How to Cast On Stitches• The cast-on row is the foundation row of knitting.There are many ways to cast on stitches. One methodmay be faster or easier for you or may work better forcertain techniques, such as buttonholes. Try each ofthe cast-on methods below, and start with the one thatappeals to you most.• Note: The cast-on should be as elastic as the body ofyour knitting. If needed, the cast-on may be workedusing a needle two or three sizes larger than yourgauge needle. Knit the stitches onto the smaller needleas you knit the first row.
Casting On – Cable Method(Use when you want a firm edge)Step 1: In your left hand, hold the needle with the slipknot and hold the working yarn in your right hand. Insertthe right needle through the slipknot from front to back (fig. 2a).Step 2: Wrap the yarn around the right needle from back to front and pull up a loop, creating a new stitch onthe right needle. Insert the left needle tip into the new stitch (fig. 2b), and slip it onto the left needle.There are now 2 stitches on the left needle (fig. 2c). Note: To prevent the cast-on edge from becoming tootight, insert the right needle from front to back between the 2 stitches on the left needle before tighteningthe yarn. Gently pull the working yarn to snug up the stitch.Step 3: With the right needle in position between the 2 stitches on the left needle, wrap the yarn around theright needle as shown (fig. 2c), and pull through a new loop.Step 4: Using the tip of the left needle, slip the new stitch from the right needle as before (fig. 2d), and slip theright needle out of the stitch.Repeat steps 3 and 4 to cast on additional stitches. End with step 4 to complete the last cast-on stitch
Casting On – Method Two(Use when you want an elastic edge)1 With the slip loop on your left hand needle, insert yourright hand needle through the loop from front to back.2 Bring the yarn under and over your right hand needle.3 Draw up the yarn through the slip loop to make a stitch.4 Place the stitch on your left hand needle. Continue tomake stitches drawing the yarn through the last stitchon your left hand needle
Knit Stitch• Knitting has two basic stitches: the knit stitch and the purl stitch. After mastering thesestitches, youll be able to create many stitch patterns.• The knit stitch is the most common and versatile stitch of all. It is smooth on one sideand bumpy on the other. The smooth side is generally used as the right side of the work-- the side that faces out. The working yarn is always held behind the needle whenmaking the knit stitch. In other words, the knit fabric and the needle will always bebetween you and the working yarn. When working flat, back and forth knitting, knittingevery row creates garter stitch.
Knit stitch (K)1 With the yarn at the back, insert your right-hand needle from front to back into the firststitch on your left hand needle.2 Bring your working yarn under and over the point of your right hand needle.3 Draw a loop through and slide the first stitch off your left hand needle while the new stitch isretained on your right hand needle. Continue in this way to the end of the row.4 To knit the next row, turn the work around so that the back is facing you and the workedstitches are held on the needle in your left hand. Proceed to make stitches as above, with theinitially empty needle held in your right hand.
Purl stitch (P)1 With the yarn at the front, insert your right hand needle from back to front intothe first stitch on your left hand needle.2 Bring your working yarn over and around the point of your right hand needle.3 Draw a loop through and slide the first stitch off your left hand needle while thenew stitch is retained on your right hand needle. Continue in this way to the endof the row.4 To purl the next row, turn the work around so that the back is facing you and theworked stitches are held on the needle in your left hand. Proceed to makestitches as above, with the initially empty needle held in your right hand.
Stocking (Stockinette) Stitch• Stocking stitch is created by knitting one row of knit stitch, followed byone row of purl stitch. The side that is knit will form a smooth surface (the‘right’ side) and the side that is purl will be bumpy.Reverse Stockinette Stitch (Purl Side): Figure 11b
Ribbing (rib)• Youll recognize ribbing as the stitch found at the cuffs and hems of sweaters. It is a veryelastic pattern and knits up narrower than stockinette stitch on the same size needles. Youcan use any combination of the knit and purl stitches to make rib, but the most common arethe single rib and the double rib.• The single rib is made by alternating one knit stitch with one purl stitch (abbreviated ask1,p1). The double rib is more elastic than the single rib and is made by alternating two knitstitches with two purl stitches (abbreviated k2,p2).• The most important thing to remember when making ribbing is that the yarn must bebrought between the needles to the back of the work for the knit stitches and broughtbetween the needles to the front of the work for the purl stitches. Sometimes new knittersfinish a row and discover extra stitches, or they may find a hole in their ribbing several rowslater. Knitting with the yarn in front or purling with the yarn in back is generally the cause. Ifyou create a little mix-up with your stitches, remember that you can easily fix knittingmistakes.• Ribbing is very easy once you have learned to recognize knit and purl stitches. Instead ofcounting stitches, you simply knit the knits and purl the purls.• Ribbing can be used for whole garments when you want a tighter, more fitted look. It isespecially good for arm or leg warmers. However, ribbing does take longer to knit thanstocking or garter stitch because you have to bring the wool forward and back between knitstitches and purl.
Single Rib (k1, p1)• Single ribbing is made by knit 1, (bring wool forward) purl 1 (take woolback) and repeating for the rest of the row.• On the reverse side you knit the stitches that were purl, and purl thestitches that were knit
Double Rib (k2, p2)• Double rib is made by knit 2 (bring wool forward), purl 2 (take wool back)and repeating for the rest of the row.• On the reverse side knit the stitches that were purl and purl the stitchesthat were rib.
Casting Off• When you end a piece of knitting you mustsecure all the stitches you have finished by"casting off". This should be done on a knit rowbut you can employ the same technique on a purlrow: the stitches, whether knit or purl, shouldbe made loosely (if you make them tight thefinished edge will be tighter than the garmentand may not fit). When casting off rib, you mustuse both knit and purl.
How to Cast off – In a Knit Row1 Knit the first two stitches and insert the tip of your left hand needlethrough the first stitch.2 Lift the first stitch over the second stitch and discard it. Knit the next stitchand continue to lift the first stitch over the second stitch to the end of therow. Be careful not to knit too tightly. For the last stitch, cut your yarn, slipthe end through the stitch and pull the yarn tight to fasten off securely.
Casting Off - In a purl row1 Purl the first two stitches and insert the tip of your left hand needlethrough the first stitch.2 Lift the first stitch over the second stitch and discard it. Purl the next stitchand continue to lift the first stitch over the second stitch to the end of therow. Be careful not to knit too tightly. For the last stitch, cut your yarn, slipthe end through the stitch and pull the yarn tight to fasten off securely.
Dropped Stitches• Occasionally, a stitch may fall off your needle,in which case correct it by following one of thetechniques described below. Dropped stitchesare often the result of leaving work in themiddle of a row, so if you have to put downyour knitting it’s best to try and finish therow..
Picking up a dropped knit stitch1 Pick up both the stitch and strand on your right hand needle, inserting theneedle from front to back.2 Insert your left hand needle through the stitch only, from back to front.With your right hand needle only, pull the strand through the stitch tomake the extra stitch. (Drop the stitch from your left hand needle).3 Transfer the re-formed stitch back to your left hand needle, so that ituntwists and faces the correct way. It is now ready for knitting again.
Picking up a dropped purl stitch1. Pick up both the stitch and strand on your right hand needle, insertingthe needle from back to front.2. Insert you left hand needle through the stitch only, from front to back.With your right hand needle only, pull the strand through the stitch tomake the extra stitch. (Drop the stitch from your left hand needle).3. Transfer the re-formed stitch back to your left hand needle, so that ituntwists and faces the correct way. It is now ready for purling again.
Increasing Stitches• When shaping garments it is usually necessaryto add additional stitches. If they are made"invisibly", there will be no hole or gap left inthe fabric. The most common way to increasestitches is the one shown below, where youmake two stitches from one (written inpatterns as Increase 1 "Inc 1“), and is usuallyused for shaping your side edges (such assleeves).
Increase 1 (Inc 1)• In a knit rowKnit into the front of the stitch in the usual way. Without discarding the stitch onyour left hand needle, knit into the back of it, making two stitches.• In a purl rowPurl into the front of the stitch in the usual way. Without discarding the stitch onyour left hand needle, purl into the back of it, making two stitches.
Decrease 1 (Dec 1)• To lose stitches for shaping or making decorativepatterns you can knit or purl two stitches (k2 tog, p2tog) together at the beginning, end or any given pointin a row. This is the simpler method and forms a slantto the right if the stitches are knitted together throughthe front and a slant to the left if the stitches areknitted together through the back of the work.• Slip stitch decrease produces a more decorative effect.A knit row decrease - abbreviated as s1, k1, psso -forms a slant to the left on the front of the knitting; ona purl row - s1, p1, psso - slant to the right is formed.
Knitting two stitches together• In a knit row (K2tog)Insert your right hand needle through the front of the first two stitches onyour left hand needle. Knit them together as a single stitch.• In a purl row (P2tog)Insert your right hand needle through the front of the first two stitches onyour left hand needle. Purl them together as a single stitch.
Slip stitch decreases – Knit Row1 Insert your right hand needle "knitwise" and lift off the first stitch from your lefthand needle2 Leave the stitch on the needle and knit the next stitch on your left hand needlein the usual way.3 Using the point of your left hand needle bring the slipped stitch off your righthand needle over the knitted stitch.
Slip stitch decreases – Purl Row1 Insert your right hand needle "purlwise" and lift off the first stitch fromyour left hand needle.2 Leave the stitch on the needle and purl into the next stitch on your lefthand needle in the usual way.3 Using the point of your left hand needle bring the slipped stitch off yourright hand needle, over the purled stitch.
Knitting Abbreviations 1• [ ] Work instructions within brackets as many times as directed• ( ) Work instructions within parentheses in the place directed• * Repeat instructions following the asterisk as directed• * to ** Repeat instructions between the * and ** as directed• alt alternate• approx approximate• beg beginning/begin• bet between• BO bind off• CO cast on• cont continue• dec decrease/decreases/decreasing• dpn double-pointed needles• foll follow/follows/following• g st garter stitch• inc increase/increases/increasing• k or K knit
Knitting Abbreviations 2• k1,p1 knit 1, purl 1• k2tog knit 2 together• kwise knitwise• LH left-hand• m1 make 1 stitch• m1 p-st make 1 purl stitch• p or P purl• P2tog purl 2 stitches together• pm place marker• prev previous• psso pass slipped stitch over• pwise purlwise• rem remain/remaining• rep repeat(s)• rev St st reverse stockinette stitch• RH right-hand• rnd(s) round(s)• RS right side• sk skip• skp slip, knit, pass slipped stitch over-1 stitch decreased
Knitting Abbreviations 3• sk2p slip 1, knit 2 together, pass slipped stitch over the knit 2 together -- 2 stitches decreased• sl slip• sl1k slip 1 knitwise• sl1p slip 1 purlwise• sl st slip stitch• ssk slip, slip, knit these 2 stitches together -- a decrease• sssk slip, slip, slip, knit these 3 stitches together -- a 2-stitch decrease• st(s) stitch(es)• St st stockinette stitch• tbl through back loop• tog together• WS wrong side• wyib with yarn in back• wyif with yarn in front• yfwd yarn forward• yo yarn over• yon yarn over needle