French Folkpres Final3


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French Folkpres Final3

  1. 1. French Canadian Folk Music Image courtesy of Music 2I03 Dr. Marcia Ostashewski Nicholas Childs Latoya Francis Jaclyn Gugelyk Amisa Khan Alexa Leibl Nathaniel Tanti 0668798 0858505 0743253 0672287 0973193 0551027
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian Folk music has been a way for French Canadians to express their identity and unity throughout the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>As this genre has developed and disseminated throughout the country it has been incorporated as an invaluable part of Canadian heritage and identity. </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian repertoire of music reflected a feeling of collective patriotism shared by every Canadian, thereby providing a sense of unity among the nation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Genre <ul><li>Themes and Structure </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian folk songs of the past have been written about countless varying themes </li></ul><ul><li>One very popular children’s folk song, even to this day, is “Alouette!”, which is a song about a skylark. This song is still currently popular today because it lends itself to boisterous singing even for those who don’t speak French (Brault, 45). </li></ul><ul><li>Other typical examples of Canadian folk songs include royalty, war, patriotism and love. ( Barbeau, 123). </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally French Canadian Folk music is composed in stanzas containing rhyming lines (Barbeau, 1932). </li></ul><ul><li>This genre also includes metric designs and musical phrases of varied length with no consistent form (Barbeau, 1932). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Development <ul><li>Folk music was passed from generation to generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Many early Quebec songs had come with 17 th century immigrants (Barbeau,171) . </li></ul><ul><li>Although French Canadians share history and culture with France, they created songs about their own Canadian heritage as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest origins of French Canadian folk music date back to the 17th and 18th century (McGee, 41). </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  5. 5. Development <ul><li>When the coureurs-des-bois made their travels over through Canada their cheerfulness and optimism was in part kept up by practicing folk songs, tales and arts (Barbeau,169). </li></ul><ul><li>French settlers and voyagers sang their folk songs as they travelled the New World (McGee, 41) . For voyagers, this was a way to set the rhythm of their paddle strokes (McGee, 41). </li></ul><ul><li>Others used the rhythm to set the pace in other activities such as working in the barn, weaving, and washing. (Barbeau, Folk-Songs of French Canada 169) </li></ul><ul><li>The repertoire of French Canadian folk music has vastly expanded since its modest beginnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Some French Canadian Folk music has become commercialized as a result of the genres expansion. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dissemination <ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada significantly aided in the dissemination of French folk music throughout Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the first scholarly compilation of Quebec folk songs published in 1865 by Ernest Gagnon (McGee, 44). </li></ul><ul><li>There were 104 songs in the collection which was c irculated throughout Canada and France (McGee, 44). </li></ul><ul><li>Songs in the compilation included “Un Canadien Errant” ,”C’est dans la vill’ de Bailtonne” and “Vive la Canadienne” (McGee, 45). </li></ul><ul><li>Theses songs including most of French folk repertory originated in France in the Middle Ages and was altered for 19 th century Canadian life (McGee, 44). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dissemination <ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada </li></ul><ul><li>These changes in the original Medieval versions often involved changing the lyrics to reflect Canadian experiences while the melody stayed the same (McGee, 44). </li></ul><ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada allowed for Folk music to be published and officially associated with the music industry. </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  8. 8. Dissemination <ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation also contributed to the dissemination of French Canadian folk music </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation was established in 1867 joining the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario (McGee,60). </li></ul><ul><li>This improved development and communication across the country (McGee, 61). </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation represented Canada’s unity and defined it’s identity as a nation (McGee,60). </li></ul><ul><li>This new found sense of identity amongst Canadians created a growing demand for patriotic representations including those in the form of music (Kallmann, 53). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dissemination <ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for patriotic and national songs was met by French Canadian Folk music, which had always had strong patriotic themes (Kallmann,53). </li></ul><ul><li>This demand, along with the improvements in communication, allowed for French Canadian Folk music to be disseminated throughout the nation. </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  10. 10. Dissemination <ul><li>In 1920, Chansons Populaires du Canada was copyrighted by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and published by Chateau Frontenac (Carl, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>A later publication of these songs provided a more French Canadian influence than the previous copy (Carl, 1998) . </li></ul><ul><li>The notation “Ce recue il est publie par la Cie du Chemin de Fer Pacifique Canadien” replaced the Chateau Frontenac in English on the title page (Carl, 1998). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dissemination Image courtesy of <ul><li>In 1929 the Hudson’s Bay Company published HBC Patrol for Piano (Carl, 1998) . </li></ul><ul><li>This included nine medleys alternating between French and English songs (Carl, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Some songs included were; “The Red River Valley”, “Vive la Canadienne”, “Johnny Canuck”, “Alouette”, “En Roulant Ma Boule”, “The Maple Leaf Forever” and ending with “O Canada” (Carl, 1998) . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>Was born in Vercheres, Quebec on December 29, 1842 (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>His father, Augustin, was a bandmaster and teacher who introduced Lavallée to music (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>By the age of 10, Lavallée had mastered the violin, piano, organ and cornet (Ford, 62). </li></ul>Image courtesy ofée.png
  13. 13. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 13, Lavallée was sent to Montreal to study music (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>While in Montreal he was adopted by Leon Derome who introduced Lavallée to musical theatre (Riddell, 94). </li></ul><ul><li>By age 15 Lavallée moved to the United States with a theatrical ensemble, where he won first prize in a New Orleans competition in both cornet and piano (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>While in New Orleans Lavallée formed an association with a Spanish violinist Olivera. Together they toured South America, the West Indies and the Southern States (Riddell, 94). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>After a stint in the American Army he returned to Montreal in 1863 as a music teacher (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>The insufficient income from teaching caused Lavallée to leave Montreal and tour the United States with a black minstrel troupe (Riddell, 95). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870 while in New York , Lavallée was appointed Musical Director of the “Grand Opera House” (Riddell, 95). </li></ul><ul><li>By 1872 the Opera House closed and Lavallée returned back to Montreal where he met his old friend Derome who helped organize a period of study in Paris for Lavallée (Ford, 62). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallée </li></ul><ul><li>Upon returning to Montreal in 1875 he was appointed Choirmaster at St. James’ Cathedral (Riddell, 96). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to his musical interest Lavallée had a love for theatre. He began producing and composing operatic productions later in life (Ford, 62). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1880 at the request of the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec he and Judge Adolphe Routhier prepared text and music for the national anthem, “O Canada” (Ford, 63). </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  16. 16. Song Image courtesy ofée-eng.jpg Click Image to hear O Canada
  17. 17. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 1-4 (Introduction) First hearing of main motive -opens with a single drum beat -Violin plays melody line -Xylophone come in half way through and plays several melody notes -Trumpet come in part way through and plays one note with a varied rhythm until end of phrase Bars 5-8 Antecedent1 Oh Canada! Our home and native land. -Violin plays melody -French horn plays harmony Bars 9-12 Consequent1 True Patriot love in all thy sons command.
  18. 18. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 13-16 Antecedent2 With glowing hearts we see thee rise, the True North strong and free! -Xylophone doubles violin on melody, staccato -French horn plays harmony -trumpet plays between phrases -Trombone plays three successive descending notes after second phrase Bars 17-20 Consequent2 From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. Bars 21-22 Antecedent3 God keep our land -opening short cymbal crash -harp plays runs at opening, between phrases and at end of second phrase -all instruments are played forte, energetic, exciting -thicker, more intense harmonies -violin plays melody -trombones harmonize -cymbal crash at beginning of second phrase -drums begin to play near end of second phrase Bars 23-24 Consequent3 glorious and free!
  19. 19. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 25-28 Antecedent 4 O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. - Continuation of instrument parts from previous two phrases - Opening short cymbal crash - Trumpet doubles melody with violins - Horns play syncopated runs between phrases Bars 29-32 Consequent4 O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. -opening short cymbal crash -return of main motive -Slight ritardando at end -melody ends on a closing cadence -harp run at end of phrase -closing short cymbal crash -Closing high-hats, continue and fades out after other instruments are silent
  20. 20. Song <ul><li>O Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding English lyrics are the official English lyrics of the Canadian National Anthem </li></ul><ul><li>The main motive is played with different variations during antecedent and consequent phrases 1 and 3. </li></ul><ul><li>The main motive is played identically in the melody of the introduction phrase and final phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>In the introductory phrase, the main motive in the melody is very exposed without a lot of harmony and embellishment, and played at a medium volume. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Song <ul><li>O Canada </li></ul><ul><li>In the final phrase, the main motive in the melody is enhanced with thick harmonies, ornate embellishments from many different instruments, and at a very loud volume. Furthermore, the final phrase slows slightly at the end (ritardando). </li></ul><ul><li>All of these features create a climactic effect and a feeling of coming full circle from the motive at the beginning. The overall affect is one of musical satisfaction and closure. </li></ul><ul><li>In many versions the melody in the closing cadence goes up and in this version the melody in the closing cadence goes down. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Performance <ul><li>Performance Venues </li></ul><ul><li>Composers and musicians similar to Lavallée performed in venues such as the Theatre Royal (Barrière and Potvin, 2009) . It was the first hall in Canada dedicated exclusively to the performing arts. (Barrière and Potvin, 2009) </li></ul>Image courtesy of,_Drury_Lane
  23. 23. Performance <ul><li>O Canada Performances </li></ul><ul><li>In June 1880, the St. Jean Baptiste Society sought a patriotic song for their national festival (Marsh, 2009) . Calixa Lavallée introduced his national anthem which became an astounding success (Marsh, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>O Canada was first presented to the public in June 1880 at Laval University in Quebec City (Marsh, 2009) . It was performed by Calixa Lavallée on the piano (Marsh, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>The song was later performed by a brass band on June 24 1880 at a banquet in Quebec City held for the governor general (Marsh, 2009) . The performance was repeated and sung by a choir the next day before an audience of 6000 in the gardens of Spencer Wood. (Marsh, 2009) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Music and Identity </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian Folk music has been a means for conveying collective identity and experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed down from the Middle Ages in France, French Canadian Folk music has adapted to express the unique experiences of life in Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>This genre’s strong patriotic themes, inspired by Confederation and embodied by Calixa Lavallée’s conception of “O Canada,” have provided Canadians with a unique and independent sense of identity with which they share. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Works Cited Barbeau, Marius. &quot;Folk-Songs of French Canada.&quot; 13.2 (1932). — . &quot;French Canadian Folk-Songs.&quot; 29.1 (1943). Barrière, Mireille and Gilles Potvin. “Theatre Royal.” The Canadian Encyclopedia . 2009. 1 November 2009 <>. Brault, Gerard J. The French-Canadian heritage in New England. University Press of New England, 1986. Canada Dept. of Canadian Heritage. National Anthem: O Canada. Web. 29 Oct. 2009. Kellmann, Helmut. A History of Music in Canada, 1954-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.1987. Laforte, C. (2009). “Folk music, Franco-Canadian”. The Canadian Encyclopaedia. Retrieved (2009, November 18) from =TCE&Params=U1ARTU0001243#ArticleContents Marsh, James. “Calixa Lavallée and the Origins of &quot;O Canada&quot;.” The Canadian Encyclopedia . 2009. Historical Foundation of Canada. 1 November 2009 <>.  McGee, Timothy J. The Music of Canada . Markham: Penguin Books Canada Ltd., 1985. Morey, Carl.  (1998). Nationalism and commerce: Canadian folk music in the 1920s. Canadian Issues, 20, 34.  Retrieved November 18, 2009, from CBCA Reference. (Document ID: 390994981). Riddell, R.G. Canadian Portraits: C.B.C. Broadcasts , Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1940