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Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications

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Presentation of keynote at 8th International E-learning Conference, June 2013, about the changing nature of teaching and learning in higher education, and its implications

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Czerniewicz disaggregation in teaching and learning explanations & implications

  1. 1. DISAGGREGATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING EXPLANATIONS & IMPLICATIONS Laura Czerniewicz 8th International Conference on E-Learning 27 June 2013
  2. 2. THE CONTEXT Higher Education Trends
  3. 3. GLOBAL TRENDS o Massification • 2000-2008 enrolments from 100 million to 150 million students • Implications include • Financial challenges • Infrastructure challenges • Quality questions • More graduates than the economy can sustain Altbach 2011
  4. 4. GLOBAL TRENDS o Cuts in government funding • E.g. UK , California system • Effects of financial crisis throughout system o The emergence and pressures of the market • Private higher education • Long standing, new forms & effects • Rise of private for profit for teaching only o Tensions of public interest and private sector aims Altbach 2011
  5. 5. TRENDS IN AFRICA o Massive increases in student numbers • 1991-2006 increase from 2.7 million to 9.3 million students • 2015 projections of 18-20 million (World Bank) o Gross underfunding of higher education o Huge rise in number of private providers • Soon more than public institutions Jegede 2012
  6. 6. TRENDS IN AFRICA o Challenges include • Shortages of resources, infrastructure, funds • Staff teaching in both public & private universities affecting quality & performance • Privates focusing on marketable courses (reducing revenue for public universities) • Absence of research (affects quality of teaching) Jegede 2012
  7. 7. TRENDS IN SOUTH AFRICA o Gross enrolment rate (no of students at particular level) • 16%, Low internationally, & considering 700 000 matriculants qualifying for HE o Low participation - high attrition system o Throughput & success critical concerns o Serious divides continue • Participation rates over 50% for white students, 13% for African students • White students twice as likely to graduate in 5 years • Only 5% of African youth succeed in any form of higher education o 1st year attrition • 40% of 1st year students leave HE Fisher & Scott 2011, Letseka & Maile 2008.
  8. 8. TRENDS IN SOUTH AFRICA o Low participation high attrition system o Throughput & success critical concerns o Serious divides continue • Participation rates over 50% for white students, 13% for African students • White students twice as likely to graduate in 5 years • Only 5% of African youth succeed in any form of higher education o 1st year attrition • 40% of 1st year students leave HE Fisher & Scott 2011 Letseka & Maile 2008. 2013
  9. 9. TECHNOLOGY o Pervasive • A cause of change in the higher education environment • Seen as solution for higher education problems • Mediating all higher education practices
  10. 10. THE CONTEXT Affordances of the digital
  11. 11. AFFORDANCES o …the properties and possibilities inherent in a technology making certain uses and behaviours possible and others unlikely or impossible o .. how the characteristics and qualities of different technologies can be instantiated in different contexts, & through users’ individual preferences and interactions
  12. 12. DIGITAL CONTENT o Granular o Dynamic o Non-linear o Device-agnostic o Free & easy to share • Sharing means multiplying not dividing o Communication visible • a form of content
  13. 13. THE STATUS QUO Teaching and learning
  14. 14. Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Content SINGLE PACKAGE Time Space
  15. 15. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Time Platform
  16. 16. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Time Platform
  17. 17. DIGITAL CONTENT o From products to services • From tangible to intangible • Control no longer with customer when purchased • From ownership to access/license o Intermediary - platforms • Services via an intermediary • May need to buy the platform, or access to the platform, not the content
  18. 18. Authorised Digital Analogue Unauthorised Textbooks Some photocopying E- TextbooksOpen Education Resources Photocopying Pirate sites File sharing ACCESS TO LEARNING CONTENT
  19. 19. OPEN CONTENT o Free to user • To download (gratis) • To re-use & remix (libre) o Available under an open license or public domain o Grants permissions not copyright
  20. 20. OPEN CONTENT o From small chunks to whole courses o May include some inbuilt pedagogical aspects o Stand alone o Abundance, not scarcity
  21. 21. CHANGES IN TEACHING & LEARNING Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Time Place
  22. 22. On campus Remote Internet supported Fully online F2F only MOOCsFormsofprovision Location of students Internet dependent Online- intensive Blended (mixed mode): combines F2F and online
  23. 23. http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/sheilamacneill/2013/03/19/preparing-for-the-second-wave/
  24. 24.   Open content MOOC Online course Cost to user (for access) Scale Entrance requirements Providers Analytics and automation Certification Synchronous (time limits) Copyright Pay to re-use Free Student pays fees Massive Small(er) scale No Yes, as per f2f Residential universities Private-university partnerships Traditionally distance ed providers No, not conventional Equivalent to f2f Yes, important No, or limited Register, start & end date, asynchronous within Register, start & end date, asynchronous within Variable, often proprietary including user generated content Generally proprietary may include open content Free All sizes None All None None None Open license or public domain No Yes, mostly likely Yes
  25. 25. THE VALUE OF MOOCS o The jury is out But o They have served to legitimise online learning
  26. 26. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Place
  27. 27. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Platform
  28. 28. http://www.deltainitiative.com/bloggers/author-phil-hill/snapshot-of-lms-market-for-large-online-programs-in-the-us-2
  29. 29. DISAGGREGATION Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Platform
  30. 30. CERTIFICATION
  31. 31. BADGES o Micro, granular certification o Some sort of formal(ised) recognition • for informal learning processes • for chunks of content • for competencies
  32. 32. PRIVATE ASSESSMENT
  33. 33. If content is open and the course/interaction is increasingly out- sourced to the private sector & certification is taking new forms What is the role of the university?
  34. 34. WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH SAY about teaching, learning & technology?
  35. 35. WHAT THE RESEARCH SAYS About teaching and learning - a lot About distance education - a lot About online learning - quite a lot especially from the global north About MOOCs - nearly nothing
  36. 36. TEACHING AND LEARNING What we know
  37. 37. WHAT WE KNOW o We know what our key challenges are • Diversity of academic readiness • Inequality • Throughput rates o We know a lot about what constitutes good learning Shay 2013 Slides 42-48
  38. 38. WHAT WE KNOW -- ENGAGEMENT o Learning is more likely to happen when students are actively engaged
  39. 39. WHAT WE KNOW - MEDIATION o Learning requires mediation
  40. 40. WHAT WE KNOW --- ALIGNMENT o We are more likely to get the learning outcomes we want when the curriculum is aligned • and assessment is key
  41. 41. WHAT WE KNOW – FLEXIBILITY o Learning is more likely to be successful where the teaching is cognizant of what students bring with them: prior knowledge, language, experience o Flexibility- multiple entry points, multiple pathways
  42. 42. WHAT WE KNOW -- TRANSFORMATION o Learning involves some degree of transformation of self. Knowing Acting Being ..students begin to understand the stakes not merely of studying physics or philosophy but of understanding and engaging the world as physicists or philosophers do. They become fully vested in the knowledge they have gathered, which ceases to be something external and becomes a part of who they are (SUES). ..students begin to understand the stakes not merely of studying physics or philosophy but of understanding and engaging the world as physicists or philosophers do. They become fully vested in the knowledge they have gathered, which ceases to be something external and becomes a part of who they are (SUES).
  43. 43. F2F Blended Fully on- line Engagement ✓ ✓ ✓ Mediation ✓ ✓ ? Alignment x ? ? Flexibility X ✓ ? Transformation ✓ ✓ ? THE TEST: pedagogy - technology alignment
  44. 44. DIVERSITY? STUDENTS ONLINE o Surveyed 40 000 students in nearly 500 000 courses o Findings • …While all types of students in the study suffered decrements in performance in online courses, some struggled more than others to adapt: males, younger students, Black students, and students with lower grade point averages Xu and Jaggars’ 2013
  45. 45. HOW WILL GOOD LEARNING HAPPEN in a disaggregated environment?
  46. 46. PLAYERS IN HE LANDSCAPE o New players (& roles) • For profit educational / service providers • Eg Coursera • Non-profit educational providers • eg Ed-X • Varying degrees of expertise in T & L • Eg Futurelearn o New roles for old players • E.g. Educational publishers as providers of services
  47. 47. http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Players-in-the-MOOC/138817/ FUNDERS WITH INTERESTS
  48. 48. INCREASED PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENT http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boom-Time-for-Education/131229/
  49. 49. VALUES & CONTROL? o Values • Private sector imperatives vs • Higher education as a public good o Control • How much & which parts of higher education do universities want to outsource?
  50. 50. MANY CLAIMS
  51. 51. ..the budding revolution in online education. Nothing has more potential to lift more people out of poverty- Friedman 2013 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/27/opinion/sunday/friedman-revolution-hits-the-universities.html? _r=0
  52. 52. THE IRON TRIANGLE Quality CostAccess In the f2f classroom none can be stretched without damaging the other In the digitally mediated landscape it is possible that these can be stretched Daniel, 2013
  53. 53. IT IS UP TO US TO TAKE CONTROL The disaggregated teaching and learning landscape will make a difference to higher education
  54. 54. THANK YOU Laura Czerniewicz @czernie http://openuct.uct.ac.za Laura.czerniewicz@uct.ac.za http://lauraczerniewicz.uct.ac.za
  55. 55. REFERENCES o Altbach, P (2011) The Past, Present, and Future of the Research University in Altbach, P and Salmi, J (Eds) 2011  The Making of World-Class Research Universities- The Road to Academic Excellence, The World Bank o Daniel, J (2013), Education Across Space and Time, Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, 2013 Summit – Sydney, 4 February 2013 o Fisher G and Scott (2011) ‘The Role of Higher Education in Closing the Skills Gap in South Africa’ The World Bank, Human Development Group, Africa Region, October 2011, Background paper for the World Bank project 'Closing the Skills and Technology Gap in South Africa'. o Jegede, O (2012), The Status of Higher Education in Africa, paper for Panel Discussion in the Launch of Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education- A project of the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) held at the Institute of International Education, New York, , February 1, 2012 o Letseka, M. and Maile, S. 2008. High University drop-out rates: a threat to South Africa’s future. HSRC Policy Brief. www.hsrc.ac.za. o Shay, S (2013) What we Know about Good Learning, presentation at UCT Online Education Workshop, 4 June 2013 o Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to Online Learning: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas,  CCRC Working Paper No. 54. Community College Research Center.

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