submission rates from Africa but low and declining acceptance rates • Africa-based scholars are systematically cited less than others (Briggs and Weathers, 2016)
  26. 26. WHO DECIDES? “We editors seek a global status for our journals, but we shut out the experiences and practices of those living in poverty by our (unconscious) neglect. One group is advantaged while the other is marginalised.” Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet Chan,2012,/www.slideshare.net/lesliechan/remapping-the-local-and-the-global In short, international = global north
  27. 27. WHY THIS MATTERS o Local knowledge • Needs to be available to others in similar conditions • Is a necessary and often missing contribution to global knowledge o A plurality of knowledge/s is good for science • A knowledge production & dissemination system that sidelines three quarters of the world is bad for everyone
  28. 28. “African scholars face a critical choice between sacrificing relevance for recognition, or recognition for relevance” (Nyamnjoh 2010)
  29. 29. A NETWORKED WORLD New opportunities
  30. 30. The internet changed the nature of networks by making them more inclusive and easy to participate in (Castells 1996)
  31. 31. (Lessig, 2003) For the first time in a millennium, we have a technology to equalise the opportunity that people have to access and participate in the construction of knowledge and culture, regardless of their geographical placing.
  32. 32. www.soros,org/openaccess
  33. 33. Conceptualisation Data collection Data analysis Findings Engagement Translation Protocols Literature reviews BibliographiesProposals Data sets Conference papers Audio records Images Recorded interviews Books Reports Journal articles Technical papers Notes Presentations Lectures Interviews Shared and shareable e.g. social bookmarking, Dynamic multimodal versions The rise of rich media Data Open linked, curated, shareable Metadata Multiple modes The “enhanced publication” multimodal, hyperlinked Open access mainstream Emergence of the “megajournal” New forms Modes- visual & audio lectures New genres - ebooks, open education resources Changing, extending audiences (e.g. life long learners, global reach) Two way process (e.g. citizen science) Access to all types of resources New measures of impact Altmetrics- use, downloads, bookmarking etc Open processes Increased visibility Increased collaboration Earlier access Open science Changing Scholarship (Czerniewicz, 2013)
  34. 34. New opportunities to collapse distance enable easier cross-country collaborations create possibilities for knowledge production & sharing
  35. 35. Digital affords open Digital = open Digital affords closed At each stage new layers of complexity
  36. 36. o Each stage can be analysed in terms of: • Social relations – power relations, networks & relationships • Audiences – forms of scholar-to-scholar, scholar- to- student and scholar-to-community communication • Forms – genres, platforms and modes (eg linguistic, visual, aural and multimodal) (Czerniewicz & Kell 2014; Kell and Czerniewicz 2016)
  37. 37. There is a danger that the information revolution could exacerbate sociospatial segregation (Castells, 1998) and create ‘dual cities’ of inhabitants that occupy vastly different spheres of knowledge.
  38. 38. The basics: infrastructure
  39. 39. http://en.actualitix.com/country/wld/access-to-electricity.php
  40. 40. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization#/media/File:Global_Digital_Divide1.png
  41. 41. http://submarine-cable-map-2013.telegeography.com/
  42. 42. http://www.slideshare.net/kleinerperkins/2016-internet-trends-report/10-KPCB_INTERNET_TRENDS_2016_PAGE
  43. 43. AFFORDABILITY: IT’S THE DATA, NOT THE DEVICE o Affordability (5% monthly income) • Entry level -100MB; maturing – 500MB; connected -2GB • In Sub-Saharan Africa, 53% could afford access of only 20 MB, (enough for SMS & email) https://fbnewsroomus.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/state-of-connectivity_3.pdf
  44. 44. The new currency: discoverability If it is not online, it does not exist If it can’t be found, it does not exist Visibility is a requirement for participation
  45. 45. Why this matters What is found online shapes what comes to be known “Visibility and invisibility in material space are increasingly being defined by prominence, ranking, and presence on the Internet” (Graham and Zook 2011)
  46. 46. SEARCH ENGINES o The primary way that content is found • By academics in all disciplines • By NGOs • By students • BY professionals (De Groote et al 2014, Catalano 2013, de Satgé, 2012, Waller 2011)
  47. 47. SEARCH ENGINES o Co-producers of knowledge o Surrogate experts o Play a role as “switchers’ between networks o Engine’s social relations invisible • Seem naturalised and normal o Not neutral • Reflect societal disparities • Shaped by algorithms (Halavais 2013; Van Dijck 2010, Rogers, 2009)
  48. 48. JerryKing,ttps://c4.staticflickr.com/4/3451/3364886451_52915e5621.jpg
  49. 49. ALGORITHMS o Page ranking • “collective intelligence” o Location • Internet Protocol (IP) address provides country, region, city, postal code, latitude and longitude, time zone o Social media • Includes social media, eg Facebook likes and Google + o Personalization • individual personalization, previously visited sites • profile personalization, matches users with other users with similar browsing histories
  50. 50. ALGORITHMS o Shape what is found through • prioritising, classifying, associating and filtering information o Mediate o Create filter bubbles http://twiki.org/p/pub/Blog/BlogEntry201207x2/google-globe-search-3d.png
  51. 51. Browsers per country 2016 http://gs.statcounter.com/#all-browser-ww-monthly-201602-201602-map
  52. 52. OPEN ACCESS http://roarmap.eprints.org/dataviz2.htmlat11June2016 Leveraging the power of the Internet?
  53. 53. Danger of increasingly drowning out scholarship from the global south ThankstoLeslieChanforimage UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
  54. 54. TWO CASES CC0http://www.pdpics.com/photo/2320-research
  55. 55. CASE 1: POVERTY ALLEVIATION
  56. 56. Global Inequality: Poverty
  57. 57. http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=169# Global Inequality: Income
  58. 58. http://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/ireland-at-risk-of-reaching-us-levels-of-income-inequality-says-study-1.2105125 Global Inequality
  59. 59. THE INVESTIGATION o Premises • Poverty and inequality taken seriously in South Africa, & beyond • A great deal of work including academic research being undertaken • The outputs of this work important to many: government, academia, civil society • Access to information (data/knowledge) critical to undertake work & address issues (Czerniewicz & Wiens 2013)
  60. 60. THE INVESTIGATION o How findable is the research & work on poverty alleviation? o What is found? • Where the results come from and the extent to which South African results appeared in the searches • Which South African organisations / individuals appeared • The rankings of the results, and similarities and differences between the rankings • The similarities and differences between Google and Google Scholar results
  61. 61. THE SEARCHERS TOTAL: = 20 : Academic sector -9; Development sector -8 ; IT -3
  62. 62. THE SEARCH QUERIES
  63. 63. FINDINGS o Google search “poverty alleviation” • No South African results • The 3 South African participants' had no localised SA based results. o Google Scholar “poverty alleviation” • One searcher had one SA result
  64. 64. FINDINGS: RANKINGS
  65. 65. WIKIPEDIA o In academia • Widely used by the general public, researchers and students • Wikipedia’s citation rates in scholarly publications consistently increasing • Papers & authors mentioned on Wikipedia have higher academic impact o In developing countries • Wikipedia zero rating in 12+ developing countries – better access (Soules 2015; Shuai et al 2013; Casebourne et al 2012; Park, 2011; Okoli et al 2010; Eijkman, 2010 Lewandowski 2010; Giles 2005)
  66. 66. One result in both Google “poverty alleviation South Africa” and Google Scholar “poverty alleviation South Africa”
  67. 67. 65% referrals to the repository link through search engines Among the top 10 search results was one which led to Wikipedia, which then led to the article itself Downloaded 2,356 times
  68. 68. Online access to single article for 24 hours at a cost of USD31.50
  69. 69. o Google Scholar Poverty Alleviation South Africa • High % published in South Africa • Many had “South Africa” in the title • Two of the top 5 results from repositories o Of the South African results • Many from 7 universities, all of which were full text • 8 of the 9 journals which appeared in the results were “green” journals allowing self- archiving
  70. 70. CASE 2: CLIMATE CHANGE A shared global problem CC-BYhttps://www.flickr.com/photos/ojbyrne/2167696800
  71. 71. UNEQUAL IN CAUSE…. http://createhtml5map.com/interactive-map-blog/heat-map-map-shows-countries-are-responsible-to-climate-change/
  72. 72. …AND EFFECT
  73. 73. o Climate change • Consequences matter world wide • A new disciplinary field, scholarly communication practices not yet entrenched • Different strategies promoted by researchers from the North (mitigation) and the South (adaptation) • The ability to set research agendas critical • Do new ICT-practices help do this?
  74. 74. o Analysis climate change publications 1980 – 2013: • USA dominance of the field • Other countries from the Global North consistently in top 7 • Canada, Germany, England and France • Major shift China’s rise to 2nd place in 2013 • South Africa fallen from 15th place to 24th (Collyer, 2015)
  75. 75. An investigation into one climate change research group (CCRG) From the outside in and the inside out Has their involvement helped to redraw structurally embedded patterns of power, voice and representation? (Czerniewicz et al 2016)
  76. 76. THE INVESTIGATION o Outside in • Searching on Google Scholar • Climate change • Climate change South Africa o Inside out • Mapping the climate change group’s online presence • Interviews
  77. 77. SEARCHERS
  78. 78. o Searching for “climate change” (no South Africa) • Results largely uniform • 83% same findings and rankings • Authors found largely US and UK • No results from South Africa, Africa or any other developing countries
  79. 79. o Item ranked Number 1 • Cited 4337 x • Google Scholar 1st results always highly cited, hence ongoing cycle • Is a multi-author paper • Known to be linked to more citations • Copies appear in 5 web locations, 3 being repositories (Office of the Chief Scientist 2012; Smart & Bayer 1986)
  80. 80. o Genres • largely technical reports • only two (different) journals • technical reports are an acceptable form of research output in the climate change field • Google Scholar indexes “the sources that scholars believe to be scholarly”. (Levy 2014)
  81. 81. SEARCHING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE SOUTH AFRICA o Largely uniform results, 2 sequences o Number 1 ranked result • Nature • Cited 4000+ times • Appears online in 24 sites
  82. 82. “CLIMATE CHANGE SOUTH AFRICA” o Number 1 ranked result • South African Journal of Science o Searching techniques matter!
  83. 83. GATEKEEPING Editorial oversight of publications for 10 ten results Google Scholar searches “climate change’
  84. 84. Editorial oversight of publications for 10 ten results in Google Scholar searches “climate change South Africa” GATEKEEPING
  85. 85. GATEKEEPING Editorial oversight : countries by HDI (Human Development Index) (Northern and Southern researchers favour different strategies, different research agendas)
  86. 86. INSIDE OUT: CCRG ONLINE PRESENCE
  87. 87. o CCRG researchers’ views • Online presence takes time, money and expertise • Hard choices regarding how to use limited resources • Tensions between what makes a contribution, what is academically rewarded, what brings in funds INSIDE OUT: CCRG ONLINE PRESENCE
  88. 88. o New opportunities and old reward systems I want the visibility and impact of our work. I have slaved over the research and the research report might just gather dust on a shelf, no-one will ever read it. I believe that the traditional metrics are limited … I know that our research reports are not captured in those systems. There are other people who look at research differently. I think things can still change. o The consequences of online invisibility So many Southern voices get lost so we have no choice but to listen to the North because there is no alternative
  89. 89. CONCLUSION
  90. 90. In knowledge creation and dissemination The online adds major complexities to the abiding global inequalities of power and resources Open scholarship is only meaningful if everyone can both access and participate
  91. 91. On a positive note
  92. 92. Active Open Source software developers per thousand internet users Study of 1.3million registered developers in SourceForge (Van Engelhardt,S; et al 2010)
  93. 93. Image:StaceyStent THANK YOU
  94. 94. REFERENCES Abrahams, L., Burke, M., Gray, E., & Rens, A. (2008). Opening access to knowledge in Southern African universities. Study Series 2008, Southern African Regional Universities Association. Retrieved from http://www.sarua.org/?q=publications/opening-access-knowledge-southern-african-universities. Briggs, C ; Weathers, S (2016) Gender and Location in African Politics Scholarship: the Other White Man’s Burden, African Affairs, London, first published online May 14, 2016 doi:10.1093/afraf/adw009 Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Vol. 1. 3 vols. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Malden, MA; Oxford,: Blackwell Castells, M. (1998) The Informational City is a Dual City: Can it be Reversed? In Schon, D, Sanyal, B. & Mitchell, W (Eds.) High Technology and Low-Income Communities. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Catalano, A (2013) "Patterns of graduate students' information seeking behavior: a meta‐synthesis of the literature", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 69 ( 2), pp.243 – 274 Chan, L (2012), Remapping the Global and Local in Knowledge Production, the Role of Open Access, presentation at University of Cape Town 10 August 2012, http://www.slideshare.net/lesliechan/remapping- the-local-and-the-global Collyer, F. 2015. “Report For Rio, Study B Rio.” The Social Sciences and History School, Fundação Getulio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Connell, R. 2007. Southern Theory. The Global Dynamics of Knowledge in Social Science. Cambridge: Polity Press. Connell, R. 2014. Rethinking Gender from the South, Feminist Studies, 40,(3): 518-539 Czerniewicz, L. (2013), “Power and politics in a changing scholarly communication landscape”, proceedings of the IATUL Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 2013, http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1982&context=iatul Czerniewicz, L and Kell, C; (2014) A framework for analysing research types and practices, in de Laat, M, McConnell, D, Ryberg, T & Jones, C (Editors) Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Networked Learning 2014 , Edinburgh, April 2014
  95. 95. Czerniewicz, L, and K Wiens. 2013. “The Online Visibility of South African Knowledge: Searching for Poverty Alleviation.” The African Journal of Information and Communication 13: 1–12. Czerniewicz, L; Goodier, S; Morrell, R (2016) Southern knowledge online? Climate change research discoverability and communication practices, Information, Communication & Society, 2016 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1168473; Published online: 11 Apr 2016 De Groote, S; Shultz, M; Blecic, D (2014) Information-seeking behavior and the use of online resources: a snapshot of current health sciences faculty, J Med Libr Assoc. 2014 Jul; 102(3): 169–176, doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.102.3.006 de Satgé, R. (2012). Assessing the need for a poverty information service. Report commissioned for the South African Treasury’s Programme to Support Pro-Poor Policy Development, (unpublished). Florida, R (2005) "The world is spiky. 2005." The Atlantic Monthly 296 (3): 48-51. Graham, M and Zook, M (2011) Visualising Global Cyberscapes: Mapping User-generated placemarks in Journal of Urban Technology, 18 (1): 115-132, Special Issue: ICT and Global Urban Networks Volume Doi 10.1080/10630732.2011.578412 Halavais, Alexander. 2013. Search Engine Society. Polity Press. Hamann, R (2012) Balancing the academic terms of trade: The paradox of publishing in top-tier journals from the periphery (working paper) Hassan, M, 2008, One World of Science, Editorial, Science Vol. 322 – 24 Horton, R (2003) “Medical journals: evidence of bias against the diseases of poverty” Commentary ., The Lancet, Vol 361, 1 March 2003 Internet.org. (2014). State of Connectivity (2014): A Report on Global Internet Access. https://fbnewsroomus.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/state-of-connectivity_3.pdf Kell, C and Czerniewicz, (2016, in press) Visibility of Scholarly Research and Changing Research Communication Practices: A Case Study from Namibia in Esposito, A (Ed) Research 2.0 and the Impact of Digital Technologies on Scholarly Inquiry, IGI Global
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Keynote presentation at Open Repositories Conference 2016 Dublin Ireland 14 June 2016

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