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  1. 1. Maternal Nipple Deprivation and cross species sucking• Kittens suck on dogs• Puppies suck on cats• Lamb sucks on woman (Dr P McVeagh’s pic)• Lamb sucks on dog• Monkey sucks on woman• Piglet sucks on dog• Puppies feed on tigress• Tigress feeds puppies• Dog feeds panda bear• Cat feeds rabbit• etc (see videos on Youtube) Smell does not seem to be a necessary sensory component of oral tactile fixation.
  2. 2. Maternal Nipple Deprivation: ASKWhat is the displacement object when the maternal nipple topacify the infant is unavailable to the infant?
  3. 3. Maternal Nipple Deprivation:What is the displacement object when the maternal nipple (to pacify the infant) is unavailable to the infant?• The emotionally fixated sucked object calms the infant and reduces infant cortisol levels:
  4. 4. • Although cortisol is reduced and that reduction by dummy sucking is favourable to the baby –• The effect on the emotional relationship development with the mother is damaged.• A baby who loses its fixated dummy sucking object cannot be comforted by the mother.
  5. 5. Although cortisol is reduced and that reductionby dummy sucking is favourable to the baby –The effect on the emotional relationshipdevelopment with the mother is damaged.A baby who loses its fixated dummy suckingobject cannot be comforted by the mother. Solution - let baby suck on the mother’s nipple for cortisol reduction!
  6. 6. Maternal Nipple Deprivation TYPES OF PACIFIERS1. Thumb or other fixated body part2. Inanimate object, the dummy3. Mother’s nipple• The emotionally fixated sucked object calms the infant and reduces infant cortisol levels:
  7. 7. There is no secondaryreinforcement (milk) needed to encourage baby to suck
  8. 8. Oral Tactile Imprinting is a genetically determined byevolution survival strategy to forman emotional relationship through sucking on the maternal nipple
  9. 9. Maternal Nipple Deprivation Swamp wallaby
  10. 10. Maternal Nipple Deprivation
  11. 11. Maternal nipple deprivation – is the effect just lack of comfort from a familiar object?• There are a couple of million internet references to the physical and emotional problems that surround thumb and dummy sucking.• Descriptions of the emotional state of the infant when the fixated object is not available are given by parents and caregivers.
  12. 12. Maternal nipple deprivation – is the displacement just lack ofcomfort from a familiar object? How do mothers describe the sucking on a pacifier other than the mothers nipples?• “as if he can’t live without it”• “as if his life depended upon it”• “screamed and screamed”• “addiction”• “sobbed himself to sleep for nights”• “freaked out”
  13. 13. Maternal Nipple Deprivation• The object fixated by oral tactile imprinting is the first emotional relationship.The first emotional relationship may be• On the self• On an inanimate object• On the mother
  15. 15. BirthVolume 4 Issue 4, Pages 165 - 173 Published Online: 31 Mar 2007© 2010Wiley Periodicals,Feeding the Adopted BabyElizabeth Hermann, Ed. M. 11 Elizabeth Hors - been a La Leche League leadersince 1967 and worked with relactating mothers since 1968. Hations include ahandbook for parents titled: a Guide to Breastfeeding the Adopted A Study ofInduced lactation.The physiology of this lactation is discussed,along with the factors leading to productionof enough breast milk under thesecircumstances to sustain an infant.
  16. 16. ABSTRACT:Sixty-five women breastfed adopted babies. Eighteen of the women had never been pregnant,seven had been pregnant but had not breastfed, andforty had been pregnant and breastfed before..
  17. 17. Cross sucking• Maternal Nipple Deprivation and displacement of the emotional oral tactile fixation onto an adjacent animal body part.• Copyright © 1994-1998 by Pamela Greene <>.Last modified: 02 Mar 1998.• accessed 16/6/1010
  18. 18. “Suckling: Often ferrets will suck on eachothers ears, and sometimes even cats or dogs ears,especially when theyre sleeping. Its probably a lot like thumb-sucking inhumans,And nothing to worry about as long as theone doing the sucking is eating well and theother ones ears arent getting sore.”
  19. 19. Sleeping with baby But still she looked forlorn lying in the corner of the pen and I decided to spend the night with her. I wasnt to know that this would be just the first of many anxious, sleepless nights we would spend cuddled up together. Against All Odds Marys Story • The Elephant well never forget By Iris Hunt ant_orphan_mary.php accessed 5/7/2010
  20. 20. Maternal Nipple Deprivation Effect of accommodating sucking and nosing on the behaviour of artificially reared pigletsT M Widowski, Y Yuan and J M GardnerDepartment of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 accessed 5/7/2010 the period of nutritive suckinglasts only 10–15 s per nursing, young pigletsengage in long periods of non- nutritivesucking (Rushen & Fraser 1989), and noseand massage the sow’s teats before andafter milk let-down, often falling asleep withtheir snouts in contact with the udder(Fraser 1980).
  21. 21. In the absence of the sow, newborn pigletsredirect nosing and sucking at other objects(Noyes 1976). When young piglets are housedin groups, these motor patterns are oftendirected at the soft tissue body parts of otherpiglets, which leads to belly nosing, navelsucking and sucking or chewing on the ears ortails of pen-mates (Fraser et al. 1998) (Navalsucking results in evisceration of the abdomenof the sucked litter mate)
  22. 22. Maternal Nipple Deprivation. Trough no-nipple fed Hard glass-wall with-nipple fed Soft-bag water-filled with-nipple fed Belly sucking of adjacent piglet (Problem abdominal hernia) Days post weaning Reconstructed from Widowski et al
  23. 23. Maternal Nipple DeprivationWe have seen a red-necked wallaby thatsucked his scrotum so much that his testesascended back into his body. (Seephotograph) An example given by Dr Rick Spearein his work Clinical Assessment, Diseases andManagement of the Orphaned Macropod Joeytalks of an eastern grey joey that sucked hisscrotum so much that it became ulcerated and thetestis were fibrosed….Empty sacs on this red-neck. As at 3.5kg thetestes had not redescended.© Cheryl Dooley2004 Page: 87
  24. 24. Maternal Nipple DeprivationBody Sucking This isn’tsomething to take lightly. Jawshave been misaligned andsignificant injuries to testicleshave taken place.Stress Specific areas of thebody may be reddened or, inthe case of the testes, swollenor sucked flat.Genitalia area may be swollenand even bleeding …Cover the area until suckingstops. Though be careful thatcovering the area does notcause even more stress …
  25. 25. Maternal Nipple Deprivation:Mammalian body part sucking only takes place in the circumstance of maternal nipple In mammals this is called stereotypical behaviour ordeprivation.obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).
  26. 26. Maternal nipple deprivation and relationship to child abuse• When investigating a case of young infant child abuse, damage to the surrounding area of the mouth and the oral cavity is made to inspect for tissue damage from a forced feeding-bottle or forced dummy .• This type of aggression towards the young infant cannot happen with breastfeeding.