French Folkpres Final3

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French Folkpres Final3

  1. 1. French Canadian Folk Music Image courtesy of http://www.tetradequestrian.com/hc/rawlinks.html Music 2I03 Dr. Marcia Ostashewski Nicholas Childs Latoya Francis Jaclyn Gugelyk Amisa Khan Alexa Leibl Nathaniel Tanti 0668798 0858505 0743253 0672287 0973193 0551027
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian Folk music has been a way for French Canadians to express their identity and unity throughout the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>As this genre has developed and disseminated throughout the country it has been incorporated as an invaluable part of Canadian heritage and identity. </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian repertoire of music reflected a feeling of collective patriotism shared by every Canadian, thereby providing a sense of unity among the nation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Genre <ul><li>Themes and Structure </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian folk songs of the past have been written about countless varying themes </li></ul><ul><li>One very popular children’s folk song, even to this day, is “Alouette!”, which is a song about a skylark. This song is still currently popular today because it lends itself to boisterous singing even for those who don’t speak French (Brault, 45). </li></ul><ul><li>Other typical examples of Canadian folk songs include royalty, war, patriotism and love. ( Barbeau, 123). </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally French Canadian Folk music is composed in stanzas containing rhyming lines (Barbeau, 1932). </li></ul><ul><li>This genre also includes metric designs and musical phrases of varied length with no consistent form (Barbeau, 1932). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Development <ul><li>Folk music was passed from generation to generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Many early Quebec songs had come with 17 th century immigrants (Barbeau,171) . </li></ul><ul><li>Although French Canadians share history and culture with France, they created songs about their own Canadian heritage as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest origins of French Canadian folk music date back to the 17th and 18th century (McGee, 41). </li></ul>Image courtesy of http://www.kimballtrombone.com/trombone-history-timeline/trombone-history-19th-century/
  5. 5. Development <ul><li>When the coureurs-des-bois made their travels over through Canada their cheerfulness and optimism was in part kept up by practicing folk songs, tales and arts (Barbeau,169). </li></ul><ul><li>French settlers and voyagers sang their folk songs as they travelled the New World (McGee, 41) . For voyagers, this was a way to set the rhythm of their paddle strokes (McGee, 41). </li></ul><ul><li>Others used the rhythm to set the pace in other activities such as working in the barn, weaving, and washing. (Barbeau, Folk-Songs of French Canada 169) </li></ul><ul><li>The repertoire of French Canadian folk music has vastly expanded since its modest beginnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Some French Canadian Folk music has become commercialized as a result of the genres expansion. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dissemination <ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada significantly aided in the dissemination of French folk music throughout Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the first scholarly compilation of Quebec folk songs published in 1865 by Ernest Gagnon (McGee, 44). </li></ul><ul><li>There were 104 songs in the collection which was c irculated throughout Canada and France (McGee, 44). </li></ul><ul><li>Songs in the compilation included “Un Canadien Errant” ,”C’est dans la vill’ de Bailtonne” and “Vive la Canadienne” (McGee, 45). </li></ul><ul><li>Theses songs including most of French folk repertory originated in France in the Middle Ages and was altered for 19 th century Canadian life (McGee, 44). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dissemination <ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada </li></ul><ul><li>These changes in the original Medieval versions often involved changing the lyrics to reflect Canadian experiences while the melody stayed the same (McGee, 44). </li></ul><ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada allowed for Folk music to be published and officially associated with the music industry. </li></ul>Image courtesy of http://www.mayfairmusic.com/canadiana.html
  8. 8. Dissemination <ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation also contributed to the dissemination of French Canadian folk music </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation was established in 1867 joining the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario (McGee,60). </li></ul><ul><li>This improved development and communication across the country (McGee, 61). </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation represented Canada’s unity and defined it’s identity as a nation (McGee,60). </li></ul><ul><li>This new found sense of identity amongst Canadians created a growing demand for patriotic representations including those in the form of music (Kallmann, 53). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dissemination <ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for patriotic and national songs was met by French Canadian Folk music, which had always had strong patriotic themes (Kallmann,53). </li></ul><ul><li>This demand, along with the improvements in communication, allowed for French Canadian Folk music to be disseminated throughout the nation. </li></ul>Image courtesy of http://data2.collectionscanada.gc.ca/ap/c/c005812.jpg
  10. 10. Dissemination <ul><li>In 1920, Chansons Populaires du Canada was copyrighted by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and published by Chateau Frontenac (Carl, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>A later publication of these songs provided a more French Canadian influence than the previous copy (Carl, 1998) . </li></ul><ul><li>The notation “Ce recue il est publie par la Cie du Chemin de Fer Pacifique Canadien” replaced the Chateau Frontenac in English on the title page (Carl, 1998). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dissemination Image courtesy of antiquepianoshop.com/square-grand-pianos/ <ul><li>In 1929 the Hudson’s Bay Company published HBC Patrol for Piano (Carl, 1998) . </li></ul><ul><li>This included nine medleys alternating between French and English songs (Carl, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Some songs included were; “The Red River Valley”, “Vive la Canadienne”, “Johnny Canuck”, “Alouette”, “En Roulant Ma Boule”, “The Maple Leaf Forever” and ending with “O Canada” (Carl, 1998) . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>Was born in Vercheres, Quebec on December 29, 1842 (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>His father, Augustin, was a bandmaster and teacher who introduced Lavallée to music (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>By the age of 10, Lavallée had mastered the violin, piano, organ and cornet (Ford, 62). </li></ul>Image courtesy of http://www.greatscores.com/assets/Biographies/Lavallée.png
  13. 13. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 13, Lavallée was sent to Montreal to study music (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>While in Montreal he was adopted by Leon Derome who introduced Lavallée to musical theatre (Riddell, 94). </li></ul><ul><li>By age 15 Lavallée moved to the United States with a theatrical ensemble, where he won first prize in a New Orleans competition in both cornet and piano (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>While in New Orleans Lavallée formed an association with a Spanish violinist Olivera. Together they toured South America, the West Indies and the Southern States (Riddell, 94). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>After a stint in the American Army he returned to Montreal in 1863 as a music teacher (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>The insufficient income from teaching caused Lavallée to leave Montreal and tour the United States with a black minstrel troupe (Riddell, 95). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870 while in New York , Lavallée was appointed Musical Director of the “Grand Opera House” (Riddell, 95). </li></ul><ul><li>By 1872 the Opera House closed and Lavallée returned back to Montreal where he met his old friend Derome who helped organize a period of study in Paris for Lavallée (Ford, 62). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>Upon returning to Montreal in 1875 he was appointed Choirmaster at St. James’ Cathedral (Riddell, 96). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to his musical interest Lavallée had a love for theatre. He began producing and composing operatic productions later in life (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1880 at the request of the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec he and Judge Adolphe Routhier prepared text and music for the national anthem, “O Canada” (Ford, 63). </li></ul>Image courtesy of http://www.cmhg-phmc.gc.ca/cmh/en/image_433.asp
  16. 16. Song Image courtesy of http://www.quebec400.gc.ca/histoires-stories/images/calixa-Lavallée-eng.jpg Click Image to hear O Canada http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/MP3/O-Canada-Inst.MP3
  17. 17. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 1-4 (Introduction) First hearing of main motive -opens with a single drum beat -Violin plays melody line -Xylophone come in half way through and plays several melody notes -Trumpet come in part way through and plays one note with a varied rhythm until end of phrase Bars 5-8 Antecedent1 Oh Canada! Our home and native land. -Violin plays melody -French horn plays harmony Bars 9-12 Consequent1 True Patriot love in all thy sons command.
  18. 18. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 13-16 Antecedent2 With glowing hearts we see thee rise, the True North strong and free! -Xylophone doubles violin on melody, staccato -French horn plays harmony -trumpet plays between phrases -Trombone plays three successive descending notes after second phrase Bars 17-20 Consequent2 From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. Bars 21-22 Antecedent3 God keep our land -opening short cymbal crash -harp plays runs at opening, between phrases and at end of second phrase -all instruments are played forte, energetic, exciting -thicker, more intense harmonies -violin plays melody -trombones harmonize -cymbal crash at beginning of second phrase -drums begin to play near end of second phrase Bars 23-24 Consequent3 glorious and free!
  19. 19. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 25-28 Antecedent 4 O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. - Continuation of instrument parts from previous two phrases - Opening short cymbal crash - Trumpet doubles melody with violins - Horns play syncopated runs between phrases Bars 29-32 Consequent4 O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. -opening short cymbal crash -return of main motive -Slight ritardando at end -melody ends on a closing cadence -harp run at end of phrase -closing short cymbal crash -Closing high-hats, continue and fades out after other instruments are silent
  20. 20. Song <ul><li>O Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding English lyrics are the official English lyrics of the Canadian National Anthem </li></ul><ul><li>The main motive is played with different variations during antecedent and consequent phrases 1 and 3. </li></ul><ul><li>The main motive is played identically in the melody of the introduction phrase and final phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>In the introductory phrase, the main motive in the melody is very exposed without a lot of harmony and embellishment, and played at a medium volume. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Song <ul><li>O Canada </li></ul><ul><li>In the final phrase, the main motive in the melody is enhanced with thick harmonies, ornate embellishments from many different instruments, and at a very loud volume. Furthermore, the final phrase slows slightly at the end (ritardando). </li></ul><ul><li>All of these features create a climactic effect and a feeling of coming full circle from the motive at the beginning. The overall affect is one of musical satisfaction and closure. </li></ul><ul><li>In many versions the melody in the closing cadence goes up and in this version the melody in the closing cadence goes down. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Performance <ul><li>Performance Venues </li></ul><ul><li>Composers and musicians similar to Lavallée performed in venues such as the Theatre Royal (Barrière and Potvin, 2009) . It was the first hall in Canada dedicated exclusively to the performing arts. (Barrière and Potvin, 2009) </li></ul>Image courtesy of http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Theatre_Royal,_Drury_Lane
  23. 23. Performance <ul><li>O Canada Performances </li></ul><ul><li>In June 1880, the St. Jean Baptiste Society sought a patriotic song for their national festival (Marsh, 2009) . Calixa Lavallée introduced his national anthem which became an astounding success (Marsh, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>O Canada was first presented to the public in June 1880 at Laval University in Quebec City (Marsh, 2009) . It was performed by Calixa Lavallée on the piano (Marsh, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>The song was later performed by a brass band on June 24 1880 at a banquet in Quebec City held for the governor general (Marsh, 2009) . The performance was repeated and sung by a choir the next day before an audience of 6000 in the gardens of Spencer Wood. (Marsh, 2009) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Music and Identity </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian Folk music has been a means for conveying collective identity and experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed down from the Middle Ages in France, French Canadian Folk music has adapted to express the unique experiences of life in Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>This genre’s strong patriotic themes, inspired by Confederation and embodied by Calixa Lavallée’s conception of “O Canada,” have provided Canadians with a unique and independent sense of identity with which they share. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Works Cited Barbeau, Marius. &quot;Folk-Songs of French Canada.&quot; 13.2 (1932). — . &quot;French Canadian Folk-Songs.&quot; 29.1 (1943). Barrière, Mireille and Gilles Potvin. “Theatre Royal.” The Canadian Encyclopedia . 2009. 1 November 2009 <www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com>. Brault, Gerard J. The French-Canadian heritage in New England. University Press of New England, 1986. Canada Dept. of Canadian Heritage. National Anthem: O Canada. Web. 29 Oct. 2009. Kellmann, Helmut. A History of Music in Canada, 1954-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.1987. Laforte, C. (2009). “Folk music, Franco-Canadian”. The Canadian Encyclopaedia. Retrieved (2009, November 18) from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm =TCE&Params=U1ARTU0001243#ArticleContents Marsh, James. “Calixa Lavallée and the Origins of &quot;O Canada&quot;.” The Canadian Encyclopedia . 2009. Historical Foundation of Canada. 1 November 2009 <www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com>.  McGee, Timothy J. The Music of Canada . Markham: Penguin Books Canada Ltd., 1985. Morey, Carl.  (1998). Nationalism and commerce: Canadian folk music in the 1920s. Canadian Issues, 20, 34.  Retrieved November 18, 2009, from CBCA Reference. (Document ID: 390994981). Riddell, R.G. Canadian Portraits: C.B.C. Broadcasts , Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1940

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