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ICTs & Higher Education Trends Opportunities Concerns 2012

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An overview of some trends in ICTs and Higher Education in 2012, with opportunities and concerns from an African perspective

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ICTs & Higher Education Trends Opportunities Concerns 2012

  1. 1. Some Trends, Opportunities & Concerns - An African Perspective Laura Czerniewicz March 2012 CC-BY-SA
  2. 2. Global Higher Education Issues Higher Education in Africa The Changing UniversityAffordances of the Digital Environment The Digital Landscape - Statistics The Big Questions
  3. 3.  Massification of higher education  Overall lowering of academic standards  Greater social mobility for a growing segment of the population  Increasingly diversified higher education systems Pressure to expand  Post-secondary education will need to provide places for an additional 98 million learners over the next 15 years; this would require more than four major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years". (Daniel 2011.) Funding  Resource constrained globally  New patterns of funding higher education  Public / private good CC-BY-SA Altbach, P; Reisberg,L; Rumbley, R (2009) Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an academic revolution, UNESCO
  4. 4.  Technology  instantaneous communication  the global dissemination of research and other information  expansion of ICTs. Knowledge economy Demographics  Both students and staff will grow and become more varied  Academic activities and roles will become more diversified & specialised  In developing countries, the need for more lecturers will mean that academic qualifications, already rather low, might not improve much and reliance on part-time staff will continue. Academic mobility CC-BY-SA Altbach, P; Reisberg,L; Rumbley, R (2009) Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an academic revolution, UNESCO
  5. 5. Socio-economic Organisational Pedagogical and Technological epistemologicalAfrican Access and Social Capacity explosion Curricula quality and Severe pressure onhigher education Equity Enrolment expansion Relevance technological Challenges Participation rates New players, new Language of infrastructure Changing demands instruction Increasing demand demographics (including the rise Faculty quality, for bandwidth Funding and of private higher strength and Wide range of ICT financing education) motivation literacies among Gender imbalances Management issues Impoverished students and Pressure to respond in universities research and students to participate in a Poor learning publishing Educators with new world order environments Academic freedom limited experience Student activism System The brain drain and of educational Diversification the issue of technology capacity building CC-BY-SA
  6. 6. Socio-economic Organisational Pedagogical and Technological epistemologicalAfrican Pressure to expand Overcrowded Outdated curricula Infrastructurehigher education enrolment classrooms Inappropriate pressure T&L challenges Diversity in student A lack of educational teaching methods Increasing demand body resources Inadequate for bandwidth Mature students, life- Weak management academic support Wide range of ICT long learning capacity Recognition of prior literacies Inadequate teaching learning Educators with and learning Poor throughput limited experience environments rates of educational Poor working Low achievement of technology conditions graduate Online content vs Limited competencies design of online & accountability for Poorly equipped mixed mode teaching young educators learning Limited incentives for interactions teaching Poorly designed Donor-driven online learning CC-BY-SA
  7. 7.  University under pressure to respond to a changing world order The role of the university being questioned The rise of the digital Expectations of online ▪ Teaching ▪ Research ▪ Communication ▪ Engagement CC-BY-SA
  8. 8.  Networked Granular Hyper/linked Multiple Disaggregation Aggregation Integrated Inter-operable CC-BY-SA
  9. 9. The Statistics
  10. 10. Internet users by country, 2007 figures from Internetworldstats.com.. CC-BY-SA
  11. 11. CC-BY-SA
  12. 12. CC-BY-SA
  13. 13. Insight into Mobile Telecoms in Africahttp://www.slideshare.net/andrewmchenry/insights-into-mobile-telecoms-in-africa-dec-2011- final
  14. 14. http://www.slideshare.net/andyhadfield/south-african-african-digital-stats-pub-quiz
  15. 15.  What is the role of technology in the changing higher education scenario ?  Cause  Consequence What is the relationship between ICTs and issues of equity and access in Africa?  Social inequality and digital divides  ICTs can overcome divides and can deepen divides What are the big trends in technology and education?  In terms of these trends, what are the opportunities and concerns for African education? CC-BY-SA
  16. 16. OpennessAlternative delivery models Digital content Mobile learning
  17. 17. • Open scholarship • Open access • Open content • Open licensing • Open education practices • Open education resources • Open source • Open data • Open research • Open science • Open web • Open knowledgehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  18. 18. http://www.slideshare.net/laura_Cz/open-everything- exploring-open-in-higher-education
  19. 19. • Open scholarship • Open access • Open content • Open licensing • Open education practices • Open education resources • Open source • Open data • Open research • Open science • Open web • Open knowledgehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/5535034664/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  20. 20. Beethham, H et al (2012) Open Practices Briefing Paper
  21. 21. CC-BY-SA
  22. 22.  For everyone with internet access:  Access to online content  Access to peers & community  Emergent access to accreditation Opportunity to contribute, create & share Cost savings Choice Transparency CC-BY-SA
  23. 23.  Growing divide  With/ without connectivity  With/ without specific devices Disproportionately benefit the wealthy?  See: https://edutechdebate.org/oer-and-digital-divide/open-educational-resources-expand-educational-inequalities/ CC-BY-SA
  24. 24. Open Online CoursesFlexible learning in traditional universities
  25. 25.  Experimental, often 1-off  Generally not accredited  Not associated with an institutionhttps://sites.google.com/site/themoocguide/home CC-BY-SA
  26. 26. MIT MiTX Stanford Knowlabs Opencourseware Pilot: 6.002x A1course Using Udacity Wide array (Circuits and 229 paying students platform Electronics) Pilot non paying students 160 k enrolled 2300Content Free content Course textbook buy Online lectures, Online lectures from Amazon automated quizzes Automated Some content free quizzes onlineInteraction Not provided, Discussion boards Peer interaction Peer interactionPedagogy/Learning content only for students And with lecturersDesign/Feedback automatedAccreditation Not provided, Pilot no testing Letter from course Letter from (exSummative Assessment content only Intend: a credential lecturers (not from Stanford) for a modest fee Stanford) for non course lecturers (not/ from MIT) paying students for non paying students CC-BY-SA
  27. 27.  The OER Tertiary Education Network, Athabasca University, BAOU (Gujarat’s open university), SUNY Empire State College, Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology, NorthTec, Open Polytechnic, Otago Polytechnic, Southern New Hampshire University, Thompson Rivers University, University of Canterbury, University of South Africa, University of Southern Queensland, and the University of Wollongong. Eight university- and college-level courses as prototypes  College Composition  Art Appreciation and Techniques  Regional relations in Asia and the Pacific  A Mathematical Journey  General and Applied Psychology  Critical Reasoning  Why Sustainable Practice  Introduction to Management CC-BY-SA
  28. 28. CC-BY-SA
  29. 29.  Extend access  To those eligible for university but without places Support life long learning Cheaper May be genuinely innovative May address real educational challenges CC-BY-SA
  30. 30.  Parallel education has dangers  (separate but equal?) Danger of increasing divides  With/ without resources (incl funding)  With/ without expertise Threatening  Change management Unknown Prone to unsubstantiated hype CC-BY-SA
  31. 31. Changing nature of content Rise of media rich content Ebooks Etextbooks
  32. 32. Self-curated, Visual, Social, MobileCC-BY-SAhttp://www.slideshare.net/joseph.murphy/cil-12-changing-face-of-content
  33. 33.  The expectation of “rich media” Rise of video – Utube, Vimeo, Ted, Khan Rise of audio, podcasting, lecturecasting Growth of animation, visualisation, simulation Rise of the digital humanities- vivid archival resources These afford for education- interactivity, modelling, engagement CC-BY-SA
  34. 34.  To demonstrate experiments or experimental situations To illustrate principles involving dynamic change or movement To illustrate abstract principles through the use of specially constructed physical models To illustrate principles involving three-dimensional space To use animated, slow-motion, or speeded-up video to demonstrate changes over time To teach certain advanced scientific or technological concepts (such as theories of relativity or quantum physics) without students having to master highly advanced mathematical techniques, through the use of models and/or animation To substitute for a field visit To bring students primary resource or case-study material, i.e. recording of naturally occurring events which, through editing and selection, demonstrate or illustrate principles covered elsewhere in the course. To demonstrate decision-making processes To demonstrate methods or techniques of performance (e.g. mechanical skills such as stripping and re- assembling a carburetor) To interpret artistic performance (e.g. drama, spoken poetry, movies, paintings, sculpture, or other works of art) To analyse through a combination of sounds and graphics the structure of music To teach sketching, drawing or painting techniques To demonstrate the way in which instruments or tools can be used; to demonstrate the skills of craftsmen To record and archive events that are crucial to the course, but which may disappear or be destroyed in the near future (e.g. Internet reportage of the Arab Spring) To demonstrate practical activities to be carried out later by students To synthesize, summarize or condense contextually and media rich information relevant to the course. CC-BY-SA Bates, T (2012) Pedagogical roles for video in online learning
  35. 35.  Print books: integrated/inflexible Digital: separation of content, software & hardware New platforms and distributors Transitional at present (pdf online) CC-BY-SA
  36. 36.  Paid for content  For one devicehttp://thenextweb.com/apps/2012/03/29/brian-coxs-wonders-of-the-universe-redefines-ipad-books-with-gorgeous-3d-and-a-brilliant- CC-BY-SA interface/
  37. 37.  Free Any device CC-BY-SA
  38. 38.  Free while online Annotate & Share Community Download and read off line- pay
  39. 39.  Potential to be seamless and global Distribution costs of content near/zer0 Linkable to sources, multimedia, visualisation, customisa ble Can integrate with Learning Environments Provide a student with a library New models include open (OpenStax, Flat World) CC-BY-SA
  40. 40.  Major drawback for Africa: Old print regime territorial rights regimes limit access (technology enables, IP constrains) Disjunctures  Eg use software to make books but can’t buy them! Dangers of greater divides  Exciting high quality in on proprietary software and expensive devices CC-BY-SA
  41. 41. Mobile Learning for Africa Parker, J 2011
  42. 42. LECTURE PODCASTING CC-BY-SAIN AD-HOC AUDIENCE RESPONSE SYSTEMS
  43. 43.  “M o b i l e l e a r n i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d t o s h o r t - l i v e d , s h o r t -f u n d e d p i l o t p r o j e c t s o r t o r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l c o u r s e s a s e x p e r i me n t s o u t s i d e ma i n s t r e a m me t h o d s o f f e r e d b y t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s ” (R a j a s i n g h a m , 2011)”. “T h i s r e s e a r c h i n s t u d e n t s ’ d i g i t a l l y -m e d i a t e d p r a c t i c e s a d d s we i g h t , a l o n g wi t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h (H o d g k i n s o n - Wi l l i a m s & N g a m b i , 2009) (K u k u l s k a - H u l m e & CC-BY-SA
  44. 44.  Highly complex environment New models Affordances – both open and closed Blurring boundaries  Formal/informal  Online/ face-to-face  Academic/ personal Imperative for  Information & ICT literacies  Critical literacies  Content & communication capabilities CC-BY-SA
  45. 45. Laura.Czerniewicz@uct.ac.za lauraczerniewicz.uct.ac.za @czernie CC-BY-SA

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