A TRILOGY OF By: LATREIA E. ESTABILLO MAED-GenEd, MSU Grad. SchoolEFFECTIVE EDUC 201 PROF. A. PULIDO
The illiterate of the twenty-first century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. ––Alvin Toffler "Effective teaching produces beneficialand purposeful student learning through ATTRIBUTES TOWARDS the use of appropriate procedures" THE LEARNING PROCESS (Diamond; 1987).
According to the book by Wotruba and Wright (1975) about teaching attributes: • Quality teachers socialize with students. • T. Dix (1993) defines the socialization process as communicating Quality teachers model positive social behavior and reinforcing positive expectations, behavior, and attributes. • Quality teachers students and reward positive Teachers must demonstrate forproject the thinking and decision-making processes that work toward expectations. good. They must also model a common social respectful social skills and workable coping strategies. • Quality teachers project authoritative teaching Teachers must expect students to act morally and responsibly. Additionally, successful teachers reward and reinforce positive behavior Successful teachers are leaders who exercise sound decision-making without and pro-social traits. being despotic or suppressive. Students must understand clearly the reasonsbehind a teachers demands. Authoritative teachers minimize power struggles,check for understanding, secure student commitment to change, help students cope with difficult situations, and encourage students to solve problems and regulate themselves
• Quality teachers are effective counselors.TheSuccessful teachers help are patient. Successful is, he shouldwillthe • teacher needs to be empathic to teach effectively, that teachers see Quality teachers students adjust and develop skills in personalpupils he teaches from pupils points personalnot from meaningful listening, relationships, academics, conflicts, of view, control, his realistic of view. persistently work with students to achieve own point goals. self-reflection, and personal responsibility.Such empathetic approach willknowthelevel. Adeyanju A. ethumanly with the Attitudes affect teachers performance teacher relate more al (2004) opine • Quality teachers make their content. Not only are pupils,teacher who their problems attitude towards teaching and towards his that a understandteachers knowledgeable, they convey ateacher positive and teach more effectively than the true successful has a understand the learner and his problems. who does not pupils will obviously teach more effectively than the teacher who has developedof learning, thetowards the learners he has to deal with. love negative attitudes excitement of discovery, and a Since empathy improves natural inquisitiveness. pupils, there is better the teachers understanding ofAccording to Dunhill (2000), a good and this will leads to effectivegeneral knowledge Quadri et al (2004) contribute teacher good first possess a wide teaching. and teacher-pupil interaction that a must teacher must be caring, kindand within the confinespupils. general knowledge, a sound understanding of the subjectfirm in dealing with of this Firmness means the ability to ensure fair play and gives equal treatment to all students in his class. he is to teach in the classroom.Quadri K. et al (2004) corroborate that a good teacher must be well knowledge versed inhis area of specialization, must know which to teach, when to teach and how to teach.
• Quality teachers have fun with their students. Teachers are • Their classrooms are to have good human the teacher and the students can expected cheerful, where both relationship, highly tolerant and Quality teachers embrace diversity. express a sensebalanced. A goodis an understanding that learning is a joyful emotionally of humor. There personality trait of an effective teacher isTeacherunderstand profound as an endeavor. assists the egos. to achievemust perseverance.•Perseverance knowledge of the learner backgrounds and have They must have that students come from different (Dunhill 2000). He his Quality teachers have beliefs. teacher attribute strong different faces opposition from other teachers in the values and of different home environmentsalways remember that thewhen he are product instructional goals even learners they have different potentials (Farrant 1999). school and self-assuredness, and equilibrium and Teachers maintain a sense of calm,opportunity to develop their learning interests. throughout the conflicts that inevitably arise in working with young people. They dont take student behavior personally, rather they work to solve problems and adjust behavior.
By: Patrick F. Bassett , Based on a 1996 ISACS poll, Published: June 25, 2004 New Teacher (0-5 years of experience, age 20-29) Positive Attributes: Enthusiasm Creativity Energy Knowledge of current thinking Idealism Openness, optimism Needs To find support/mentors Experience Understanding breadth of role Lesson-planning skills Skills for working with parents To have a life outside of /willingness to learn school; to learn how to say "No."
Mid-career Teacher (6-20 years of experience, age 30-39) Positive Attributes: Experience, expertise Confidence Bridge between old and new, continuity Loyalty, stability, role-modeling, ability to take on new assignments Needs: Leadership, mentoring opportunities Understanding their complex lives Recognition Money
Veteran Teacher (21+ years of experience, age 40-69+) Positive Attributes: Wisdom (about kids, families, school) Stability (psychological, personal) Sense of tradition, history of school Mentoring Link to outside community Needs: Training for challenges of change Understanding Security
Debriefing Points To Ponder:1. New teachers are expected to bring vitality; scholarly qualities are not the primary issue. 2. Heads recognize that new teachers need help; new teachers should not be afraid to ask for it. 3. Mid-career teachers run the show; pay attention to what theysay and how they operate (and on a bad day, stay clear, because often life is tough for them). 4. Veteran teachers are an invaluable resource; dont discount them.
Five Attitudes of Effective Teachers Bonni Gourneau, University of North Dakota
• Demonstrating Caring and Kindness Research by Larson and Silverman (2000) and Noddings • Sharing Responsibility (1984) has emphasized the importance of developing a • Carlsonand respectful relationshipteachers’ learning and caring and Sensitively Claxton (1996) believe that the Richardson Hastie (1997) student-directed and students’ Zimmerman(1999) statesAccepting Diversity (1990) and believe between teachers andNel (1992)need to that it wouldbe in support of toward that agendas process overlap and points the all constructivist- learning stated should be organized in such each other, curricula have become focal seem for trend a way more students. • attitudes inIndividualized practices. and the end result and learning Instruction Fostering teachers for positive learning.pluralisticbased teachingwould be atheir ownlearning into students take responsibility needs to be translatedaStudents appreciated environment. helped them succeed • Encouragingwho teachers strong and clear commitment to multicultural education, Creativity which ultimately couldexperiences. Teachers who used with their learning result in positive effects on specificintimidation in stresses the class and attitudes. This attitude front ofbehaviors resulted in a reluctance to classroom the importance of stimulating the volunteer. students’ creativity. The students appreciated and were personally motivated when teachers designed lessons that considered their interests, skills, and needs.
There is potential in every student, and a teacher’s attitude andactions can leave lasting impressions. Teachers need to be risk takers by being themselves and by trusting their students.
ELEMENTS OF TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS Teaching effectiveness is important because effectiveteaching helps student learning. It has become even moreimportant as the emphasis on quality in higher education has increased.
The style view Teaching Student actions outcomes • A common view of teaching effectiveness which focuses on how teachers teach.• “Teaching effectiveness is determined by what the teacher does.”
The style view Effective teachers…Personality characteristics • display warmthTeaching techniques • provide an overview at the start of teaching something newTeaching approaches • minimise the amount of time they are teaching the whole class from the front (direct instruction)
The style view FLAW 1 FLAW 2 FLAW 3 Teaching Looks in Debates Complex Student actions wrong about context outcomes place research findings Flaw 3 Flaw 2 -Debates aboutcontext findings -Complex research Flaw 1 -The teaching – outcomes relationship is complicated by context: -It assumes that the research generalizations are unequivocal.• Looks in the•wrong place not what the teacher does -But consider the debates of is students It the nature about: • the use •of rewards, the subject beingthat matters – taught• Whatthe role •of questioningday happening forpredetermined. list of qualities • the teacher demonstrates (against a the students the time of inis it is what discussion, deemed use •of “effective”)of the teaching environment the nature rather than in history • the to be storytelling and narrative what is happening for the students. • phonics•and whole language. the availability of resources • personal mood.
The outcomes approach Teaching Student actions outcomes Teaching effectiveness... is determined by what students achieve.The effectiveness of teachers is best determined by:• comparing the achievement of the students they teach.• comparing the added value they contribute to the achievement of the students they teach.
The outcomes approach Teaching FLAW 1 FLAW 2 FLAW 3 Student Prior Diminishes Measurement actions knowledge student of learning outcomes contribution Flaw 3 2 Flaw•Linking achievement to teaching actionsFlaw 1 of teaching of the student’s: The complexities of measurement: While the assessment diminishes the role •Prior•knowledge is a powerful influence on student personal •organisation,must factors to achievement. socio-economic attend effectiveness • interest, • bias toa teacher’s role in developing outcomes and the easily measured • • compare external assistancenot determine •Unfair tomotivation, summative achievements of students and to these, outcomes do attributepersonal•attributions of success or failure, teaching. • “black” box. the difference to superior or inferior effectiveness. • beliefs about and motivations for particular subjects and tasks.•Influence rather than change.
The inquiry approach• More than style and it is more than outcomes.• Continual interrogation of the relationship between these two dimensions with the aim of enhancing student achievement.• Quality of inquiry into the relationship between teaching actions and student learning.
The inquiry approach Question posing Data collection and analysis Evidence 1 Inquiry 1 What is happening? Pre- Inquiry Teaching Opportunity to Student What is worth actions Learn outcomes spending time on?Working hypothesis Inquiry 2 The cycle of inquiry established What are the by the processes of Inquiry 1 possibilities? and Inquiry 2 enhances the opportunity for teachers to Evidence 2 learn about their own practice, Craft and students to increase their knowledge Researcher engagement and success. knowledge
The inquiry approachKnowledge and Skills Attitudes Inquiry 2Knowledge and skills Inquiry 1 areas as: relate to such •Openness teaching actions for improvement Identifying possibilities on student outcomes Impact of-how to pose questions that capture the main •Sources: ordered, about: Posing questions deliberate analysisdimensions of the relationship between teaching and • ideas from •• outcomes all of other teachers (craftlearning the experiences sources. • knowledge) alignment-to collect valid and reliable information that helpsanswer the questions about the relationship between • engagement • researcher knowledge.teaching success. •Fallibility learning • andSeeking:-how to analyse data to identify patterns and issues Collection of high quality evidence: truths-how •• observe and analyse the teaching of others in to conjectures not absolute strongest possible warrantsways • student achievement data that identifies actions that impact positively on •• evidence of impact on student learning.student learning documentation but that it is important hypotheses may fail • teacher-how to locate andsearching to keep observation: student responses • classroomevaluate research that providesOutcome:strong evidence of impacts on student learning. • student feedback. •• working hypotheses. searching for disconfirming evidence.
SEVEN ESSENTIAL AREAS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING (Christine Coombe, Univ. Dubai) • Affective/Personality Factors • Attitude Towards the Profession • Verbal Ability • Professional/Content Knowledge • Instructional Effectiveness • Teaching Experience • Intercultural Competence
“The art of teaching is the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds.” Anatole France, French novelist and poet, 19th century