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antibiotic that inhibit cell wall synthesis

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  1. 1. BackgroundBackground
  2. 2. What is β-lactam??? A four-membered lactam These antibiotics inhibiting the (A lactam is a cell walls of bacteria cyclic amide),nitrogen atom Cause lethal effect on bacteria is attached to the β-carbon relative to the carbonyl. The β-lactam ring is part of the core structure of several antibiotic families(β- lactam antibiotics), such as:•
  3. 3. Structure of CephalosporinsCephalosporins (red in colour is structure of β-lactam )
  4. 4. Mechanism of actionCephalosporins are  All bacterial cells have a cellbactericidal (which means wall that protects themthat they kill bacteria) have  Structure of β-lactam canthe same mode of action as detect enzymes which involveother β-lactam antibiotics as in cell wall synthesis.penicillins  Then it can inactivating the enzymes thus inhibit formation of cell wall which causes the walls to break down and eventually the bacteria die.
  5. 5. Uses Used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, strep throat, tonsillitis, bronchitis), skin infections and urinary tract infections
  6. 6. Commonly used for surgicalprophylaxis - prevention ofbacterial infection before,during, and after surgery
  7. 7. Classifications of Cephalosporins Grouped into “generations” based on their spectrum of microbial activity, such as:• 1st generation• 2nd generation• 3rd generation• 4th generation First Chepalosporins designated first generation while later, more advanced cephalosporins were classified as 2nd generation and so on. Each newer generation of cephalosporins has significantly greater gram-negative antimicrobial properties than previous one.
  8. 8. 1st generation 2nd generation Moderate  Greater gram-negative Treating staphylococcal spectrum while retaining and streptococcal some activity against infections and therefore gram-positive bacteria are alternatives for skin  More resistant to β- and soft-tissue infections. lactam, treating upper Example: and lower respiratory Cephaloridine tract infections, sinusitis and otitis media. Cephalothin  Active against E. coli, Cephapirin Klebsiella and Proteus  Example :  Cefaclor  Cefoxitin
  9. 9. 3rd generation 4th generation Further increased activity  Greater resistance to β- against gram-negative lactam than the 3rd organisms generation. Excellent activity against  Can cross blood brain most strains of barrier and are effective Streptococcus in meningitis pneumoniae including  Example : that have high level  Cefepime resistance to penicillin  Cefluprenam and N. gonorrhoeae  Cefozopran Example: Cefdinir Cefixime